2nd Semester

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1

BIOTECHNOLOGY SYLLABUS

SCHEME OF INSTRUCTIONS AND EXAMINATIONS

B.Tech. (Biotech)
-

III YEAR
-

II Semester


SUBJECT
CODE

SUBJECTS


PERIODS
/WEEK

MARKS


DURATION
OF EXAM.

Th /Pr

Sessional

Exams.

Hrs

BTT.3.201

Food Biotechnology

4

30

70

3

BTT.3.202


Bio
-
safety, Bioethics and
Regulatory Affairs

4


30


70


3


BTT.3.203


Genetic Engineering and
rDNA Technology

4


30


70


3


BTT.3.204

Bio
-
informatics

4

30

70

3

BTT.3.205


Mass Transfer Operations

4


30


70


3


B.TT.3.206

Elective
-

1

4

30

70

3

BTP.3.207

G
enetic Engineering Lab

4

25

50

4

BTP.3.208

Bioinformatics Lab

4

25

50

4

BTP.3.209


Mass Transfer Operations
Lab

4


25


50


4








255


570









2

FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY



UNIT
-
I

CONCEPT AND SCOPE OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology in relation to the food industry ; Nutritive value of the food ; consumption
and structure of foods and the impor
tance of industrial processing of foods, various
technologies and methods in food preservation, processing and packaging, ready
-
made
food production.


UNIT
-

II FOOD SPOILAGE AND FOOD MICROBIOLOGY

Food borne illness; Quality control; Types of microorganisms

associated with food, its
sources and behavior in foods. Utilization of Microorganism in food industry; Case
studies on Biotechnology in the evolution of food quality


UNIT
-

III FOOD PRODUCTS

Introduction to Probiotics, Nutraceuticals and GM foods ; Devel
opment of Industrial
Food products: High Fructose Corn syrup, Single Cell Protein and Fermented foods,
Bakery Products, Beverages, Milk Products and Mushroom Development.


UNIT
-

IV FOOD PROCESSING

Bio
-
processing : Enzymes and chemicals used in food proce
ssing for flavor
development; Processing of meat
, fisheries, vegetables, dairy products; Thermal
processing of foods; Microwave heating ; Thermal inactivation of microorganisms;
Freezing and thawing methods of food processing.


UNIT
-

V FOOD PRESERVATION

Food preservation using Irradiation: Characteristics of Radiations of Interest in food
preservation, Principles underlying the destruction of microorganisms by irradiation,
Subject code :

BTT.3.201


Sessional : 30

Periods / Week : 4


E
xamination : 70

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Duration : 3 Hrs


3

Processing of foods for Irradiation, Legal status of food irradiation, Effect of I
rradiation
of Food constituents and Storage Stability; Food Preservation with low and High
Temperatures and Preservation of foods by Drying

EXAMINATION
: One question from each unit with internal choice



TEXT BOOKS:

1.

Food Microbiology
-

Frazier 4th Ed
ition Publisher: Mcgraw Hill Education

2.

Food Biotechnology
-

Roger Angold, Gordon Beech & Taggart, 1989



REFERENCES
:

1.

Basic Food Microbiology
-

George J Banward, CBS publishers, 1987.

2.

Biotechnology Challenges for the Flavor and Food Industry
-

Lindsay, Willis
Elsevier Applied Science, 1988.

3.

Food Science by Potter, Norman N Avi Pub.

4.

Food Chemistry
-

4th Edition (2009) Edited by Belitz, H.
-
D., Grosch, Werner,
Schieberle, Peter Springer.

5.

Food Processing: Principles and Applications Edited by Hosahalli S
Ramaswam
y, Michele Marcotte CRC Press (2002).

6.

Fundamentals of Food Process Engineering
-

3rd edition Romeo T. Toledo


Springer February (2007).

7.

Introduction to Food Engineering
-

3rd edition R Singh and D Heldman
Academic Press

8.

Unit operation in Food
processing, Earle, R.L. (1996) Pergamon Press, Oxford,

9.

Food biotechnology By Kalidas Shetty, Gopinadhan Paliyath, Anthony Pometto,
Robert E. Levin Edition: 2, Published by CRC Press, (1999).

10.

Food Microbiology
-

Frazier, William, C. Westhoff, Dennis c.


Ta
ta Mcgraw Hill
Publishers.







