Genetic Modification - New Zealand Parliament

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Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________




© Garrick Tremain





























Our consultations with the people of New Zealand showed that, while most were
comfortable with genetic modification for medical purposes, many strongly opposed
other uses. Many of the submissions to the Commission focused substantially on food
and crops. They stressed that the safety and certainty of the science have yet to be
proved, reflecting the fact that, at least for the moment, world consumer preferences
are against use of genetic modification in food. First generation genetically modified
crops have shown few obvious benefits for consumers.

Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, 2001, p. 2






i
Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
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Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
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Where to find key information
(s = section, ss = sections, ch = chapter)








Overvie





iii
World Trade Organisation
Cartagena Protocol s 4.3
Codex Alimentarius Commission

What are the
international
agreements?
Text of recommendations and
responses: Table 7.1

Hazardous Substances and New
Organisms (Genetically Modified
Organisms) Amendment Bill
and SOP 231: s 4.2.1
HSNO and the Environmental Risk Management
A
uthority ss 4.2, 3.4.1
A
ustralia-New Zealand controls s 4.1, 3.3.2
What did the Royal
Commission on Genetic
Modification recommend?

How has the Government
responded?

Surveys and submissions:
ch 5, Appendix E
What types of
GM are in New
Zealand?

Medical applications: Table 3.3
Foods and food additives: Tables 3.5, 3.6
GMO approvals granted: Table 3.7, Appendix A

Table of Contents ⇒ page v
Executive Summary ⇒ page 1
What are some of
the key issues?

What is genetic
modification?

How is it used?

Simple definitions: viii, s 2.1
Types of GM: Table 2.1
What do the voters
think?
Māori views: s 5.4
Farmer GM intentions: s 5.5
What are the
regulatory controls
over GM?
Environmental and health risks ss 6.2, 6.4
Protection of non-GM markets s 6.3
Consumer choice s 6.6
A
llocation of costs and benefits s 6.5
Contestable advice and monitoring s 6.7
w: Tables 3.1, 3.2
Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
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Members requiring further information, copies of the report or any of the references are welcome to
contact the Research and Analysis Branch at (04) 471-9212 or c/o 471-9888.



Very special thanks to reviewers of the draft text at the Ministry for the Environment, the
Environmental Risk Management Authority, the Ministry of Research, Science and Technology, the
Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and the Parliamentary Library in
Canberra.







Copyright  NZ Parliamentary Library
Except for educational purposes permitted under the Copyright Act 1994, no part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, including information storage and retrieval systems, other than by Members of Parliament in the course of their official
duties, without the approval of the Parliamentary Librarian, Parliament Buildings, Wellington, New Zealand.


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Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
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Contents

Definitions and abbreviations
...................................................................................................viii

1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
.....................................................................................................................1

2

INTRODUCTION
...................................................................................................................................5

2.1

W
HAT IS GENETIC MODIFICATION
(GM) ?
.........................................................................................5

2.1.1

How is it done?
.........................................................................................................................5

2.1.2

How does GM compare with ordinary selective breeding?
......................................................5

2.1.3

Is it in our food already?
...........................................................................................................5

2.2

W
HAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF
GM
APPLICATIONS
?
...............................................................6

3

GM IN THE ENVIRONMENT  WHATS ALREADY OUT THERE?
..........................................7

3.1

W
HAT TYPES OF
GM
ARE IN
N
EW
Z
EALAND
?
...................................................................................7

3.2

M
EDICAL APPLICATIONS
....................................................................................................................8

3.3

C
OMMERCIAL
GM
CROPS
................................................................................................................10

3.3.1

Global overview
.......................................................................................................................10

3.3.2

Australia and New Zealand
.....................................................................................................12

3.4

R
ESEARCH AND FIELD TRIALS
.........................................................................................................15

3.4.1

New Zealand
............................................................................................................................15

3.4.2

Australia
..................................................................................................................................16

3.5

F
UTURE DEVELOPMENTS
.................................................................................................................17

4

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
........................................................................................................19

4.1

A
USTRALIA
N
EW
Z
EALAND
F
OOD
S
TANDARDS
C
OUNCIL
(ANZFSC)
AND THE
A
USTRALIA
N
EW
Z
EALAND
F
OOD
A
UTHORITY
(ANZFA)
......................................................................................................19

4.1.1

Approved sale of GM foods
.....................................................................................................19

4.1.2

Labelling
..................................................................................................................................19

4.2

N
EW
Z
EALAND

THE
H
AZARDOUS
S
UBSTANCES AND
N
EW
O
RGANISMS
A
CT
1996
.....................20

4.2.1

Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (Genetically Modified Organisms) Amendment
Bill
.21

4.3

I
NTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
.......................................................................................................22

4.3.1

World Trade Organization
......................................................................................................22

4.3.2

The Cartagena Protocol
..........................................................................................................23

4.3.3

Codex Alimentarius Commission
.............................................................................................23

4.4

D
OMESTIC REGULATORY APPROACHES IN OTHER JURISDICTIONS
..................................................24

4.4.1

Australia
..................................................................................................................................24

4.4.2

European Union
......................................................................................................................25

4.4.3

North America
.........................................................................................................................26

4.4.4

GM and GMO restrictions in other countries
.........................................................................27

5

PUBLIC OPINION
...............................................................................................................................28

5.1

S
URVEY FOR THE
R
OYAL
C
OMMISSION ON
G
ENETIC
M
ODIFICATION
............................................28

5.2

S
UBMISSIONS TO THE
R
OYAL
C
OMMISSION ON
G
ENETIC
M
ODIFICATION
......................................29

5.3

O
THER
N
EW
Z
EALAND SURVEYS
.....................................................................................................30

5.4

M
ĀORI CONCERNS
...........................................................................................................................31

5.5

GM
INTENTIONS OF FARMERS AND GROWERS
.................................................................................32

5.6

C
OMPARISON WITH OVERSEAS OPINION SURVEYS
..........................................................................33

6

SOME KEY ISSUES
.............................................................................................................................35

6.1

C
ULTURAL AND ETHICAL CONCERNS
..............................................................................................35

6.2

E
NVIRONMENT
/
ECOSYSTEMS
.........................................................................................................36

6.2.1

Risk and uncertainty
................................................................................................................36

6.2.2

Pesticide use
............................................................................................................................36

6.2.3

Bt crops and non-target species
..............................................................................................37


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Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
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6.2.4

Potential loss of Bt as an organic insecticide
..........................................................................39

6.2.5

GM crop impacts on soil ecology
............................................................................................39

6.2.6

Horizontal gene transfer
..........................................................................................................40

6.2.7

Risks associated with GM fish
.................................................................................................40

6.2.8

Continued dependence on techno-fixes
...............................................................................41

6.3

P
ROTECTION OF NON
-GM
MARKETS
:
ADEQUACY OF BUFFER AND EXCLUSION ZONES
..................42

6.3.1

Buffer zone size
........................................................................................................................42

6.3.2

Administration issues
...............................................................................................................44

6.4

H
EALTH
...........................................................................................................................................45

6.4.1

Beneficial therapeutic applications
.........................................................................................45

6.4.2

Allergic reactions: GM foods
..................................................................................................46

6.4.3

Antibiotic marker genes
...........................................................................................................46

6.4.4

Using food crop species for GM pharming
.........................................................................47

6.4.5

GM viruses
...............................................................................................................................49

6.4.6

Human health implications of herbicide resistant GM varieties
.............................................49

