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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Take Home Quiz for APES


Due Monday Feb 25th

Please do your best and be on your honor. Work hard, use any resources other than a classmate. Show
all calculations and work or no credit will be awarded.


1.


To reduce solid waste in landfills, many local governments use incinerators to convert the waste
to electricity. These plants generate 0.3% of the nation’s electricity. These facilities also
improve recycling rates , as the combustible material must be
separated from the noncombustible
components in the trash. These facilities must also monitor their ash and any hazardous materials
found in the ash will require that the ash be disposed of in a hazardous waste landfill.

a)

Explain th difference between haza
rdous waste and municipal solid waste. Identify a specific
example of each.

b)

Descirbe three features of a municipal waste landfill.

c)

Discuss two environmental problems associated with the incineration of municipal solid waste.


2.


Read the article printed in
the Greenfield Recorder and answer the related questions.

Greenfield Recorder

Should the United States follow Brazil’s lead?


Brazil’s military dictatorship was forced to ration gasoline due to the oil embargo of 1975. After the
Iranian revolution in 1979
, which
drove oil

and
gasoline

prices to all
-
time
highs
, the country did the
unthinkable. They forced the
automotive

industry to switch from gasoline to ethanol engines. Brazil’s
ethanol is produced
from sugarcane

by
-
product, bagasse. Brazil leads all c
ountries with 4 million gallons
produced in 2004. No regular gasoline is sold in Brazil at the pump; only gasohol. Of at least 24 percent
ethanol or 100 percent ethanol is sold. Several auto makers, including Ford, GM, Daimler Chrysler,
Mazda, Nissan, Me
rcedes and Isuzu, currently sell cars capable of using E85, a mix of 85%
ethanol with

gasoline.

The
auto

manufacturers in
Brazil

make flex fuel cars that can run on gasoline, mixtures of
gasoline and alcohol or 100% pure ethanol. The United States uses 1
40 billion gallons of gasoline a year,
mostly from

imported oil. There are drawbacks to using ethanol in American cars. Currently the U.S. has
95% ethanol plants that make only 4 billion gallons of ethanol in
an

ear, primarily from corn. A typical
car c
an get 25 miles/gallon on gasoline, but that car would need to burn about 1.5times as much E85 as
straight gasoline for the same mileage. Most likely, American will prefer gasoline for a long time.


a)

Calculate

the

amount of gasoline a typical care would re
quire to travel 500miles.

b)

Calculate how mush E85 a flex fuel car would require to travel the same distance.

c)

Assume that 10% of U. S. cars were flex fuel and used 100% ethanol; calculate the decrease in U.
S. gasoline consumption. Determine if the current
supply of U.S. ethanol is sufficient to meet the
needed difference.


3.
(30Pts)

A
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the
question.

____

1.

Which of the following is the correct type of energy utilized to
produce tidal power?

a.

Radiation b.

Kinetic energy c.

Solar energy d.

Potential energy e.

Heat energy


____

2.

Which of the following would NOT be classified as biomass?

a.

Straw b.

Animal dung c.

Charcoal d.

Uranium e.

Wood


____

3.

Nonde
pletable energy resources include all of the following EXCEPT

a.

wind b.

biomass c.

solar d.

geothermal e.

hydroelectric


____

4.

Energy resources that can be regenerated rapidly, such as biomass energy sources, are considered to be

a.

perpetual
b.

nonrenewable c.

nondepletable d.

fossil fuels e.

potentially renewable


____

5.

All of the following are ways to conserve energy EXCEPT

a.

using a desktop computer as opposed to a laptop b.

consolidating errands while in your car
c.

replacing
incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs d.

using a power strip for electronics
e.

lowering thermostats during cold months


____

6.

Governments can encourage energy conservation by

I. Raising taxes on fossil fuel use

II. Offering tax credits f
or replacing old appliances with new ones

III. Investing in smart grid technology

a.

I only b.

II only c.

I and III only d.

II and III only e.

I, II, and III


____

7.

If a 100 W incandescent light bulb uses 360 kJ of energy per hour, and a compact
fluorescent bulb uses
1
/
4

as much, how much energy would a compact fluorescent bulb use in 30 minutes?

a.

4.5 kJ b.

9 kJ c.

45 kJ d.

90 kJ e.

900 kJ


____

8.

LED bulbs are six times as efficient as incandescent bulbs. If a household replaced ten
100
-
watt bulbs
with LED bulbs, how many watts would be saved?

a.

175 watts b.

400 watts c.

600 watts d.

833 watts e.

1700 watts


____

9.

An energy efficient home, in the northern hemisphere, using a passive solar energy design for heating and
cooli
ng would include all of the following EXCEPT

a.

windows along the west
-
facing wall b.

light
-
colored roofing material c.

double
-
paned windows d.

a
roof with an overhang e.

flooring material with heat absorbing qualities


Table 13
-
1


Type of Televisi
on

On Mode Power Rating

50” Plasma Television

㐰〠4慴ts

52” LCD Television

㈲〠2慴ts

52” LCD Energy Star Television

ㄲ〠1慴ts



彟彟

㄰1

r獥 T慢l攠ㄳ
-
ㄮ⁉f⁢潴栠h桥h䱃a⁴敬敶isi潮猠sr攠潮ef潲 㐠桯畲猠灥r⁤慹⁦潲⁴h攠e潮o栠潦⁁pril


30 days


how much
less energy does the Energy Star television use over the course of the month?

a.