4

BIO
-
SAFETY, BIO
-
ETHICS & REGULATORY AFFAIRS



UNIT
-

I BIOSA
FETY

Bio
-
safety regulation and national and international guidelines, r
-
DNA guidelines.
Experimental protocol approvals, levels of containment, environmental aspects of
biotech applications, use of genetically modified organisms and their release in
enviro
nment, special procedures for r
-
DNA based product production (GMP).


UNIT
-

II BIOETHICS & SOCIO
-
ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Public education of the processes of biotechnology involved ingenerating new forms of
life for informed decision
-
making.

Beneficial application

and developments of research focus to the need of the poor,
identification of directions for yield effect in agriculture, aquaculture, bioremediation etc


UNIT
-

III
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Intellectual property rights, and intellectual property prote
ction, patents and methods of
application of patents, trade secret, copy rights, trade marks, legal implication, farmers
rights, plant breeder's rights.


UNIT IV REGULATORY AFFAIRS

History of Regulatory Affairs; structure regulation impact of ICH GCP recen
t
development with regard to the INDIA / USA / EU Licensing authorities
-
roles and
responsibilities, ICH GCP,FDA, EU, Data Protection Act & Regulations relating to
electronic signatures, Declaration of Helsinki (2000) amendment and financial
disclosure, Law
, guidelines and codes of practice Regulation of drug preparation and
packaging, EMEA, European directives and MRECs,


Subject code :

BTT.3.202


Sessional : 30

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 70

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Duration : 3 Hrs


5

UNIT

V CLINICAL TRIALS

Basics and Regulations in clinical research. Current issues in clinical research
-

Confidentiality in issues, medi
cines for human use (Clinical trials ). Regulations (2003),
other relevant issues.


EXAMINATION
: One question from each unit with internal choice


TEXT BOOKS:

1.

Biotechnologies and Development,

Sasson A, UNESCO Publications, 1988.

2.

Biotechnologies in dev
eloping countries present and future
,
Sasson A, UNESCO
Publications, (1993)

3. International Clinical Trial, Volume 1 &2 Dominique P.Brunier and Gerhardt

Nahler, Interpharm Press, Denver, Colorado.

3.

Intellectual property rights on Biotechnology, Singh K, B
CIL, New Delhi.

4.

Intellectual Property Rights and Plant Biotechnology p
roceedings of a Forum
Held at the National Academy of Sciences, November 5, (1996), Washington,
D.C.

5.

Good Clinical Practices, Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation, Govt.

Of India.


REFERENCE BOOKS:

6.

Bio safety and Bioethics Editor Raj Mohan Joshi Isha Books Delhi.

7.

Bioethics and Bio safety R. Ramamurthi and Geetha Bali APH Publishing
Corporation.

8.

Bio safety and Bioethics by MK Sateesh IK International publishing house Pvt.
Lt
d.

9.

International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products

Edited by R E Evenson and V Santaniello R E Evenson (2006).

10.

Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.

11.

International Clinical Trial, Volume 1 &2 Dominique P.Brunier And Gerhardt

Nahler, Interpha
rm Press, Denver, Colorado

12.

Code of Federal Regulation by USFDA


Download.

13.

ICH
-
GCP Guidelines


Download.

14.

Biosafety Issues Related To Genetically Modified Organism, Biotech

Consortium India Limited, New Delhi .


6

15.

Thomas, J.A., Fuch, R.L. ((2002)). Biotechnol
ogy And Safety Assessment (3rd

Ed). Academic Press.

16.

Fleming, D.A., Hunt, D.L., (2000). Biological Safety Principles And Practices

(3rd Ed). Asm Press, Washington.

17.

Biotechnology
-

A Comprehensive Treatise (Vol. 12). Legal Economic And

Ethical Dimensions Vch
.

18.

Encyclopedia of Bioethics.


7

GENETIC ENGINEERING AND r DNA TECHNOLOGY


UNIT
-
I

Isolation and

purification of DNA & RNA; Host Controlled restriction enzymes, their
uses, target sites and Isoschizomers; Enzymes used in cloning
-
polymerases, ligases,
restriction modification
-

DNA methylation of enzyme and modification of restriction
site; Restrictio
n enzymes
-

classification, nomenclature phosphatases, kinases and
nucleases; Restriction mapping; Blotting techniques
-

Southern, Northern, Western.