6.5

E
STIMATES OF COSTS AND BENEFITS
...............................................................................................50

6.6

C
ONSUMER CHOICE
.........................................................................................................................51

6.7

C
ONTESTABLE ADVICE
/
ADEQUACY OF COMPLIANCE CHECKING
...................................................53

6.7.1

Sources of risk and impact data
..............................................................................................53

6.7.2

Resources for compliance checking
.........................................................................................54

6.8

L
IABILITY
........................................................................................................................................55

6.9

S
IMILAR RISKS FROM NON
-GM
NEW VARIETIES
.............................................................................56

7

ROYAL COMMISSION ON GENETIC MODIFICATION
............................................................57




REFERENCES
.........................................................................................................................................69

Appendix A: Environmental Risk Management Authority approvals for GMO import or development in
containment and field-testing, July 1998 to June 2001, by type of organism
..........................................72

Appendix B: Organisations with delegations to grant low-risk GMO approvals,
..................................78

and the total such approvals granted 1998/99 to 2000/01
......................................................................78

Appendix C: GM incidents, data inadequacies, and unexpected events
.................................................79

Appendix D: Public opinion of GM: results from New Zealand and Australia
......................................82

Appendix E: Factors relating to pesticide use levels in herbicide and pest resistant GM crops
............84




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Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
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List of Tables, Figures and Case studies

Tables
Table 2.1: Basic types of GM application, summary of key opportunities and risks, and current
status of field application
...........................................................................................................6

Table 3.1: Types of GM application present in New Zealand: experimental and commercial
applications, and public views
...................................................................................................7

Table 3.2: DNA-based biotechnology processes in use in New Zealand in 1998/99, by industrial
sector and stage of utilisation
....................................................................................................8

Table 3.3: GM medicines and vaccines commercially available in New Zealand
.............................9

Table 3.4: GM crops approved for planting - Australia
...................................................................12

Table 3.5: GM food additives and food processing aids approved by the Australia New Zealand
Food Standards Council
..........................................................................................................13

Table 3.6: GM food crop varieties approved and submitted for approval to the Australia New
Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) as of 25 January 2002.
.......................................................14

Table 3.7: GMO approvals granted in New Zealand 1998/99 - 2000/01
........................................15

Table 3.8: Approved GM field trials in Australia
..............................................................................16

Table 3.9: Examples of some GMO and GM applications in the pipeline, New Zealand and
overseas
..................................................................................................................................17

Table 4.1: GMO bans reported as at October 2000
........................................................................27

Table 5.1: Reported differences between Mäori and non-Mäori responses, Royal Commission on
Genetic Modifications public opinion survey on GM issues
....................................................31

Table 5.2: Some reported differences between Mäori and non-Mäori responses, Ministry for the
Environment survey
.................................................................................................................31

Table 5.3: Intentions of New Zealand farmers and growers with regard to adoption of GM and
organic technology, 2000
.........................................................................................................32

Table 6.1: Examples of GM techno-fix vs. systems approach
......................................................41

Table 6.2: Published estimates of financial measures for GM, and the organics market potentially
at risk from GM
........................................................................................................................52

Table 7.1: The recommendations of the Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, and the
Governments response as of November 2001
...................................................................58



Figures
Figure 3.1: Principal countries growing commercial GM crops in 2000
..........................................10

Figure 3.2: Area and market value of global commercial GM crops, 1996-2001
............................11

Figure 5.1: New Zealand public opinion poll: GM applications
.......................................................28

Figure 5.2: Public submissions to the Royal Commission on Genetic Modification
........................29

Figure 5.3: New Zealand public opinion survey 1999 and 2001: eating GM food
...........................30

Figure 5.4: Ministry for the Environment 2001 benchmark survey: indication of public desire for
information on GM
...................................................................................................................30



Case studies
Case study 1: Toads and potatoes
.................................................................................................34

Case study 2: Bt maize and butterflies
...........................................................................................38

Case study 3: GM genes in wild corn/ maize
..................................................................................43

Case study 4: Golden Rice
...........................................................................................................48







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Definitions and abbreviations

Includes some terms not used in this text, but used in the GM and biotechnology literature.
Other technical terms are defined within the text where first used.

accelerated
mutagenesis
The deliberate creation of genetic mutations through the use of
agents such as radiation or chemicals, to increase the number of
genetic variations to be tested for desired characteristics. Selective
breeding or cloning follows to isolate the desired genotype.
Unlike GM technology, where discrete genes are inserted, the whole
organism is subject to genetic mutation. It is less prevalent since the
advent of GM. The long-term impacts of such mutagenesis on health
and the environment are poorly documented.
1


ANZFA
Australia New Zealand Food Authority. Around July 2002, the name
will change to FSANZ  Food Standards Australia New Zealand.

ANZFC
Australia New Zealand Food Standards Council

biotechnology

Medical, industrial, and other uses of living organisms and their
products, whether the organisms, their products, or their uses are
developed using non-GM or GM techniques.
Harnessing natural fermentation to create beer and cheese are
ancient forms of biotechnology.

Bt
The toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis, a natural soil bacteria. The DNA
coding for the Bt toxin is inserted into some GM crops (e.g. maize,
soybeans, cotton) to create resistance to insects.


canola
A Brassica species grown for oil, Brassica napus. Other names for the
plant are rapeseed and oilseed rape.


cloning
Multiplication of identical copies (clones). This is commonly done for
new commercial varieties of plants, and has been used in animals
(e.g. mice, sheep, and cattle). Vegetative reproduction of plants from
cuttings is also a method of cloning.
In GM technology, clones of selected DNA are multiplied in biological
carriers such as bacteria prior to insertion in the target species.
Recently, the first cloning of a human embryo was announced,
2
and
early onset of arthritis in the first cloned sheep.
3


DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the building block of inheritable characteristics
of virtually all living things, be they human, plant, animal, or micro-
organism.
4
GM is able to take place because the essential underlying
chemical structure of DNA is the same regardless of the species: it is
only the combinations that differ. Recombinant DNA is the altered
DNA outcome of genetic modification, and is sometimes used as an
adjective instead of GM or GE (e.g. recombinant DNA insulin).



embryonic stem cell
research
Cells from the very early stages of embryo development (human or
other species) are easily instructed with appropriate triggers to
multiply into the cells typical of a variety of organs. The technology is
seen to hold promise for better the understanding of diseases and

1
Scientific Steering Committee of the European Commission, 26-27 October 2000, cited in Polya 2000.
2
This was announced on 26/11/01 by Advanced Cell Technology, USA. The purpose of the procedure was reportedly not to create a
new human but to develop tailored treatments for human diseases. The move has met with condemnation by politicians and religious
groups, and a law is before the US Congress to outlaw cloning. More cloning debate needed: scientists on
http://www.newsroom.co.nz

3
Mutton dressed as lamb casts doubt over cloning, Dominion, 7/1/02. It is possible that Dolly the first cloned sheep is biologically 11
years old rather than the five years she has been alive, as the sheep she was cloned from was six years old.
4
The few exceptions include non-DNA viruses and prions.

