Goal 7: Microbiology

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12 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Goal 7: Microbiology


1. What specific organisms are generally included in the broad category of “
microbes
.



All bacteria and some protists and fungi



2. List the five
characteristics of living things
:



1)
All living things are composed of cells
.



2)
A
ll living things perform certain chemical processes such as growth and


digestion
.



3)
All living things reproduce.



4)
All living things either make their own nutrients or ingest nutrients from the


environment
.



5)
All li
ving things respond to stimuli such as light and touch.


3. What is a
virus
? Which of the above life characteristics does a
virus
exhibit? Are they
considered by most scientists to be alive?


A virus is a particle that consists of a nucleic acid enclosed w
ithin a protein shell that
requires a living cell in order to reproduce. The only life characteristic they exhibit is the
ability to reproduce. Most scientists do not consider them to be living organisms.


4. Do all viruses carry
DNA
? Explain.


No. Some vi
ruses contain RNA instead of DNA


5. What determines the shape of a virus?


The shape of a virus is determined by the arrangement of the proteins in its capsid, or
protein shell.


6. Are
bacteria prokaryotes

or
eukaryotes
? Explain.


Bacteria are prokaryot
es. They do not have a true nucleus or membrane
-
bound
organelles.


7. Are
bacteria
alive? Explain.


Yes. They carry out all of the required life processes.



8. Match the pictures to the descriptions
of the

three basic types of bacteria.





A



B



C



____
B
____
bacillus

____
A
____
coccus

____
C
_____
spirillus


9. Name the only
organelle

found in bacteria cells.

ribosome


10. Draw and label a simple
bacillus bacterial cell
. Lable
cytoplasm, cell membrane,
and

cell wall
.


Refer to page 312

in NC End
-
of
-
Grade Science Coach


11. True or false. Bacteria are found everywhere on Earth.

True


12. The two
bacterial kingdoms

are _
Archaebacteria
__, most of which can survive
without oxygen, and __
Eubacteria
__, which includes most of the
ancient pr
okaryotes
.


13. Are
fungi prokaryotes
or

eukaryotes
? Explain.


Fungi are eukaryotes. The have a true nucleus and membrane
-
bound organelles.


14. What are two methods used by
fungi

to obtain food?


Some fungi decompose dead organic matter and absorb the nut
rients (saprophytes). Some
fungi are parasites and feed on the body fluids and tissues of other organisms.


15. Briefly answer the following questions concerning
diseases
:



a. What is a
disease
?



A disease is any change that disrupts the normal function
of one or more body



systems.



b. What is the difference between an
infectious

and a
non
-
infectious disease
?


Give an example of each.



Noninfectious diseases are not spread from one organism to another; they are


caused by the environmen
t or genetics, for instance. An example of a


noninfectious disease is cancer or diabetes. Infectious diseases are transmitted or


spread from one organism to another. Influenza or polio are examples of


noninfectious diseases.



c.
What is the difference
between a
pathogen
and a
contagion
?



A microbe that causes a disease is a pathogen, such as Giardia.
A contagion is a


disease that is transmitted from one human to another without the help of a vector


or microbe, such as HIV.



16. In the following tabl
e, choose the general pathogen for each disease given.

The
following legend will be used to save space:
B


bacteria, F


fungus, P


protist, V


virus.


Pathogen

B

F

P

V

Pathogen

B

F

P

V

AIDS




X

Athlete’s foot


X



botulism

X




cancer (some types)




X

cholera

X




diphtheria

X




dysentery



X


food poisoning

X




gonorrhea

X




H5N1 (avian flu)




X

hepatitis




X

influenza




X

leprosy

X




Lyme disease

X




malaria



X


measles




X

pneumonia

X




polio




X

SARS




X

small pox




X

sto
mach ulcers

X




syphilis

X




trypanosomiasis



X


tuberculosis

X




typhoid fever

X




yellow fever




X


17. Define the following terms:



a
.
mutagen



a substance that is capable of inducing a mutation, such as UV radiation




b.

mutate



to chang
e or undergo some type of change, as in a DNA mutation




c.

parasite


an organism that lives on or in an organism of another species

(host) and receives


nourishment from the host at its expense
, such as a tapeworm.




d.

vector


an intermediate organism that helps to spread disease; the vector is generally not


harmed by the pathogen it harbors; example: a tick is a vector for Lyme disease




e.

contagious


capable of being spread from
one organism to the next




f.

epidemic


An outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads rapidly and widely.




g.

carrier



an organism that is infected with and can transmit a disease
-
causing agent, even


though the
carrier may show not symptoms of illness or disease




h
.
pandemic



a disease that has become prevalent throughout an en
tire country, continent, or the


whole world; epidemic over a large area
.