UNIT
-

II

Cloning vehicles: Essential features of cloning vectors, plasmid vectors, pUC 18/19,
Blue script v
ectors pBR 322. Cosmids
-

essential features
-
strategies to generate genomic
library. BACs, YACs, their use in construction of genomic library, Phagemids
-

Ml3
derived vectors, expression vectors
-

vectors for construction of cDNA library. Vector for
cloning g
enes hi plants.


UNIT
-

III

PCR and its applications; Principle, designing of primers, PCR methodology, RT
-
PCR,
Multiplex PCR, Identification of PCR products, applications of PCR; Molecular markers,
RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, gene chip, and micro array.


UNIT
-

IV

Cl
oning Strategies
-

Ligation, Homopolymer tailing, Linker and adopter DNA molecules,
Cloning of PCR products. Introduction of cloned genes into hosts
-

Transformation,
conjugation and Transduction; Particle Bombardment, Detection clone with desired
gene. Meth
ods of gene sequencing:
-

Maxam
-
Gilbert and Sanger's dideoxy chain
termination method.


UNIT
-

V

Subject code :

BTT.3.203


Sessional : 30

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 70

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Duration : 3 Hrs


8

Applications Of Gene cloning in medicine, Agriculture, Transgenic animals, gene
therapy.
Applications of r
-
DNA Technology:

Gene cloning in medicine (Insulin, B
lood
clotting factor VIII) High level expression of proteins in different host systems
(E. coli,
yeast, Insect, mammalian cells); Limitation and advantages and novel technologies
generation of transgenic animals. Introduction to Gene therapy (Ex vivo & In
vivo), case
study of ADA as an example. Advantages and limitations of Gene therapy.


EXAMINATION
: One question from each unit with internal choice


TEXT BOOKS:

1.

Principles of Gene manipulations
-

R.W. Old. And S.B. Primrose.Blackwell
Science Ltd.(1994).

2.

G
enetic Engineering: Principles and Practice By Sandhya Mitra, MacMillan.

3.

Gene Cloning: An Introduction by T.A. Brown Nelson Thornes Ltd; 3rd Revised
(1995).


REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.

Molecular Cloning
-
A laboratory manual. 2
nd

ecdition. Sambrook J., Fritsch
F
E.&Maniatis(1989) Vol I, II III. Cold spring Harbour.NY.

2.

Genes VII by B. Lewin Oxford University (2002).

3.

Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA
by Glick, Bernard R. / Pasternak, Jack J. Glick, Bernard R. / Pasternak, Jack
J. Publisher: ASM Press. (2002).

4.

Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments by Gerald Karp

Wiley; 4
th

edition (2004).

5.

Essentials of Molecular Biology by George M. Malacinski ), David Freifelder


Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 3rd edition (19
98).

6.

Genetic Engineering: Principles and Methods By Setlow, Jane K.

Springer.

7.

Recombinant DNA: Genes and Genomes by James D. Watson Amy. A.
Caudy, Richard M. Myers , Jan A. Witkowski
,
W.H.Freeman & Co Ltd; 3rd
Revised edition (2007).

8.

Recombinant DNA :
Genes and Genomes
-

a Short Course New York : W.H.
Freeman : Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, c (2007).



9


BIOINFORMATICS



UNIT
-
I INTRODUCTION TO BIOINFORMATICS


Need of Computers in Biotechnology Research
-

Elementary commands and protocols,
ftp, telnet, http, printer on information theory; Bioinformatics
-

Introduction, Scope of
Bioinformati
cs, Applications, Strings, Edit distance, String similarity
-

Methods;
Alignment
-
Local, Global alignment; Gap
-

Gap penalty; Parametric sequence alignments
-
Sub optimal alignments; Comparison of Pair wise and Multiple alignment.


UNIT
-

II BIOLOGICAL DATABASES

AND DATAMINING

Biological Information on the web
-

Introduction to databases; Database search;
Algorithms issues in database search; Information retrieval from Databases; Sequence
database search
-

FASTA, BLAST; Amino acid substitution matrices
-

PAM and
BLO
SUM; Data Mining and Visualization.


UNIT
-

III PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION

Understanding Evolutionary process; Origins of Molecular Phylogenetics; Common
Multiple Sequence alignment methods; Methods of Phylogenetic analysis, Tree
Evaluation, Probl
ems in Phylogenetic Analysis, Automated Tools for Phylogenetic
Analysis; Ultrametric trees and distances; Maximum Parsimony.