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creation of cell and organ transplants, and can be used in GM
applications. Opposition arises from those who consider human life to
commence from the moment of fertilisation.
5


ERMA
The Environmental Risk Management Authority of New Zealand.


gene therapy
In theory, diseases that are caused by a missing or flawed gene could
be cured by inserting healthy copies of the gene. The healthy DNA
could be inserted either into the appropriate cells or organ related to
the disease (somatic cell gene therapy, affecting that individual only)
or into the gamete-forming tissues (germ line gene therapy: affecting
that individuals offspring). Application of gene therapy to human
foetuses to prevent the expression of flawed DNA or enhance desired
characteristics has also been proposed and debated.


genome
The hereditary material of an individual organism.
This is naturally variable through mutation and sexual recombination,
and in GM through direct intervention at the DNA level.
Genome sequencing is the process of isolating and seeking to
understand the function of all of the DNA segments in a species
genome.


GM
=genetically modified
=genetic modification

GE
=genetically engineered
=genetic engineering


The artificial change of DNA to make an organism capable of making
new substances or performing new functions. GM involves partial
removal or modification of existing DNA and/or insertion of DNA from
another individual. Foreign DNA is usually from species than could not
normally interbreed in nature, and has included transfers of DNA
fragments from animals to plants.



GMO
A genetically modified organism. An equivalent term used by the
OECD and the Cartagena Protocol is LMO, living modified organism.


HSNO
Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996

horizontal gene transfer
Transfer of genetic material without sexual reproduction or cell
division (vertical gene transfer is from individuals to their
descendants). This naturally occurs with viruses and bacteria, is part
of GM technology, and has been demonstrated in the laboratory (but
not so far in the field) for non-GM micro-organisms assimilating DNA
from GM organisms and products.


maize
Corn (Zea mays). Bt maize or Bt corn has been genetically modified
to include the DNA which encodes the Bt toxin, used for pest control.

nutriceutical
(or nutraceutical)
A food that is engineered to contain a new ingredient such as a drug
or vitamin that benefits health, or is modified to produce more or less
of a natural ingredient (e.g. increased protein).
Pharmaco foods is a term used by the Royal Commission on
Genetic Modification to mean food genetically modified to deliver a
particular therapeutic agent such as a vaccine or pharmaceutical.
6


pharming
Using GM micro-organisms, plants and animals to produce medicinal
and other compounds not normally produced by those species.


5
Human ESCs are typically obtained from fertility clinics, from spare embryos that would otherwise be discarded.
6
Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, p. 434.

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pleiotropic
Having multiple and apparently unrelated effects from a single gene, a
phenomenon known to occur in nature. Used to refer to unexpected
effects of changes in organisms and the environment that would be
difficult to predict when looking at individual genes.


selective breeding
The traditional method of modifying genomes through assisted natural
reproduction, bringing together individuals and/or their reproductive
material to build on naturally expressed genetic variations.
Selective breeding is also used to build on genomes created through
artificial techniques such as GM or accelerated mutagenesis.

super-weeds
or super-pests
A weeds or pest that develops a resistance to a pesticide that once
destroyed it. This is a well-known phenomenon with long-term use of
pesticides, particularly with insects. This could occur with GM crops
through: pests developing a resistance to engineered toxicity in plants
(eg insects no longer being susceptible to Bt toxin); the spread of the
genes for herbicide resistance to related wild species; or herbicide
resistant crops themselves becoming weeds among other crops.

transgenic
Containing genes from other species (e.g. transgenic sheep which
contain DNA fragments from the human genome).
A chimera is a transgenic organism (derived from the name for a
monster in Greek myth which had the features of a lion, a goat and a
serpent).



xenotransplantation
The transplant of organs or materials between unrelated species.
GM xenotransplantation research has centred on pigs and humans,
seeking to remove the pig proteins that trigger the natural immune
system response in humans. Perceived benefits include alleviating
the shortage of organs for transplant, and the creation of new
therapeutic materials. Concerns include animal welfare and the
possible transmission of viruses or other diseases between species.
7




7
For example, insulin cells from GM piglets in New Zealand were successfully transplanted into 12 diabetic children in Mexico, who
were able to reduce their need for insulin injections, three by over 40% and one by 100%. The pigs were specially bred and quarantined
to be free of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus (Diatranz Ltd. press release 4/11/01, on
http://www.newsroom.co.nz
). Recently a litter of
five cloned GM piglets without the gene for 1,3 galactosyl transferase (the substance that triggers the human immune response to pig
tissue) was produced by PPL Therapeutics in Virginia. One of the first targets is to produce pig pancreatic tissue that can be
transplanted into human diabetics, and trials on monkeys would take place over the next four years (Christmas piglets raise transplant
hopes, New Zealand Herald 4/1/02).

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1 Executive summary

What is GM?

• Genetic modification (GM), also known as genetic engineering (GE), involves the
modification and/or transfer of individual segments of DNA (genetic information). This
creates new genetic combinations, usually involving species that would not normally inter-
breed in nature. This is possible because the chemicals that make up the various gene
segments are the same in all species. (s 2.1)

• There are a number of uses for GM, including include research, education, medicine,
industrial production, environmental management, and food. Each involves different risks
and opportunities. (ss 3.1, Tables 2.1, 3.1)

GM in New Zealand

• In New Zealand many GM applications are involved in research. All viable GMOs
(genetically modified organisms) are in contained use. Products in the marketplace made
using GMOs are primarily medical applications and a few approved foods and food
additives.

GM medicine

• There are 76 medicines approved for human use that are derived from GMOs and some
369 in the development pipeline in the USA. In New Zealand, 20 are approved and in use,
mostly in clinical or hospital settings. Only two (insulin and vaccination for hepatitis B) are in
widespread use.

• There are also thousands of products from GMOs used for diagnosis in New Zealand
medical laboratories. Examples include screening blood products and organs for HIV and
hepatitis B, testing for prostate cancer, and testing for inherited metabolic disorders.
(s 3.2)

GM Research

• GM techniques have been used in research in New Zealand since the 1970s. Prior to the
establishment of the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA), GM research was
managed by a voluntary system.

• Since 1998, ERMA has granted 101 approvals to import or develop a GMO in containment,
13 approvals to field-test a GMO in containment, and no approvals to release GMOs to the
environment. The majority of these approvals have involved micro-organisms, plants and
laboratory mice. In addition, 657 approvals for development of low-risk GMOs have been
granted under delegation by Institutional Biological Safety Committees. (s 3.4.1)

• In 1998/99, 17% of the 2,088 biotechnology applications in use in New Zealand were DNA
based services (including diagnositic tools derived from GMOs). The majority (80%) of
these applications were involved in research and development, principally in the tertiary
education, scientific research, and health services sectors. (s 3.1, Table 3.2)

GM Food

• No GM food crops are grown in New Zealand at present. For these to be grown, the GM
variety must have received a GMO release approval from the Environmental Risk

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Management Authority (ERMA). Government has proposed a two-year period of constraint
on GMO release applications, except for medical, animal health, or emergency reasons.
(s 4.2)

• An estimated 44.2 million hectares of commercial GM crops were planted around the world
in 2000, or 1.7 times the size of New Zealand. Virtually all of this production is in the USA,
Argentina, and Canada. Other countries that have grown commercial GM crops are China,
Australia, South Africa, Mexico, Spain, France, Portugal, Romania, and the Ukraine. There
are over 70 GM crop varieties that have been approved for planting, and the dominant
varieties are herbicide tolerant soybean, canola, maize and cotton, and insect tolerant (Bt)
maize. (s 3.3.1)

• Some foods in New Zealand may contain ingredients produced from GMOs from overseas
(currently including canola oil, soy or maize products, cottonseed oil, and potatoes.)
Currently, there are 12 GM food crop varieties, eight GM food processing aids, and three
GM food additives approved for sale in food products in Australian and New Zealand.
(s 3.3.2)
• Food products that contain GM DNA or protein or have altered characteristics that are
going on to the shelves in New Zealand and Australia must now be labelled. Exceptions are
for stocks already on the shelves before 7 December 2001, highly refined foods or additives
produced from GMOs where the effect of refining is to remove the novel DNA and/or
protein, flavours which comprise 0.1% or less of the food, foods prepared at point of sale,
and unintended presence of GM content (up to 1% of content). (ss 3.3.2, 4.1)

• The only GM livestock connected with commercial production in New Zealand are involved
in pharming (production of medicine, rather than food) and are in strict containment.
However, research has been and continues to be conducted in New Zealand on both GM
plants and animals that may be used to produce food. (Table 3.1, ss 3.4, 3.5)


Public opinion

• In New Zealand and overseas, public opinion on GM is clearly differentiated by GM
application type. The majority approve of medical applications and disapprove of GM food,
field, and non-pest animal applications.

