Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

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11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering
and Biotechnology
What do you think it is?
All You Need to Know about
Chapter 15

Look over sheet of notes and know
vocabulary words

Read 15.1 (pages 418 – 420)

Refer to pages 426 – 427 in 15.2

Read 15.3 (pages 428 – 434)

Optional – read 15.4 (Ethics and Impacts of
Biotechnology)

…Think of 4 different types of
apples you’ve seen/eaten
1.
Describe them in
your notebook (color,
size, shape)
2.
What is the BEST
characteristic for
each type of apple?
3.
Hypothesis: How
could you produce
one
apple that has
the best traits of all
these four types?
Genetic engineering

The process of manipulating genes

in zebrafish and mice

…and many other organisms
Selective Breeding

Method of improving a species by allowing
only those individuals with desired
characteristics to reproduce.


Used to pass the desired traits onto the next
generation.

Increases variation!!



2 strategies: hybridization and inbreeding
Hybridization or Inbreeding?

Breeding a female Tiger and a male Lion?

X



Hybridization

Result: Liger
It's pretty much my
favorite animal. It's like a
lion and a tiger mixed...
bred for its skills in magic

Breeding two Pomeranians?






Inbreeding

Result: A purebred Pomeranian

Breeding a female horse and a male donkey?


X



Hybridization

Result: Mule
Also Produces New Kinds of…

Bacteria

Scientists have been able to develop hundred of
useful bacterial strains.

Plants

Drugs can prevent chromosomal separation in
cells…causing polyploidy (having many sets of
chromosomes)

Can produce new species of plants that are often
larger or stronger than the usual diploid.

which crosses
consists of
Selective
Breeding
for example
Inbreeding
Hybridization
Similar
organisms
Dissimilar
organisms
for example
Organism
breed A
Organism
breed A
Organism
breed B
Retains desired
characteristics
Combines desired
characteristics
which
which crosses
which
Section 13-1
What happens in modern
biotechnology?

Often involves procedures using proteins or DNA

Main processes
-
DNA extraction
-
Cutting DNA with restriction enzymes

-
Separating with gel electrophoresis

-
Sequencing
-
Recombinant DNA

Uses for Biotechnology today

Creation of new organisms (like the colored
mice)

Make medicines for patients (like insulin)

Paternity tests

Cloning and stem cell research

Genetically Modified Foods

Forensics

A donor cell is taken from a
sheep’s udder.
Donor
Nucleus
These two cells are fused using an
electric shock.
Fused Cell
The fused cell begins
dividing normally.
Embryo
The embryo is placed in the
uterus of a foster mother.
Foster Mother
The embryo develops
normally into a lamb—
Dolly
Cloned Lamb
Egg Cell
An egg cell is taken from
an adult female sheep.
The nucleus of the egg cell
is removed.
A little about cloning
Gel Electrophoresis
• Separation of DNA
molecules based on
their sizes
• Send an electric
current through the gel
and the smaller
particles move farther
along the gel
Plasmids – Recombining DNA

Human Cell
Gene for human
growth hormone
Recombinant DNA
Gene for human growth
hormone
Sticky
ends
DNA
recombination
DNA
insertion
Bacterial Cell
Plasmid
Bacterial
chromosome
Bacterial cell for
containing gene for human
growth hormone