UNIT
-
IV GENOME MAPPING AND PREDICTION

DNA sequencing
-

Map assembly, cDNA sequencing, Genome sequencing; Genome
Mapping; Comparativ
e Sequence Analysis; Basis of Gene Prediction, Gene predictions
-
Subject code :

BTT.3.204


Sessional : 30

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 70

Nature of Examination :
Theory

Exam Duration : 3 Hrs


10

in Microbial genomes, Gene Prediction Methods, Other Gene Prediction Tools, Gene
Annotation; Molecular predictions with DNA strings; Human Genome Mapping (HGP).


UNIT V BIO CHEMICAL DATA BASES

Introduction to Biochemical databases
-
organization and Management of databases.
KEGG, EXGESCY, BRENDA, WIT. Molecular Modeling Databases (MMDB)


EXAMINATION
: One question from each unit with internal choice


TEXT BOOKS:


1.

Bioinformatics: Methods and Ap
plications
-

SC Rastogi, N Mendiratta & P
Rastogi. 2
nd

edition. Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.

2.

Bioinformatics David Mount (2000) CSH publications.



REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.

Bioinformatics a practical guide the analysis of genes and proteins : AD Baxebanis

2.

B
ioinformatics Basics, Applications in Biological Science and Medicine
-

Hooman
Rashidi & KB Lucas CRC press (2000).

3.

Genomics and Proteomics Functional and computational aspects
-

S

Sahai, Plenum
Publications, (1999).

4.

Bioinformatics algorithms: techniques an
d applications / by Măndoiu and
Alexander Zelikovsky. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley
-
Interscience, c(2008).

5.

Sequence alignment: methods, models, concepts, and strategies by Michael S.
Rosenberg. Publication Info: Berkeley: University of California Pres
s, c(2009).

6.

Understanding bioinformatics / Marketa Zvelebil & Jeremy O. Baum.


Pub: New York: Garland Science, c (2008).

7.

Protein Structure Prediction: Methods and Protocols, David M. Webster (2000),
Humana Press.

8.

Genetics: Analysis of Genes a
nd Genomes, Daniel L. Hartl, Elizabeth W. Jones,
(2001), Jones & Bartlett Pub.

11

9.

MASS
TRANSFER OPERATIONS


UNIT
-

I PRINCIPLES OF
MASS
TRANSFER

Introduction to Mass transfer and Diffusion, Molecular diffusion in Gases, Molecular
diffusion in Liquids, Molecular diffusion in Biological solutions and gels, Molecular
diffusion in Solids, Inter phase

mass transfer and Mass transfer coefficients. Gas
-

Liquid
operations: Equilibrium relations between phases, Mass transfer between phases, Choice
of solvent for absorption, Single stage and multi stage co current and counter current
operations, Estimation

of Mass transfer coefficient, Calculation of HTU, NTU concepts,
equipments mechanically agitated vessels, packed columns and plate columns.


UNIT
-

II PRINCIPLES OF VLB FOR BINARY SYSTEM

Phase rule and Raoult's law, Boiling point diagrams and x
-
y plots, Re
lative volatility,
Flash distillation, Differential distillation, Simple steam distillation, Distillation with
reflux and McCabe
-

Thiele method. Special Cases for rectification using McCabe
-
Thiele; Stripping column distillation, Enriching Column distilla
tion, Rectification with
direct steam injection, Rectification with single side stream.


UNIT
-

III LIQUID
-

LIQUID EXTRACTION AND LEACHING

Introduction to Extraction process, Equilibrium relations in extraction, Analytical and
graphical solutions for singl
e and multi stage operations co
-
current and counter current
operations without reflux. Equipments for liquid
-
liquid extraction: mixer
-
settlers for
extraction, Plate and Agitated Tower Contactors for Extraction, Packed and spray
Extraction towers. Introduct
ion to leaching process, Equilibrium diagrams for leaching,
analytical and graphical solutions for single and multi stage counter current operations.