• The vast majority (92%) of the 10,861 public submissions presented to the Royal
Commission on Genetic Modification were opposed to GM applications in New Zealand.
There was some support for medical applications from people who opposed other
applications such as food. The level of opposition to GM in the submissions was
significantly higher than in public opinion surveys. (chapter 5)

• Like the general public, Māori views are predominantly against GM, especially in food. In
addition to potential risks to human and ecosystem health, Mäori cultural dimensions of
concern about GM relate to such matters as whakapapa (not interfering with the genealogy
of people and indigenous species), mauri (preserving essence and purity by not mixing
materials from disparate sources), and tino rangatiratanga (sovereignty over taonga or
treasured resources). (s 5.4)

• A large survey of New Zealand farmers and growers in 2000 showed that those who
definitely did not intend to adopt GM greatly outnumbered those who definitely wished to
adopt it (44% vs. 21% for GM technology and 49% vs. 12% for GM food). (s 5.5)


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Royal Commission on Genetic Modification

• The Royal Commission on Genetic Modification conducted a very thorough investigation,
involving 15 public meetings, 11 hui, 29 workshops, one youth forum, 13 weeks of hearings
from 107 officially designated Interested Persons, 10,861 public submissions, and a public
opinion survey of 1,153 New Zealanders.

• The major theme of the Commissions report, presented to Government on 27 July 2001,
was Preserving Opportunities. The Commission thought it unwise for New Zealand to turn
its back on the potential advantages on offer from genetic modification, but recommended
that New Zealand should proceed carefully and implement genetic modification cautiously,
minimising and managing risks. (chapter 7)

Recommendations and Government response

• The Commission made 49 recommendations to Government. These included amendments
to streamline approvals for low risk GM research, the establishment of independent
advisory and overview bodies, constraints on GMO release, information and policy gaps,
consumer information, intellectual property rights, and Treaty of Waitangi and cultural
issues.

• The Government supported the overall strategy of preserving opportunities but came to
some different conclusions as to how the overall strategy should best be implemented. The
Government proposed a two-year period of constraint on applications for commercial
release of GMOs during which the recommended work on a preserving opportunities
strategy would be undertaken.
(Table 7.1: full text of recommendations and Government response)


Legislation before the House

• The Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (Genetically Modified Organisms)
Amendment Bill (new name pending) would amend the Hazardous Substances and New
Organisms Act 1996 to create a two year period of constraint on applications for GMO
release to the environment. Supplementary Order Paper 231 would amend the Medicines
Act 1981 to impose restrictions on xenotransplantation and modification of the genome of
human embryos. (s 4.2.1)


Some key issues

Ecosystem and health risks

• Risk and uncertainty were the greatest areas of concern in the public submissions to the
Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, especially the risk of environmental damage
and threats to health and food safety. Submitters generally believed that the risks were
potentially huge and irreversible, that consent agencies lacked the ability to properly identify
them, and that past technological disasters (DDT, thalidomide, asbestos, introduced pests)
indicated that GM-based disasters would occur. (s 6.2, 6.7)

• Concerns about the effect of GM crops on the environment and health include: effects on
soil ecology and non-target species; outbreeding of related GM varieties to non-GM crops
and wild populations; horizontal gene transfer; increased weediness, resistance of pests,
and pesticide use levels; creation of new allergens and disease agents; and mixing of GM
and non-GM products in the food chain. (ss 6.2- 6.4)

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Buffer zones and protection of non-GM varieties

• To fulfil the Royal Commissions suggested strategy of preservation of opportunities and
coexistence requires finding means to keep GM and non-GM gene pools separate. So far,
knowledge on buffer zone design and management has been inadequate to protect non-
GM canola in Canada and maize in the USA and Mexico. The Government has agreed to
the Commissions recommendation that policy be refined in this area before field release of
GMOs is allowed. (ss 6.3, 6.7, Case study 3)


Costs and benefits

• One of the major concerns in public submissions to the Royal Commission on Genetic
Modification was that the benefits of GM were being captured by multinationals, but risks
and potential costs would have to be borne by the environment and local communities. The
potential for adverse economic impacts on non-GM industry (e.g. organic farming and
tourism) were cited in many submissions, but very few submissions considered the direct
contribution to the economy from the biotechnology industry.

• Currently, the proportion of the national economy involved with GM is small, principally in
tertiary education, research and development. Biotechnology companies in New Zealand
see GM technologies as an essential part of obtaining increased share of the international
market .

• The funding currently allocated through Vote Research, Science and Technology in New
Zealand for GM research is estimated to be about $48 m per year. This is allocated to a
range of Crown Research Institutes and universities, and included $16 m for health
research. The total funded value of GM research is somewhat higher, including private and
other public (eg Vote Education) sources.

• Costs from GM crops that may be imposed on conventional non-GM and organic growers
include loss of non-GM certification through GM contamination. The value for the 2000
harvest of organic produce was $60 m, and with current trends is projected to increase to
$170- $340 m. If the use of GM affects New Zealands clean green image, effects may
also be felt on other industries such as non-organic exports and tourism.

• Cost and benefit data relating to GM in New Zealand is very limited. Officials are currently
preparing terms of reference for a study of the economic implications for New Zealand of
both using GM and restricting the use of GM, focusing on the opportunities and risks that
each of these options will create. (s 6.5)



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2 Introduction


2.1 What is genetic modification (GM) ?

Genetic modification (GM), also known as genetic engineering (GE), involves the modification
and/or transfer of individual segments of genes. This creates new genetic combinations, usually
involving species that would not normally inter-breed in nature.


2.1.1 How is it done?
8


The basic genetic code of all living things is made of combinations of the same group of organic
compounds, known as DNA. The chemicals that make up the DNA are the same in all species, so
that scientists can find individual genes that control particular characteristics, separate them out,
change them, and transfer them directly into another animal, plant, bacterium or virus.

To start a GM procedure, cells that contain a gene to be isolated are broken open and the strands
of DNA are extracted. Then proteins called restriction enzymes are added to sever the DNA at
particular points, until the short lengths that are individual genes are obtained.

In a common gene transfer method, the wanted gene is added to plasmids, small molecules in
bacterial cells that contain DNA not in chromosomes that can move between cells, taking their
DNA with them. The plasmids are then put in with the cells (usually bacteria) where the wanted
gene is to go, and the plasmids add their genes to the target cells. Another gene transfer method,
biolistics, involves firing the segments of new DNA into target cells using gene guns.