18. What is an
STD
?

List at least 6 diseases that fit this description.


An STD is a sexually transmitted disease; diseases spread by sexual contact with an
infected person.


syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, hepatitis, genital herpes, HIV


19. How are the following diseases
spread within the human population?



a.
cholera



drinking water that is contaminated with a certain type of bacteria



b.
African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)



must be bitten by an infected


Tsetse fly



c.
bubonic plague



mus
t be bitten by an infected flea



d.
malaria, West Nile virus, yellow fever, and encephalitis




must be bitten by


an infected mosquito



e.
H5N1(avian flu)



must have direct contact with infected birds



f.
athlete’s foot



bare feet

must come in contact with surfaces contaminated with


the fungus



g.
Lyme disease, Rocky mountain spotted fever



must be bitten by an infected


tick



h.
influenza


contact with infected person or contaminated o
bjects



i.
botulism


must eat contaminated food



j.
hepatitis


must have contact with body fluids of infected person



20. True or False. Bacteria divide and reproduce very quickly. Theoretically, a population
of 2 bacteria can reach a population of ab
out 8.5 billion in only 16 hours.


true


21. You come in contact with thousands of
pathogens

every day. What keeps you from
being sick all the time or worse, dead?


Your immune system constantly detects and eliminates most pathogens before they can
cause d
isease.


22. What is the difference between
active
and

passive immunity
?

Why
does active
immunity

provide long
-
term protection against disease, while
passive immunity

provides only short
-
term protection.


Active immunity is obtained by exposure to a pathog
en (often via vaccines). It stimulates
the immune system to produce antibodies. Passive immunity involves the transfer of
antibodies from one organism to another. Active immunity is more long
-
term because the
antibodies involved are yours. Passive immunity

is designed to give your body a wake up
call so it will begin to make its own.


23. What are at least 5
healthful behaviors for preventing disease
?


Keep you immune system and body strong, reduce your exposure to disease, wash hand
regularly, eat a nutri
tious diet, maintain and healthy body weight, get enough rest


24
. Who gave the
first human vaccine
? Against what disease?


Edward Jenner for cowpox/smallpox


25
. How are
antimicrobial products

(antibacterial soaps, etc.) and
antibiotics

(penicillin, etc.)

similar and different?


Similarities

Differences

both fight bacterial disease

antimicrobial products are designed to kill bacteria
before

they get

into your body


antibiotics are usually administered after the
bacteria is in

your body

and causing disease

or
infection



26
. Write a paragraph explaining
antibiotic resistance
. Include in your answer the
definition and how
natural selection

is the mechanism for how it occurs.


A colony of bacteria is exposed to an antibiotic or some antimicrobial products. M
ost of
the bacteria are killed by either of the products. However, some of the strong, more “fit”
bacteria are not affected as much by the product (or not at all, if very fit). These bacteria
live to reproduce, very quickly. Some of the new bacteria still
have the old, less fit genes,
but not as many as the first round. When the next dose of “bacteria killer” is introduced
some bacteria die off, but not as many as before because there are more fit genes in the
population. Again, the tough guys reproduce and

produce an even fitter generation. This
scenario repeats itself until the only bacteria left are the tough guys. The antibiotic ceases
to work at all at this point.
The natural selection connection here is “survival of the
fittest”. The fit bacteria survi
ve to live (and reproduce) another day and will take over the
world (your body) if some blockbuster, nuke
-
‘em, antibiotic is introduced to kill EVERY
ONE.



27
. True or False.
Antibiotics
are effective against
viruses
and

protists
.

False


28
. What does a
microbiologist

do?


studies microbes and microbial diseases



29
. __
Biotechnology
___ is the use of living organisms, or parts of organisms, to produce
products used by people, including __
medications
___ and ___
food
___.


30
.
What makes bacteria so well suit
ed to
biotechnology
studies?


They reproduce very quickly, their DNA is easy to manipulate, they are expendable


31
. What is the difference between a “
piggyback” vaccine

and a
DNA vaccine
?


A piggyback vaccine is made by using a harmless virus to carry a s
pecific gene from
another source; when injected they cause an organism to produce antibodies for the target
disease. A DNA vaccine does not promote the production of antibodies but of killer
-
T
cells, white blood cells that attack and destroy invading micro
bes.


32
. List some practical applications of
biotechnology

in agriculture?


Scientists are looking for ways to alter crops to make them resistant to disease,
herbicides, and frost. They are trying to improve taste and nutrition

and to improve crop
yields
.


33
. Discuss at least two
ethical dilemmas

facing biotechnology.


genetically modified organisms, using non
-
human organisms to produce products for
humans, anything logical