UNIT
-

IV BASIC CONCEPTS
IN
DRYING OF PROCESS MATERIALS

Methods of drying, Equipment for drying; Free moi
sture content of materials; Concept of
bound and unbound moisture content of biological materials; Rate of drying curves;
Subject code :

BTT.3.205


Sessional : 30

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 70

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Durat
ion : 3 Hrs


12

Calculation methods for constant
-
rate & falling rate drying methods; Freeze drying of
biological materials.


UNIT
-

V ADSORPTION AND ME
MBRANE SEPARATION PROCESS

Theory of adsorption, Industrial adsorbents, Adsorption equilibria, Frendlich equation
-
single and multiple operations
-

processing variables and adsorption cycles. Principles of
ion exchange. Introduction and Types of Membrane sepa
ration process, Dialysis, Gas
permeation membrane processes, types of membranes and permeability's for separation
of gases, Introduction to types of flow in gas permeation.


EXAMINATION
: One question from each unit with internal choice.


TEXT BOOKS

1.
Transport Processes in chemical Operations, C J Geankopolis, 4th ef. Prentice Hall
India.


2. Mass Transfer operations
-

Robert E.Treybal, 3
rd

ed. McGraw
-
Hill.

3. Unit operations of Chemical Engineering
-

Warren L, McCabe, Julian C. Smith, Peter
Harriot,
5
th

Edition, McGraw
-
Hill.


REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.

Principles and Modern Applications of Mass Transfer Operations, 2nd
EditionJaime Benitez, (2009).

2.

Chemical Engineering,J M Coulson and J F Richardson Vol
-
II, 3rd Ed,
Pergamom Press.

2.

Unit operation of Agricultura
l Processing, Sahay, K. M. and K.K.Singh. (1994).
Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.


3.


Unit operation in Food processing, Earle, R.L.(1996) Pergamon Press, Oxford,

4.

Unit operations of chemical engineering, Mc Cabe, W.L, Smith J.C., and Harriot
P.
, Mc
-
Graw Hill, 3rd Ed. (1993).

5.

Agricultural Process Engineering. Henderson, S.M. and R.L. Perry. 1955. John
Willey and Sons, New York.

6.

Unit Operations in Food Processing Earle, R.L. (1985).. Pergamon Press. Oxford.
U.K.




13



ELECTIVE
-
I

PHYTOCHEMICALS A
ND HERBAL PRODUCTS


UNIT I: CRUDE DRUGS, MEDICINAL & AROMATIC PLANTS

Crude Drugs
-

Scope & I
mportance, Classification (Taxonomical, Morphological Chemical,
Pharmacological); Cultivation, Collection & processing of Crude Drugs. Cultivation and
Utilization of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants in India. Genetics as applied to Medicinal herbs.
Biogenesis o
f Phytopharmaceuticals.


UNIT II: ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS

Methods of Drug evaluation (Morphological, Microscopic, Physical & Chemical). Preliminary
screening, Assay of Drugs
-

Biological evaluation / assays, Microbiological methods Chemical
Methods
of Analysis and Detection of Adulterants: Chemical estimations,
Spectrophotometry & Fluorescence analysis. Drug adulteration
-

Types of adulterants.


UNIT III: TYPES OF PHYTOCHEMICAIS_I

Carbohydrates & derived products; Glycosides
-

extraction me
thods (Digitalis, Aloe,

Dioscorea,); Tannins (Hydrolysable & Condensed types); Volatile Oils
-

extraction methods
(Clove, Mentha); Alkaloids
-

extraction methods (Taxus, Papaver, Cinchona); Flavonoids
-
extraction methods, Resins
-

extraction methods.


UNIT I
V: APPLICATIONS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS

Application of phytochemicals in industry and healthcare; Biocides, Bio
-
fungicides,
Biopesticides.

Subject code :

BTT.3.206


Sessional : 30

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 70

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Duration : 3 Hrs


14


UNIT V HERBAL PRODUCTS

History, Scope, and Current aspe

cts of herbs and herbal medicines; Classification of active compon
ents of therapeutic plant and
herbal products; Preparation of standardized extracts of Garcinea, Forskolin, Garlic, Turmeric
and Capsicum.


EXAMINATION
: One question from each unit with internal choice


TEXT BOOKS:


1.

Pharmacognosy, C,

K. Kokate, A. P. P
urohit & S. B. Gokhale, Nirali Prakashan, 4th Ed,
(1996).

2.


Pharmacognosy
-

Trease & Evans
-

William Charles Evans, 14th ed. (1989), Harcourt
Brace & Company.