The GM altered cells are then used to transfer the new genes into plant or animal cells. They can
also be used themselves as factories for the introduced genes, producing such things as enzymes
used in food production or hormones for use in medicine.


2.1.2 How does GM compare with ordinary selective breeding?

There are three major differences between selective breeding and genetic modification:

• In genetic modification, individual genes are modified and/or transferred, whereas in
traditional breeding (or in accelerated mutagenesis) the whole organism is involved;
• GM is a much faster and targeted way to develop desired new characteristics;
• Genes can be transferred in ways that are not found in nature, between different species
and even between animals and plants.



2.1.3 Is it in our food already?

Some foods may contain ANZFSA approved GM ingredients from overseas (currently including
canola oil, soy or maize products, cottonseed oil, and potatoes). ANZFSA now requires labelling
for foods of GM origin that still retain GM DNA or altered characteristics (see section 4.1 for
details).

No GM foods are grown in New Zealand at present. For GM food crops to be grown, the GM
variety must have received a GMO release approval from the Environmental Risk Management
Authority (ERMA). No such approvals have been issued to date, and the Government has
proposed a two year period of constraint on GMO release applications, except for medical, animal
health, or emergency reasons (see sections 3.3.2, 3.4.1. 4.2).


8
Text adapted from Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, pp. 363-364.

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2.2 What are the different types of GM applications?

There are a number of quite different uses for GM, with different risks and opportunities (Table
2.1). It is helpful to explicitly recognise these differences in discussing the issues and setting policy.


Table 2.1: Basic types of GM application, summary of key opportunities and risks,
and current status of field application













































GM type
Opportunities
Risks
Current status
Understanding and
treating diseases and
inherited disorders
Many applications being
researched.
Creating new means of
production for medicines
and vaccines, to lower
costs and eliminate
sources of disease
Some vaccines and
treatments derived from
GMO products already
in use (about 20 in New
Zealand, 80 in USA).
Medical
Diagnostic tools

Primarily to recipients.

Animal welfare issues if
GM animals are used in
experimentation or
production.
Thousands in use.


Education
Training new scientists
Few if research in
containment.

Widespread in tertiary
education.

Cloning &
marker
genes
Faster development of
new strains, increased
productivity
Few if research in
containment, and
markers removed prior
to field release.
Common in NZ and
other agricultural
research.
Reduced susceptibility
to pests or diseases,
reduced cost of inputs
(e.g. pesticides),
improved keeping
quality of crop,
increased profitability

Used primarily in USA,
Argentina, Canada,
China and Australia;
none grown
commercially in New
Zealand.

Food
production
Improved health benefits
from foods
New allergens,
contamination of non-
GM seed stock,
evolution of new pests,
crossing with related
wild species, possibly
horizontal gene transfer.

Without labelling: issues
of informed consumer
approval.
Few on the market,
some in development
Pharming


(medical or
industrial
compounds
produced
from GM
plants and
animals)

Reduced cost, reduced
risk of disease transfer,
increased profitability
Animal welfare issues if
animals used for
production.
If not in containment,
crossing with related
wild species, possibly
horizontal gene transfer.
If GM food plants used,
risk of contaminating
food supplies through
pollen spread or mixing
crops in harvest and
processing network.
Some already in use,
many more applications
being researched.

Applications produced from
GM micro-organisms include:
hepatitis A and B vaccines
(Table 3.3), and aids for beer
and cheese production
(Table 3.5).



Information on the educational and research institutes involved in GM research is in Appendices A and B.





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3 GM in the environment  whats already out there?

3.1 What types of GM are in New Zealand?

In New Zealand many GM applications are involved in research, and all apart from medical
applications and some approved foods and food additives are in contained use. A summary of the
various types of experimental and commercial uses in New Zealand is in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1: Types of GM application present in New Zealand: experimental and
commercial applications, and public views
Present in New Zealand?
Public view : how many in
poll believe it is:

Type of GM
application

Research and
development
in containment

Commercial
products out of
containment
already
used in New
Zealand

acceptable
Medicine
- medical research

yes

--

72%

65%
- diagnostic tools
yes
yes


--
--
- medicines and
vaccines
yes
(e.g. GM sheep and cow milk
for producing medicine)
yes


(see Table 3.3)

62%

64%
- gene therapy
yes
(e.g. Canavans Disease)
no
--
--
Food 
- research w/ plants
yes
(e.g. potatoes)

--

79%

52%
- research w/ animals
yes
(e.g. mice, pigs, sheep,
cattle, salmon)

--

67%

37%
- commercial crops
--
no

68%

42%
- farm animals
yes
(e.g. improved sheep meat
production)

no


43%

30%
- fresh foods
--
no
--

- processed foods
--
yes
(₪
and
GMO
)*
(e.g. imported products from
GM maize, canola, soy,
potato, some food processing
aids  Tables 3.5, 3.6 )

68%

22%
Forestry
yes
(e.g. herbicide-resistant pine)
no
--
--
Floriculture
yes
(e.g. petunias)
no
--
--
Pest control
yes
(e.g. possum fertility)
no

65%

58%
Bioremediation
yes
(e.g. bacteria to remediate
DDT in soils)
no
--
--
Education
yes
(57% of New Zealand uses of
GM in 1998/99)
--
--
--

= refined from products of a GMO, rather than itself being a GMO
(e.g. GMO bacteria used to create a human protein which is then refined to make a medicine; oil from GM soy)
*
Materials not highly processed (e.g. corn meal or potato flour) are referred to here as GMO, although they are not living in the sense
that they are viable seed or tubers when imported into New Zealand. This would require an Environmental Risk Management Authority
approval for deliberate release of a GMO, and no such consents have been granted.




Shaded cells in table: areas where results suggest the public may have a misunderstanding about GM prevalence.




Sources: Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, Chapters 7-9; Appendix 3, section 6, p. 183 (public opinion); Roberts (ca.
2000), p. 12 (reference to animals in research); Ministry of Health 2000 (pp. 3, 36: gene therapy); Statistics New Zealand 2001, Table
2.02 (p.13) (reference to prevalence of research applications).
For more detail on currently authorised GM research and development, see Appendix A.

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Table 3.1 also compares public opinion on those uses where the data is available. The public
appears to have a good understanding of the applications in use in New Zealand, except for
commercial food crops and pest control (shaded cells).

A survey in 1998/99 by Statistics New Zealand found that of the 2,088 biotechnology applications
in use in New Zealand, 393 (17%) used DNA-based technologies (e.g. GM research or diagnositic
tools derived from GMOs). When analysed by stage of utilisation, the majority (80%) were involved
in research and development, principally in the tertiary education, scientific research, and health
services sectors (Table 3.2).

Table 3.2: DNA-based biotechnology processes in use in New Zealand in 1998/99, by
industrial sector and stage of utilisation

Industrial sector

0
Scientific research
105
9
Tertiary education
219
60
30

Source: Statistics New Zealand 2001, Tables 2.02, 2.03, A2 and A3, pp. 13-14, 40-41. Note that the
total DNA-based processes are reported as 393, but the reported analysis above totals to 453.
The same process may have been reported for multiple stages.

