T. Horbury, 12 Sep 2011

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Solar Orbiter

Exploring the Sun
-
heliosphere

connection

Science questions

Mission overview

Status update

The Sun creates the heliosphere

Why study the Sun
-
space connection?


Addresses ESA’s Cosmic Vision question “How does the solar
system work?”


Study plasma phenomena which occur throughout the
Universe


Shocks, particle acceleration, magnetic reconnection,
turbulence, etc.


Also addresses
Cosmic Vision question “What
are the
fundamental physical laws of the Universe
?”


Solar wind and energetic particles directly affect life on Earth


Impact on space and ground
-
based assets


Builds on European heritage: Ulysses and
SoHO

The need for near
-
Sun observations


Solar Orbiter

In
-
situ density

Solar Orbiter

Days

1

2

3

4

5

6

Distance

How and where do the solar wind plasma
and magnetic field originate in the corona?


Solar wind is
variable and
structured


Originates in
complex
magnetic
“carpet”


Small scale
transient jets
are common


polar coronal hole

coronal funnel

Tu
, Zhou, Marsch et al., Science 2005


Solar Orbiter will measure the spatial and temporal variability
of the solar source and solar wind in unprecedented detail


Linking Sun and the solar wind


We need to measure the same
parameter on the Sun and

in space to make the link


Heavy ion charge states and
composition


Magnetic polarity


Energetic particles



Solar Orbiter will make all of these
measurements with both remote
sensing and in situ instruments


He+

H+

How do solar transients drive
heliospheric

variability?


How are substructures
of coronal mass
ejections related to
interplanetary
transients?


How are CMEs
processed as they
travel from the Sun?


Solar Orbiter will
image CMEs and
measure their
evolution in the inner
heliosphere

Coronal mass ejections in space

How do solar eruptions produce energetic
particle radiation?


Around 10% of coronal
mass ejection energy is
in accelerated particles



Understanding release
and transport
mechanisms requires
going close to the Sun



Solar Orbiter will
measure energetic
particles within a mean
free path of their
acceleration site

0.3 AU

1.0 AU

How does the

solar dynamo work?


The unexplored poles are central
to the operation of the Sun’s
dynamo


Solar Orbiter will
provide the first
accurate
measurements of
polar flows and
magnetic fields

The Sun has changed


What is required


Close to the Sun


Out of the ecliptic


Long duration observations of the same region


Remote measurements of the Sun and corona


In situ measurements of fields and particles



It is this unique combination provided by Solar Orbiter that
makes it possible to address the question of how the Sun
creates and controls the heliosphere



Summary

Carefully
optimised

payload of ten remote
sensing and in situ instruments

Launch:
January 2017

Cruise Phase: 3 years

Nominal Mission: 3.5 years

Extended Mission: 2.5 years

Perihelion: 0.28


0.3 AU

Fast perihelion motion: solar
features visible
for almost complete
rotation

Out of ecliptic: first good view of solar poles

Mission profile


Solar Orbiter spacecraft


Three
-
axis stabilised, Sun pointing


Heatshield at front


Re
-
use of BepiColombo

unit designs as practical


Mass: 1750kg


Power: 1100W


Launch: ELV




In situ instruments

SWA

Solar wind analyser

Chris Owen,

UK

Sampling protons, electrons and heavy ions in
the solar wind

EPD

Energetic particle detector

Javier

Rodriguez
-
Pacheco,

Spain

Measuring timing and distribution functions
of accelerated energetic particles

MAG

Magnetometer

Tim

Horbury
, UK

High
-
precision measurements of the
heliospheric

magnetic field

RPW

Radio and plasma wave
analyser

Milan

Maksimovic
,
France

Studying local electromagnetic and
electrostatic waves and solar radio bursts

Remote sensing instruments

PHI

Polarimetric

and
heliospheric

imager

Sami Solanki,
Germany

Full
-
disc and high
-
resolution visible light
imaging of the Sun

EUI

Extreme ultraviolet imager

Pierre
Rochus
,
Belgium

Studying fine
-
scale processes and

large
-
scale
eruptions

STIX

Spectrometer/telescope for
imaging X
-
rays

Arnold Benz,
Switzerland

Studying hot plasmas and accelerated
electrons

METIS

Multi
-
element telescope for
imaging and spectroscopy

Ester
Antonucci
, Italy

High
-
resolution UV and extreme UV
coronagraphy

SoloHI

Solar Orbiter heliospheric
imager

Russ Howard,

US

Observing light scattered by the solar wind
over a wide field of view

SPICE

Spectral imaging of the
coronal environment

Facility instrument,
ESA provided

Spectroscopy on the solar disc and corona

SPICE and SIS


ESA tasked external review committee to study scientific
impact of NASA decision not to support SPICE and SIS



Committee urged ESA to investigate ways to recover
measurement capabilities of SIS and SPICE



SPICE


UV imaging spectrograph


Returns 2D high resolution spectral
images


Intensity, Doppler shift, line width


Complete temperature coverage from
chromosphere to flaring corona


Provides remote characterisation of
plasma properties near the Sun



Map outflow velocities and composition
of surface features to solar wind
structures

SPICE
-

status


Proposal exists for provision of SPICE instrument



Retains Red Book capabilities


Full on disk capabilities


Off
-
limb up to 1.3 solar radii


METIS augments this with off
-
limb spectroscopy beyond
1.3 solar radii



All mission science goals achieved

SIS


Supra
-
thermal ion spectrograph


Measures supra
-
thermal
heavy ions


Part of EPD suite


Covers energy range
between solar wind and
energetic particles


Explores near
-
Sun ion pool,
plus flares and shocks

SIS
-

status


Proposal exists for provision of SIS instrument



Retains Red Book capability



All mission science goals achieved


Perihelion
remote sensing

High
-
latitude
remote sensing

High
-
latitude
remote sensing

Science windows


Orbit: 150
-
168 days


In situ instruments on at all times


Three science “windows” of 10
days each


All remote sensing instruments
operational


Observing strategies based on
science targets


Active regions, coronal hole
boundaries, flares, high speed
wind, polar structures


Autonomous burst mode triggers
for unpredictable events


Telemetry and mass memory
tailored to return planned
instrument data volumes

Links to Solar Probe Plus


Many conjunctions will
occur between Solar
Orbiter and Solar Probe
Plus


Extends science
return from both
msisions



Solar Probe Plus is not
required for any Solar
Orbiter science goal

Solar Orbiter


Answers the Cosmic Vision question “How does the solar
system work?”


Unique combination of orbit and instruments


Selected payload is optimised answer the most fundamental
questions of solar and heliospheric physics


Timely, mature and well studied mission with compelling
scientific objectives