3.

Cultivation & Processing of Medicinal Plants, Hornok,L. (ed.) (1992). Chichister, U. K:
J. Wiley
& Sons.


REFERENCE BOOKS:


1.

Natural Products in medicine: A Biosynthetic approach (1997), Wiley.

2.

Herbal Drugs Industry: A Practical Approach to Industrial
-

Herbal Drugs Industry:
RD Chaudhri.

3.

Pharmacognosy, C. K. Kokate, A. P. Purohit & S. B. Go
khale (1996), Nirali

Prakashan, 4th Ed.

4.

Natural Products in Medicine: A Biosynthetic Approach (1997), Wiley.

Hornok, L. (Ed.) (1992).

5.

Cultivation & Processing Of Medicinal Plants,Chichister, U. K: J. Wiley & Sons.

6.

Trease & Evans, Pharmacognosy


William C
harles Evans, 14th Ed. (1989),


Harcourt Brace & Company.





15

ELECTIVE
-
I

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS & PATENT LAWS



UNIT
-

I INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Patents and intellectual property rights (IPR): Definition, scope, objectives, sources of patent
information, patent processing and application patents, copy rights, trade marks, silent f
eatures,
trade related aspects (TRIPS), international and regional agreements.


UNIT
-

II PRINCIPLES, SCOPE AND FUNCTIONS OF GATT
&
WTO

GATT & WTO: GATT
-

Historical perspective, objectives, and fundamental principles, impact
on developing countries. WTO
-

O
bjectives, scope, functions, structure, status, membership and
withdrawal, dispute settlement, impact on globalization, India
-

tasks and challenges.


UNIT
-

III REGULATORY AFFAIRS

Regulatory affairs: Indian contest
-

requirements and guidelines of GMP, under
standing of Drugs
and cosmetic act 1940 and rules 1945 with reference schedule M, U & Y. Related quality
systems
-

objectives and guidelines of USFDA, WHO & ICH, Introduction to ISO series.


UNIT
-

IV DOCUMENTATION AND PROTOCOLS

Documentation: Types related
to pharmaceuticals industry, protocols, harmonizing formulation
development for global fillings, NDA, ANDA, CTD, Dealing with post approval changes
-

SUPAC, handling and maintenance including electronic documentation.


Subject code :

BTT.3.206


Sessional : 30

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 70

Nature of Examination : Th
eory

Exam Duration : 3 Hrs


16

EXAMINATION
: One question from eac
h unit with internal choice


TEXT BOOKS AND REFERENCE BOOKS:


1 Good manufacturing practices for pharmaceuticals
-

S.H. Willing.

2 Protection of Industrial property Rights
-

P.Das & Gokul Das.

3. Intellectual Property Rights

Overview http
://www.w3.org/
IPR/

4
. Intellectual Property Rights and Plant Biotechnology
Proceedings of a Forum Held at the
National Academy of Sciences, November 5, (1996),Washington, D.C. NATIONAL
ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. (1997).

5. Intellectual Property Rights in Agricultur
al Biotechnology (Biotechnology in Agriculture) by
F. Erbisch

(Editor),
K. Maredia
, CABI Publishing (1998).

6
.
Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research:

Intellectual Property Rights,
Innovation, and Public Health (2006)

(ISBN 0309100674) Committee on Intellectual Property
Rights in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation, National Research Council.











17

ELECTIVE

I VIROLOGY




UNIT
-

I INTRODUCTION TO VIROLOGY

Brief outline of Discovery of Viruses; Properties of Viruses; Morphology of V
iruses
-
Structure,
Capsid Architecture, Envelopes and peplomers; Chemistry of Viruses
-

Viral Proteins, Genome
-

Structure and Types; Study of sub viral agents
-

Brief account on Diseases caused by Viroids
-

PSTV, Cadang cadang; Prions
-

Scrape, Cruetzfeldy jako
b. Satellite viruses; Satellite RNA's.