Research and
development
Part of
production
process
Part of
product sold
Primary production
6
0
0
Food manufacturing
6
0
0
Non-food manufacturing
6
0
18
24
9
Health services
15
15
12
Other
6
3
0
Total
363

















3.2 Medical applications

Human remedies

Almost all GM medical applications use products derived from live GMOs, rather than being GMOs
themselves. Exceptions are live attenuated disease organisms for vaccines (e.g. for cholera), and
potentially in gene therapy.
9


In the USA, there are 76 GM medicines approved for human use, and some 369 in the
development pipeline.
10
In New Zealand there are over 20 GM proteins formulated as medicines
(Table 3.3). The majority of these are used in a clinical or hospital setting, and only two (insulin and
vaccination for hepatitis B) are in widespread use. As there are many more approved for human
use overseas, it is expected that the number in New Zealand will significantly increase over time.

In diagnostic work in medical laboratories, thousands of GM products are in use in New Zealand
and overseas. Examples include screening blood products and organs for HIV and hepatitis B,
testing for prostate cancer, and testing for inherited metabolic disorders.
11


Animal remedies

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) licenses animal remedies for use in New Zealand.
MAF does not consider the GM background of an animal remedy to be relevant to their consent
process. However, in order for the Environmental Risk Management Authority to be aware of

8


9
Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, p. 239; Ministry of Health 2000.
10
Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, p. 241.
11
Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, pp. 241; 249-250.
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potential importation of GMOs or DNA from GMOs, the MAF application form was amended in July
2001 to require information on whether GM DNA or a GMO remained in the remedy.

MAF does not collect data on remedies that have been manufactured using a GMO (e.g. GM
bacteria used in fermentation vats) but then refined to remove any GMOs or GM DNA from the
final product. Data packages accompanying licence applications may contain voluntary information
on GM origin, but these are subject to commercial confidentiality provisions. For animal remedies
approved prior to July 2001, no information is available on whether or not the remedy is of GM
origin unless the manufacturer provides voluntary information.
12


Table 3.3: GM medicines and vaccines commercially available in New Zealand

Compound
Therapeutic use

HUMAN REMEDIES


VACCINES

A. produced by GMO
Recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine
(derived from GM yeast)
Prevention of hepatitis B and liver cancer
(extent of use: estimated 750,000 people)
Recombinant DNA hepatitis A vaccine
Prevention of hepatitis A
Pertussis vaccine (acellular)
Prevention of pertussis

B. containing live GMO
Cholera vaccine (Orochol Berna)
(live attenuated GM bacterium)





Prevention of cholera




MEDICINES - produced by GMO
Recombinant insulin
Diabetes (extent of use: estimated 32,000 people)
PDGF-A
Diabetic ulcers
DNAase (Pulmozyme)
Cystic fibrosis
Growth hormone
Childhood growth retardation
Interferon-α
Leukaemias (hairy cell & chronic myeloid), hepatitis (B and C), Kaposi
sarcoma
Interferon-β
Multiple sclerosis
Interferon-γ
Chronic granulomatous disease
Interleukin-2
Cancer, cancer immunotherapy
TNF-α receptor lg and IL-1 receptor lg
Arthritis
IL-1 receptor antagonist
Osteoporosis
Factor VII and Factor VII antibody inhibitor
Haemophilia
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Infertility
Adenosine deaminase
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
Eryrhopoietin
Anaemia from kidney failure and cancer
GM-CSF
Bone marrow transplantation
TPA (tissue plasminogen activator)
Heart disease, stroke (dissolves blood clots)
Herudin
Anticoagulant
Alglucerase (Ceredase)
Gaucher disease
G-CSF
Neutrapoenias, stem cell collection
Stem cell factor
Stem cell peripheralisation and transplantation
Monoclonal antibody treatments
Organ rejection, non-Hodgkins lymphoma (B-cell), childhood RSV
infection
α-1 antitrypsin (produced in GM sheep
milk in New Zealand, and refined overseas)
Cystic fibrosis and emphysema (research trial)

ANIMAL REMEDIES (and possibly others: full data not available (see note above in text).
A. May be produced using GMO
Reporcin  porcine somatotropin

Enhanced growth of pigs
B. containing live GMO
Leucogen (live attenuated GM virus)

Vaccination against feline leukaemia virus (feline AIDS)
Aujeszkys Disease vaccine
Eradication of Aujeszkys Disease in pork industry.
MeganVac salmonella vaccine
Prevention of Salmonella outbreaks in poultry flocks.
(Used in New Zealand since 1998, but currently withdrawn. Withdrawal was not based on safet
y
data
,
but on the discover
y
that the vaccine had received Medicines Act but not ERMA a
pp
roval.
)


Sources: Royal Commission on Genetic Modification Chapter 9, animal vaccines p. 88, Ministry of Health 2000.
Pig growth hormone sneaks into New Zealand, press release by the Green Party 17/2/2002, on
http://www.newsroom.co.nz


9


12
C. Boland, Registrar- Animal Remedies Board, Ministry of Agriculure and Forestry, pers. comm. 18/2/02
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3.3 Commercial GM crops

3.3.1 Global overview

An estimated 44.2 million hectares of commercial GM crops were planted around the world in
2000, or 1.7 times the size of New Zealand. The projection for 2001 was 50 million hectares.
13


The first commercial GM crop, a virus resistant tobacco, was grown in China in 1992.
14
The first
commercial GM food crop to be marketed was the Flavr Savr tomato, introduced in the USA in
1985 and commercially marketed in 1994.
15


Virtually all of the present commercial GM crop area is in USA, Canada, Argentina, and China
(Figure 3.1). Other countries that have grown commercial GM crops are Australia, South Africa,
Mexico, Spain, France, Portugal, Romania, and the Ukraine.
16

Figure 3.1: Principal countries growing commercial GM crops in 2000















Canada
7%
China
1%
Others
1%
Argentina
23%
USA
68%
Source: James 2000.




There are over 70 varieties of GM crop that have been approved for planting in OECD countries,
including maize (21 varieties), canola (16), soybean (7), tomato (6), cotton (5), potato (4), carnation
(3), sugarbeet (2), squash (2), rice, chicory, linseed flax, melon, papaya, tobacco, and wheat.
17


The dominant GM crops are varieties of herbicide tolerant soybean (59% of planted area), Bt
maize (15%) and herbicide resistant canola, maize and cotton (6%, 5% and 5%). Herbicide
tolerance is the most common GM feature (74% of planted area), followed by Bt (19%) and
stacked genes, or multiple features (7%).
18


From 1999 to 2000, the area planted in GM soybeans and cotton has increased (up 20% and 60%
respectively), and the area planted in GM canola and maize has decreased (down 21% and 13%).


13
Unless otherwise noted, the source for international data in this chapter is James 2000.
New Zealand total land area (all islands) =268,021 sq. km = 26.802 million ha.
14
James 1997.
15
Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, p. 363; Royal Society of Canada 2001, p. 2; James 1997. The Flavr-Savr tomato
was altered by reducing the activity of the fruit softening enzyme polygalacturonase, in order to produce a flavourful tomato all year
round. It was marketed by Calgene, but was not a commercial success.
16
Portugal has however withdrawn approval for growing GM maize, and did not plant any GM commercial crops in 2000.
17
Regulatory approvals database on
http://www.agbios.com
. There is also an OECD database on approved GM crop varieties, which
can be accessed by country, organism, trait, company, or year (total print-out for all varieties and countries not available on-line):
interactive table-maker on
http://www1.oecd.org/ehs/table.htm
.
18
Bt stands for Bacillus thuringiensis, the source of DNA coding for an insect toxin that has been inserted into some plant varieties.

