BIOL260 Chap 1 Review

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12 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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CHAPTER
#1

STUDY GUIDE

QUESTIONS


A BRIEF HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY


Be sure you can answer the following questions before taking Test 1.
Also,
be sure you
understand your own answers (ie don’t just copy the words directly from the book, put the
answer in y
our own words so you understand it)
:


Microbes:

1.

List several ways in which microbes affect our lives. Are most microbes pathogenic? Explain.



Naming and Classifying Microbes:

2.

Describe how scientific nomenclature is used to name organisms. Differentiate

between the genus and the
specific epithet (be aware of the actual way these names are written in text).



How Can Microbes Be Classified:

3.

List and briefly describe 6 groups of microorganisms.


4.

Explain why protozoa, algae, and non
-
microbial parasitic worm
s are studied in microbiology.



The Early Years of Microbiology:

5.

Briefly describe Hooke’s and Leeuwenhoek’s world changing scientific contributions.


6.

Define Leeuwenhoek’s microbe and compare that with today’s definition of the same organisms.



Is Spontan
eous Generation of Microbial Life Possible:

7.

Identify the scientist who argued in favor of Spontaneous Generation and describe this theory.


8.

Identify the scientist who argued in favor of the Theory of Biogenesis and describe this theory.


9.

Describe Pasteur’s

Experiments and how they related to the theory of Spontaneous Generation.


The Golden Age of Microbiology:

10.

Describe the Golden Age of Microbiology and its significance

(you do not have to memorize all scientists
and the dates of their contribution)


ho
wever, you do need to understand why this period is significant and
the most significant events/scientists responsible for each process (ie 11, 12, 13, 14, etc)
.


11.

Discuss the significance of Pasteur’s fermentation and pasteurization techniques to our world

today.


12.

Describe the Germ Theory of Disease and how Koch helped to “prove” its validity.


13.

Name the two scientists whose work with vaccines began the field of immunology (briefly describe their
contribution).


14.

Describe the quest for the “magic bullet”.



T
he Birth of Modern Chemotherapy: “Magic Bullet”:

15.

Define chemotherapy and differentiate between synthetic drugs and antibiotics.


16.

Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Ehrlich and Fleming.



The Modern Developments in the Field of Microbiology:

17.

Differentiate between

bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, immunology, and virology.


18.

Explain the importance of recombinant DNA technology.





Microbes and Human Welfare:

19.

List at least three beneficial activities of microbes.


20.

Define biotechnology and lis
t 2 examples of biotechnology that use genetic engineering and 2 that do not.



Microbes and Human Diseases:

21.

Define normal microbiota and how it influences resistance.


22.

Define infectious disease.


23.

Identify and describe at least 5 emerging infectious diseas
es.