400 kWh b.

100 kWh c.

120 kWh d.

12 kWh e.

1.2 kWh


____

11.

Use Table 13
-
1. If the cost of electricity is $0.10 per kWh and both LCD televisions are used for four
hou
rs per day for the period of one year (365 days), how much less does the Energy Star model cost for
that year?

a.

$480 b.

$146 c.

$120 d.

$14.60 e.

$1.46


____

12.

Use Table 13
-
1. What is the difference in kWh between the Energy Star TV and the Pla
sma TV, if each
TV is used 4 hours per day for a full year (365 days)?

a.

175 kWh b.

262 kWh c.

409 kWh d.

584 kWh e.

2453 kWh


____

13.

Use Table 13
-
1. If a community has 200,000 homes and 1% of those homes have Plasma televisions, how
many kWh of

excess energy are being consumed every year (365 days) than if those homes had Energy
Star LCD televisions instead?

a.

350,000 kWh b.

524,000 kWh c.

818,000 kWh d.

1,168,000 kWh e.

4.906,000 kWh


____

14.

Which of the following are Sun
-
driven
energy types?

I. Wind power

II. Biodiesel

III. Geothermal

a.

I only b.

II only c.

III only d.

I and II only e.

I, II, and III


____

15.

All of the following are benefits of “Green roofs” EXCEPT

a.

a green roof serves as insulation for the structur
e b.

a green roof has a cooling effect on the structure
and its surroundings c.

a green roof improves the overall air quality of the surroundings d.

all of the
above are beneficial e.

none of the above are benefits of "green roofs"


Figure 13
-
1




____

16.

Use Figure 13
-
1. By looking at the chart above, what percent of the US energy needs are served by
nonrenewable energy sources?

a.

7% b.

60% c.

84% d.

93% e.

99%


____

17.

Use Figure 13
-
1. More than 80% of U.S. renewable energy is provided

by

a.

biomass and wind energy b.

wind energy and geothermal energy c.

biomass and hydroelectric energy
d.

hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy e.

solar energy and hydroelectric energy


____

18.

Use Figure 13
-
1. The least utilized renewable e
nergy source of the U.S. is

a.

wind energy b.

geothermal energy c.

nuclear energy d.

solar energy e.

hydroelectric energy


____

19.

Use Figure 13
-
1. The most utilized nondepletable resource of the U.S. is

a.

biomass b.

hydroelectric c.

wind
d.

solar e.

geothermal


____

20.

The largest dam in the world, ____ , can generate almost 85,000,000,000 kWh of electricity per year.

a.

The U.S.’s Hoover Dam b.

China’s Three Gorges Dam c.

Brazil's and Paraguay's Itaipu Dam
d.

England’s Cragside D
am e.

Venezuela’s Guri Dam

Figure 13
-
2

Where Does My Money Go?

The annual energy bill for a typical single home is approximately $2,200.




____

21.

Use Figure 13
-
2. If a typical home was able to cut its heating costs by 25%, about how much money
would
it save per year?

a.

$15.95 b.

$85.35 c.

$159.50 d.

$550.00 e.

$638.00


____

22.

Use Figure 13
-
2. The diagram represents energy use for a household in the United States. If this was
representative of a household in a developing country the chart wo
uld look very different and the primary
energy source for heating/cooking would most likely be

a.

natural gas b.

solar energy c.

wood/charcoal d.

coal e.

fuel oil


Figure 13
-
3




____

23.

Use Figure 13
-
3. On the east coast, which state has the gre
atest potential for solar power generation?

a.

Maine b.

New York c.

Massachusetts d.

Virginia e.

Florida


____

24.

Potential drawbacks to the use of solar energy systems include the need for

I. a large power grid

II. a large amount of water

III.
toxic metals for production of components

a.

I only b.

II only c.

III only d.

I and III only e.

I, II, and III


____

25.

On a worldwide basis the fastest growing renewable source for generating electricity is

a.

geothermal b.

hydroelectric c.

s
olar d.

biomass e.

wind


____

26.

A sample of U
-
235 has a half
-
life of 700 million years. What fraction of the parent material will remain
after 2800 million years?

a.

1/2 b.

1/4 c.

1/8 d.

1/16 e.

1/32


____

27.

For how many half
-
lives do spent

fuel rods remain a threat to human health?

a.

at least 2 b.

at least 5 c.

at least 8 d.

at least 10 e.

Once they are spent, fuel rods are no longer
dangerous.


____

28.

The present held idea of what best to do with radioactive waste from nuclear p
ower plants involves

a.

storing the waste on site b.

containing the waste in drums and storing them on the ocean floor
c.

sending the radioactive waste into space on a rocket d.

storing the waste in a geologically stable site
away from human habitati
on e.

containing the waste in drums and bury them in an ocean trench away
from any coastlines


____

29.

Stronitum
-
90 has a half
-
life of 29 years. If a site held 2000 kg of this isotope, approximately what mass of
Strontium
-
90 would be left after 116 year
s?

a.

250 kg b.

1000 kg c.

300 kg d.

125 kg e.

500 kg


____

30.

Which type of electricity generating power plant regularly releases toxic metals such as mercury and lead
into the atmosphere?

a.

nuclear power plant b.

coal fired power plant
c.

natural gas fired power plant d.

petroleum fired
power plant e.

all of the above regularly release mercu
ry and lead into the atmosphere