10
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The percentage of the total crop area comprised of GM varieties for 2000 was: soybeans, 36% GM
(e.g. 64% non-GM); cotton 16% GM; canola 11% GM, and maize 7% GM.

Growth in both area planted and the global market for GM seed 1996 to 1999 was rapid (Figure
3.2).


Figure 3.2: Area and market value of global commercial GM crops, 1996-2001




















0
10
20
30
40
50
60
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
million hectares
planted
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
US$ million market
value
hectares planted
estimated value of GM seed market
Source: James 2000, 1998, 1997 (ISAAA Briefs no. 5, 8, 21, 17).
Hectares
planted
(millions)
Estimated
value of
GM seed
market
(US$
million)
1996
2.8
152
1997
11.0
851
1998
27.8
1,959
1999
39.9
2,700
2000
44.2
not reported
2001
50.0
not reported

The USA and Canada have each approved 50 different GM varieties for field use (canola, maize,
soybeans, cotton, potato, rice, sugar beet, tomato, linseed flax, chicory, melon, papaya, and
squash). In the European Union, there are currently 18 GM varieties approved for field use:
vaccines (for Aujeszkys disease and rabies), maize, swede rape, carnations, chicory, soybeans,
and tobacco.
19
Japan has approved 27 for field use (canola, cotton, maize, soybeans, tomato) and
another four for food or feed only (maize, potato, sugar beet).
20
In China, 120 genes have been
introduced into about 50 plant species, and commercial crops include rice, cotton, tomatoes, and
sweet peppers.
21



11


19

http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/gmo/list_author_gmo_en.pdf

20
Full details on
http://www.agbios.com

21
Reaping the rewards, New Scientist, 2 February 2002, p. 12.
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3.3.2 Australia and New Zealand

Approvals for field production

Only GM cotton and GM carnations are approved for commercial field planting in Australia (Table
3.4), and none are approved in New Zealand. Other GM crop varieties that are approved for
human or animal consumption in Australia and New Zealand are grown elsewhere.

There were 150,000 hectares of GM cotton planted in Australia in 2000. GM cotton seed meal has
been used in Australian cattle feed.
22


Table 3.4: GM crops approved for planting - Australia

Crop type
(with GM trait and identifier code)
Approved
for planting
- Australia
Carnation
Delayed ripening (66)
Novel colour (4, 11, 15, 16)

1995
1995
Cotton
Herbicide resistant (glyphosate - MON1445/1698)
Lepidopteran pests (Bt -MON531/757/1076)

2000
1996
Source: Agbios database 2001,
http://www.agbios.com
.












There are no GM food crops in production in New Zealand. Some GM food varieties have been the
subject of research (e.g. potatoes, tamarillos). GM livestock are involved in pharming research
(production of medicine, rather than food) or research on enhancing muscle growth, and are in
containment.

The public seems to have the impression that GM controls for pests are already in use in New
Zealand (Table 3.1). However, these applications are in the research stages have not been field
tested in New Zealand. GM applications being researched include immunising female possums
against reproductive proteins to block fertilisation, GM carrot or potato baits to convey GM possum
proteins, and GM possum-specific parasites. Similar research for stoats and wasps is being
considered by Landcare Research.
23
Research on GM modifications to diseases (and introduction
into GM baits) to reduce fertility of pests is also underway in Australia, for the mouse, the fox and
the rabbit, but also not sufficiently advanced to seek approvals for field-testing.
24


GM foods, food processing aids, and food additives

For new GM foods, food processing aids and food additives to be legally in food for sale in
Australia and New Zealand, the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Council (ANZFSC) must
grant approval. There are also some GM foods covered by transitional arrangements, which are
approved overseas, had lodged applications for approval at the time of the implementation of
ANZFSC rules, and may be sold until such time as their assessments are completed.

Currently, there are 12 GM food crop varieties, eight GM food processing aids, and three GM food
additives approved by the Authority (Tables 3.5 and 3.6).



12


22
Polya 2001, pp. 35.
23
Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, pp. 162-164; Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment
24
Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, p. 162.
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Table 3.5: GM food additives and food processing aids approved by the
Australia New Zealand Food Standards Council

Approved substance
derived from GM source
Purpose
Use

Processing Aids (enzymes)
alpha -acetolactate
decarboxylase
Removes diacetyl - an off flavour from
fermentation.
Beer
Carbohydrate modifying
enzymes: -amylase,
Hemicellulase endo -1,4-.. -
xylanase or xylanase
Used to break down starch from cereals
during manufacturing and sugar during
refining, and to clarify fruit juices
Beer, spirits, glucose
syrups, bread, sugar,
enzyme modified starches,
fruit juices
Fat modifying enzymes:
Lipase, triacylglycerol
Applied to fats and oils to produce
triglycerides which enhance spreadability
or texture
Cheese and dairy products,
chocolate and related
confectionery
Protein modifying enzymes:
Chymosin, Mucorpepsin
Coagulate milk proteins to: form curds in
cheese making, and clot or thicken cream.
Cheese, cream

Food Additives
460 Cellulose
Used as a bulking agent to add volume to
a food without significantly contributing to
its energy value
Many foods may contain
cellulose including sauces
and confectionery
1105 Lysozyme
Preservative action - breaks down
bacterial cell walls

322 Lecithin
Emulsifier prevents foods from separating
either during manufacture or in package
Many foods including
chocolate, margarine, table
spreads, sauces and dips

Source: Australia New Zealand Food Authority, Approved genetically modified processing aids and food
additives and their use, on
http://www.anzfa.gov.au/whatsinfood/gmfoods/approvedgmprocessing1031.cfm

(Web page last updated 25/1/02).



13
Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Table 3.6: GM food crop varieties approved and submitted for approval to the Australia New
Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) as of 25 January 2002.
Pending decisions and withdrawn applications in italics.

GM food variety

Code
Proponent
Status

CANOLA/ OILSEED RAPE
Glyphosate tolerant canola GT73

A363
Monsanto Australia
Approved 24 Nov 2000

Glufosinate ammonium tolerant canola
topaz & glufosinate ammonium tolerant
canola with fertility traits

A372
Aventis Crop Science
Pending at Inquiry FA
7 Mar 2001
Canola resistant to bromoxynil
A388
Aventis Crop Science
Pending - at Full Assessment

CORN/ MAIZE
Insect-resistant corn Mon 810

A346
Monsanto Australia
Approved 24 Nov 2000
Glyphosate tolerant corn

A362
Monsanto Australia
Approved 24 Nov 2000
Insect-resistant corn (Bt-176)

A385
Syngenta Seeds
Approved 31 Jul 2001
Insect-resistant, glufosinate ammonium
tolerant corn line (Bt-11)


A386
Syngenta Seeds
Approved 31 Jul 2001
Glufosinate ammonium tolerant corn
T25

A375
Aventis Crop Science
Pending at Inquiry FA
7 Mar 2001
Insect-resistant, glufosinate ammonium
corn
A380
Monsanto Australia
Pending - at Full Assessment
Glufosinate ammonium tolerant DLL25
corn
A381
Monsanto Australia
Withdrawn
Glyphosate tolerant corn NK603

A416
Monsanto Australia
Pending - at Full Assessment
Insect resistant corn

A436
Monsanto Australia
Pending - at Full Assessment
Insect-resistant, glufosinate ammonium
corn line 1507
A446
Dow Agro Sciences
Received - PA pending

COTTON
Insect resistant cotton
A341
Monsanto Australia
Approved 28 July 2000
Glyphosate tolerant cotton 1445