UNIT
-

II CULTIVATION OF VIRUSES I

General Methods of cultivation of viruses
-

in Embryonated eggs, cultivation of animal and plant
viruses; Isolation and purification of viruses
-

plant viruses, animal viruses; Criteri
a of purity,
Maintenance and preservation of infectivity; Characterization of viruses
-

Elctron microscopy, X
-
ray crystallography, sedimentation analysis;


UNIT
-

III CULTIVATION OF VIRUSES II

Enumeration viruses
-

By electron microscopy, plaque assay, acid

end point method,
Haemagglutinin assay; Detection of viruses
-

By serological characterization, detection of viral
antigen, detection of viral nucleic acid; chemical determination Ultra structure and life cycles of
Bacteriophages
-

Ml3, Mu, T3, T4 & lambda


UNIT
-

IV PLANT VIRUSES

Taxonomy; Symptoms of diseases caused by plant viruses (Morphological, Physiological and
Histological); Ultra structure and life cycles of TMV and CaMV; transmission of plant viruses
-

Mechanical and biological (vector and non
-
vector
); Basic control measures of plant diseases
-

vector and chemical control.

Subject code :


BTT.3.206


Sessional : 30

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 70

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Duration : 3 Hrs


18



UNIT
-

V ANIMAL VIRUSES

Taxonomy; Detailed structure and brief account on life cycles of RNA viruses
-

Polio, Influenza,
Measles, Rota virus and HIV; Ultra structure and brief accoun
t on life cycles of DNA viruses
-

Vaccina, HSV, Adeno, SV40 and Hepatitis Virus; Viral vaccines
-

types and preparation of
conventional vaccines

EXAMINATION
: One question from each unit with internal choice


TEXT BOOKS & REFERENCES:

1. Introduction to M
odern Virology
-

Dimmock NJ, Primrose SB, Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford, 4
th

Ed., (1994).

2. Medical Virology
-

Morag C, Timbury M, Chrchill Livingstone, London, (1994).

3. Functionals of Plant Virology
-

Mathews RE, academic Press, San Diego,

(1992).

4.

Text Book on Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunology
-

Edward Arnold,
London, 1995.

5. An introduction to viruses
-

S B Biswas, Amita Biswas New Delhi: Vikas, 1976


19


ELECTIVE
-
I

SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF BIOMOLECULES



UNIT
-

I INTRODUCTION TO SPECTROSCOPY & IR SPECTROSCOPY

Interaction of radiation with matter, Definitio
ns
-

Frequency, Wavelength, Wave Number; Types
of Electromagnetic radiation, Interparticle forces and energies; energy levels; Population of
energy levels, Scattering, Absorption and Emission.

Measurement of Infrared spectrum; Physical basis of infrared spe
ctra. Infrared of polyatomic
molecules; Biological examples; Infrared of oriented samples.


UNIT
-

II ULTRAVIOLET & VISIBLE SPCTROSCOPY

Electronic energy levels; Electronic transitions; Selection regime, Absorption range of biological
chromophores; Transiti
on metal d
-
d transition; Charge transfer spectra; Application of UV
spectra to proteins; Properties associated with the transition dipole moment and interaction
between them, Measurement of molecular dynamics by Fluorescence spectroscopy.


UNIT
-

III NUCLEA
R MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

The Phenomenon, Magnetization
-
Measurement; Spectral Parameters in NMR, Intensity,
Chemical Shift, Spin
-
spin coupling, Tl and T2 relaxation times, Line widths, Nuclear over
Hauser effect, Chemical exchange paramagnetic cent
ers, Applications of NMR in Biology,
assignment in NMR, Studies of Macromolecules, Ligand binding, lionization studies and pH
kinetics, Molecular Motion.


Subject code

:

BTT.3.206


Sessional : 30

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 70

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Duration : 3 Hrs


20

UNIT
-
IV ELECTRON PARAMAGENTIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

Introduction
-

Resonance condition; Measurement
-

Spectral Parameters; Intensity of g values;
Spectral Anisotropy, Time scale of EPR, Spin labels, Transition metal ions, Spin trapping.


UNIT V
MASS
SPECTROMETRY

Mass spectroscopy: introduction, theory and instrumentation (components and their
significance)
. Mass spectrum, molecular
-
ion peak, types of fragmentation, rearrangement and
nitrogen rule. Chromatography combined mass spectroscopy techniques like Combined gas
chromatography
-

mass spectrometry (GC/MS), High performance liquid chromatography
-
mass
spe
ctrometry (HPLC/MS). Theory and principle of Electro
-
spray mass spectroscopy (ES
-
MS),
Chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CMS), Field ionization mass spectroscopy (FTMS) and
Fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAS). Applications of the above techni
ques for
characterization of biomolecules.