A355
Monsanto Australia
Approved 24 Nov 2000
Cotton resistant to bromoxynil

A379
Stoneville Pedigreed
Seed Company and
Aventis Crop Science
Pending at Inquiry FA
7 Mar 2001

POTATOES
Colorado Potato Beetle resistant potato

A382
Monsanto Australia
Approved 31 Jul 2001
Colorado Potato Beetle resistant potato
with resistance to potato leaf roll virus

A383
Monsanto Australia
Approved 31 Jul 2001
Colorado Potato Beetle resistant potato
with resistance to potato virus Y

A384
Monsanto Australia
Approved 31 Jul 2001

SOYBEANS

Glyphosate tolerant soybean
A338
Monsanto Australia
Approved 28 July 2000
High oleic acid soybeans

A387
Du Pont
Approved 24 Nov 2000

SUGARBEET




Glyphosate tolerant sugar beet GTSB77

A378
Monsanto Australia
Pending at Inquiry FA
7 Mar 2001
FA = Full Assessment PA = Preliminary Assessment
Source: ANZFA, (last modified 25/1/02) Current Applications and Approvals, on
http://www.anzfa.gov.au/whatsinfood/gmfoods/gmcurrentapplication1030.cfm




14
Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3.4 Research and field trials

3.4.1 New Zealand

GM techniques have been used in research in New Zealand since the 1970s. Prior to the
establishment of the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA), GM research was
managed by a non-statutory system for government-funded research, and voluntary participation
by private researchers. This involved the Advisory Committee on Novel Genetic Techniques from
1978, and the Interim Assessment Group for proposed field releases from 1988.
25


Since 1998 ERMA has granted 101 approvals to import or develop a GMO in containment, 13
approvals to field test a GMO in containment, and no approvals to release GMOs to the
environment (Table 3.7). Further detail on these approvals are summarised in Appendix A. Further
detail on ERMA and the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act is in section 4.3.

In addition, 657 approvals for the development of low-risk GMOs have been granted under
delegation by Institutional Biological Safety Committees (IBSCs). The IBSCs, together with the
total number of delegated approvals they have granted, are listed in Appendix B.

The majority of the GMOs involved in ERMA approvals have been micro-organisms, plants and
laboratory mice (Table 3.7).

Table 3.7: GMO approvals granted in New Zealand 1998/99 - 2000/01


Number of proposals submitted
Import or develop GMO in containment
Field test GMO in containment
Release GMO
Total

114
15
0
129
Number approved
(status of remainder: 13 withdrawn, 0 declined)
Import or develop GMO in containment
Field test GMO in containment
Release GMO
Total

101
13
0
114
Source: Applications Summary Table on
http://www.ermanz.govt.nz/Applications/TableApps.htm



Number of approved GMO projects by organism, where clearly specified
(Note: this does not add to the same total as section above.
The ERMA Annual Reports summaries do not clearly define all organisms, and
details only 88 of the 114 approvals.)

micro-organisms
Import or develop 44;
Bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli (16), lactic acid bacteria (5), Salmonella typhimurium (3),
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3), yeasts (Candida albicans), and viruses (Herpes simplex,
adenovirus, retrovirus, baculovirus).
Field test 1 (large scale fermentation Escherichia coli).

45

plants
Import or develop: sugar beet, maize (2), potato (2), carrots, Arabidopsis thaliana (4),
Hieracium praealtum, conifers , tobacco
Field test: sugar beet, potato (2), maize (2). petunia (1), Pinus radiata (3), Picea abies

19

laboratory mice

14

other animals
Import or develop: salmon, blowflies, vinegar flies
Field test: sheep (2), cattle (2).

7

cell cultures

6
Source: Appendix A.






























15


25
Royal Commission on Genetic Modification 2001, pp. 104-105.
Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3.4.2 Australia

The extent of experimental GM field trials currently underway in Australia is uncertain. The Gene
Technology Technical Advisory Committee (GTTAC) (previously the Genetic Manipulation
Advisory Committee (GMAC)) provides a list of crops undergoing field trials, but the exact lines, the
location and size of many of the trials, and the purpose of the research is not specified. After June
2001 when the Gene Technology Act 2000 came into force, new disclosure compliance
commenced, but the information available remains limited. About 50% of locations are not revealed
for commercial-in-confidence reasons, and others are revealed by GPS co-ordinates but not
locality by name.
26


A summary of the types of organisms and agencies involved is in Table 3.8.

Table 3.8: Approved GM field trials in Australia


(a) Characteristics of Australian field trial proposals
up to January 2001

Number of proposals submitted
155
Number approved
(others under consideration, or did not proceed)

149
Research operated by: Commercial companies
Crown research agency (CSIRO)
Universities
State government agencies
37%
36%
16%
11%
Number of projects by organism plants
apple, barley (4), Brassica juncea, canola (17), carnation (6), chrysanthemum,
clover (7), cotton (42), field pea (8), grapevine (3), Helicoverpa armigera,
lentils, lettuce, lupin (6), papaya (2), peas (2), pineapple (2), poppy (4),
potato (7), rose (3), sugarcane (5), tobacco (2), tomato (5), wheat (4)
127
micro-organisms
agrobacterium, bakers yeast, bovine herpesvirus, bovine rhinotracheitis
vaccine virus, fowlpox virus, lactic acid bacterium, pseudomonas (4),
rhizobium (2), rumen bacteria (2), salmonella (2)
17
animals
pigs
1
Source: GMAC advice to the Department of the Parliamentary Library (Australia),
reported in Polya 2001, pp. 5-6.


(b) Current intentional release trial sites,
Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, as at February 2002


plants
cotton (15), canola (5), pineapple (3), grapevine (3), papaya (2),
sugar cane (2), clover (2), apple, oilseed poppy, mustard, field pea
36
micro-organisms
pseudomonas (2)
2
animals
0
Source:
http://www.health.gov.au/ogtr/gmorecord/currsites.htm


































16


26
Polya 2001, pp 5-6;
http://www.health.gov.au/hfs/ogtr/gmorecord
; R. Polya pers. comm. 7/2/02.
Genetic modification - a resource document for New Zealand MPs Parliamentary Library, February 2002
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3.5 Future developments

Many possible GM applications have been the subject of proposals, initial research and media
attention. To give the reader some idea of the range of GMOs in the pipeline some examples for
New Zealand and overseas are presented in Table 3.9. Whether these applications emerge
through the consent process for commercial and field application is subject to many factors, such
as efficacy, health and environmental safety, and commercial viability.

Table 3.9: Examples of some GMO and GM applications in the pipeline,
New Zealand and overseas


GM development
Status



A. Disease or pest management
Overseas
PLANTS
Apples: reduce fire blight (destructive bacterial disease)

Being field tested
Apples and pears: reduce impact of the codling moth (apple cutworm)
Being tested in limited field trials
Bananas, potatoes, rice, soybeans, sweet potato, wheat, barley:
disease or nematode resistance
Being tested in labs and
greenhouses
Plum, peach, nectarine and apricot: create trees resistant to the plum
pox virus by introducing the plum pox virus coat protein
Being field tested
ANIMALS
Farmed catfish and shrimp: disease resistance

Being tested in laboratories
Salmon: faster growth rates, increased cold tolerance
Being tested in laboratories
In New Zealand
PLANTS
Pine and fir trees: inserting genes for antibiotic resistance, herbicide
resistance, and controlling wood quality