EXAMINATION
: One question from each unit with internal choice


TEXT BOOKS

1.

Biological Spectroscopy
-

Campbell ID, Dwek RA, Benjamin Cummins and Co.,

1986.

2.

Modern Experimental Biochemistry by

Author(s):
Boyer, Rodney F.
Edition: 3rd


Prentice Hall.



REFERENCE BOOKS

1.

Physical Chemistry
-

Atkins PW, Oxford IV edition, (1990).

2.

Biomolecules by S. Banerje

(2005) Publis
her: Dominant Publishers & Distributors.

3.

Modern Biophysical Chemistry: Detection and Analysis of Biomolecules by Peter Jomo
Walla

Wiley
-
VCH Verlag GmbH

(2009).


4.

Biochemistry Laboratory: Modern Theory and Techniques by Rodney F. Boyer Prentice
Hall; 1 editi
on (2005).

5.

Principles of Mass Spectrometry Applied to BiomoleculesBy Laskin, Julia, Lifshitz,
Chava Wiley
-
Interscience.


21

6.

Lab
-
on
-
a
-
Chip Technology (Vol. 2): Biomolecular Separation and Analysis ISBN: 978
-
1
-
904455
-
39
-
4, (2009).

GENETIC ENGINEERING LAB


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS


1.

Isolation & visualization of Genomic DNA on Agarose gels

2.

Isolation & visualiz
ation of RNA from Yeast.

3.

Isolation of amylase from saliva and sweet potato.

4.

Isolation & visualization of plasmids on Agarose gels.

5.

Restriction mapping of DNA fragments

6.

Transformation, screening for recombinants.

7.

Blotting techniques
-

southern blotting, west
ern blotting.

8.

Isolation of proteins by Paper, Agarose, PAGE, SDS
-

PAGE & staining by silver
staining, Coomassie brilliant blue staining

9.

Cloning& screening methods for clones.

10.

Amplification of DNA fragments by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

11.

Characterizati
on of genetic markers of known bacterial strains.

12.

DNA sequencing
-

Sanger's Method.

13.

Analysis of Recombinant Proteins using PAGE.


REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Manual of methods for General Bacteriology
-

Phillip Gerhardt .pubASM.

Subjec
t code :

BTP.3.207


Sessional : 25

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 50

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Duration : 4 Hrs


22

2.
Current Protocols in Molecular Bi
ology
,
edited by F. M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R. E. Kingston, D.
M. Moore, J. A. Smith and K. Struhl. Greene Publishing Associates, New York and Wiley
-
Interscience, New York.

BIOINFORMATICS LABORATORY




LIST OF EXPERIMENTS


1.

Searching Bibliographic databases for relevant information.

2.

Sequence retrieval from DNA & Protein databases.

3.

Pair wise comparis
on of sequences.

4.

BLAST services.

5.

FASTA services.

6.

Multiple Sequence Alignment (CLUSTAL).

7.

Evolutionary studies/Phylogenetic Analysis.

8.

Protein Databank retrieval and visualization.

9.

Structure Exploration of Proteins.

10.

Restriction Mapping.

11.

Identification of Gene
s in Genomes.

12.

Primer Design.


TEXT BOOKS:

1.

Bioinformatics Methods and Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton N.J.) ; V.
132}, Krawetz, Stephen A. Humana Press, (2000).
Subject code :

BTP.3.208


Sessional : 25

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 50

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Duration : 4 Hrs


23

MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS LAB




LIST OF EXPERIMENTS


1.

Diffusion of organic vapor in air

2.

Liquid
-

liquid diffusivity

3.

Surface evaporation

4.

Wetted wall column

5.

Simple distillatio
n

6.

Steam distillation

7.

Packed bed distillation

8.

Liquid
-

liquid equilibrium

9.

Liquid
-

liquid extraction

10.

Vapor liquid equilibrium

11.

Batch reactor

12.

Continuous stirred tank reactor

13.

Saponification in a tubular reactor

14.

Mixed flow reactors in series

15.

Temperature dependency

16.

Flow control system

17.

Level control system
.

18.

Temperature control system

Subject code :

BTP.3.209


Sessional : 2
5

Periods / Week : 4


Examination : 50

Nature of Examination : Theory

Exam Duration : 4 Hrs