ABB Inc., and ECOtality

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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ABB
Inc., and ECOtality




201
1


ABB Inc., and ECO
tality


Nicole Salas




A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


2

Abstract

This paper examines ABB
Inc
.’s corporate strategy for
entering

the electric vehicle
(EV)
charging market
in North America

via its $10 million investment in S
an Francisco, California
-
based ECOtality

(Nasdaq:
ECTY
)
, a clean electric transportation and storage technologies company
.
A
critical element of the
investment and
related
supply agreement is a Marketing Communications Plan in North America. The
plan

s key

themes include
:
energy efficiency, energy independence an
d environmental attributes which
will be presented as customer benefits while further strengthening ABB's image with respect to
sustainability.


Defining sustainability

Few would argue that, “susta
inability is having


and will continue to have


a material impact on how
companies think and act.”
1

The debate rages

on
, however, regarding the proper way to define
sustainability.


The most popular definition of sustainability can be traced to a

1987 U
nited
N
ations

conference.
The
international body

defined
sustainable developments as those that

meet present needs without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
.

Robert Gillman, editor of the
In
Context

magazine, extends this g
oal oriented definition by stating "sustainability refers to a very old and
simple concept (The Golden Rule)...
do
u
nto future generations as you would have them do
u
nto you
.

2


ABB believes that “sustainability is about balancing economic success, environm
ental stewardship and
social progress to benefit all our stakeholders.




Sustainability considerations cover how we design and manufacture products

from cradle to grave
, what
we offer customers, how we engage suppliers, how we assess risks and
opportunities, and how we behave
in the communities where we operate and towards one another, while striving to ensure the health, safety
and security of our employees, contractors and others affected by our activities.”
3








A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


3

ABB Inc.

Asea Brown Boveri, or ABB, is a global leader in the power and automation industry. Able to trace its
roots back to the late nineteenth century, the company operates in more than 100 countries and employs
some

124
,000 individuals worldwide.

Its innovative

products and services have helped countless
countries to
build, develop and maintain
power infrastructures and industrial productivity for more than a
century
.


The ABB of today is the result of a merger between ASEA AB of Västerås of Sweden, and Baden,
Switzerland’s BBC Brown Boveri Ltd.
In 1988, t
he two companies merg
ed their operations to form
Asea
Brown Boveri Ltd, or ABB. In 2002, on the brink of bankruptcy,
the engineering conglomerate was
completely restructured in an effort to lower its cost base. The ABB that emerged was focused on power
and automation. These technologies enable utility and industry customers to improve performance while
lowering environme
ntal
impact
. T
he

merging
of
power and automation technologies make
s

electricity
network
s

more reliable, flexible, secure

and efficient.


ABB products are found virtually everywhere: orbiting the earth, on the ocean floor,
and
in utilit
ies

and
power plants
as well as on the manufacturing floor. ABB’s portfolio is focused in five core
division
s:

1.

Power
Products

includes the manufacture of key components for the transmission and
distribution
of
electricity. The division incorporates ABB's manufacturing network

for
transformers, switchgear, circuit breakers

and

distribution

systems

and
other
associated
equipment. It also offers all the services needed to ensure products' performance and extend their
lifespan.

2.

Power
Systems
offers turnkey systems
, software

and services for power transmission and
distribution grids and for power plants.

3.

Discrete Automation and Motion

provides products, solutions and related services that increase
industrial prod
uctivity and energy efficiency, including motors, drives, and p
ower electronics as
well as
industrial
robots.

4.

Low Voltage Products

includes the

manufacture

of

low
-
voltage circuit breakers, switches,
control products, wiring accessories, enclosures and cable systems to
distribute and control
electricity and to
protect
people, installations and electronic equipment from electrical overload
s,
faults and other anomalies
.

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


4

5.

Process Automation

provides customers with products and solutions for instrumentation,
automation and optimization of industrial processes. The industrie
s served include Oil & Gas,
Power, Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals, Pulp & Paper, Metals and Minerals, Marine and
T
urbocharging.

Based in Zurich, Switzerland, ABB

made its

first
major acquisition in
North America in 1989 when it
purchased
a large part of
Westinghouse Electric Corp. It further embedded itself in the market with the
purchase of Stamford, Connecticut
-
based Combustion Engineering Group.

More recently, o
n
January 28, 2011
, ABB
acquired

Fort Smith, Arkansas
-
based
motor manufacturer
Baldor
Electric Company for approximately $4.2 billion in cash, including $1.1 billion i
n debt. The deal
effectively

increases

by 50 percent the

size of
ABB
’s operations in United States

and results in an
excellent value proposition for industrial energy efficien
cy
.

The acquisition also

strengthen
s

ABB’s
position as a leading supplier of industrial motion solutions, and will enable the company to tap the huge
potential in North America for rail and wind investments, both of which are expected to grow rapidly in
co
ming years.


ECOtality
, Inc.


Founded in
1989
,
ECOtality, Inc
.

(ECTY)

is a leader in clean electric transportation and storage
technologies.
The company is leveraging innovation,

acquisitions and strategic partnerships,
to a
ccelerat
e

the market applicability of advanced electric technologies to replace carbon
-
based fuels.

The company

operates t
hree

wholly
-
owned subsidiaries
:

1.

ECOtality North America

(
formerly Electric Transportation Engineering
Corporation
)

has

made
ECTY a

recognized leader in the research, development and testing of advanced transportation
and energy systems.
The company

has worked on every EV initiative in
the region

since 1989.


ECOtality North America’s

product line includes
the

Minit
-
Charger
, a
fast bat
tery charging
system

which

enable
s

a more environmentally
-
friendly
,
energy
-

and cost
-
efficient means
of

recharg
ing

batteries
for
mobile material handling, airport ground support, and marine and transit
applications.
The company

also

ha
s experience
installi
ng
EV charging stations in residential,
commercial and public environments

for
EVs
, plug
-
in EVs (PEVs)

and

hybrid EVs (HEVs)
.
Known as the
Blink
®

network
, these

charg
ing

stations allow

businesses and individuals to safely
and efficiently charge their electric vehicles at the lowest utility rates.

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


5


2.

Fuel Cell Store

offers consumers
an

array of fuel cell products from around the globe. Based in
San Diego, California with operations in Japa
n, Russia, Italy, and Portugal,
Fuel Cell Store

develops, manufactures, and sells a diverse and comprehensive range of fuel cell products
including fuel cell stacks, systems, component parts and educational materials.


3.

Innergy Power

is
a

North American ma
nufacturer of both renewable energy solar modules and
rechargeable batteries, and its solar photovoltaic
(PV) product line addresses the
demand for solar
energy products and off
-
grid power. Applications include logistics tracking, asset management
systems,

off
-
grid lighting, mobile communications, mobile computing, recreational vehicles,
signaling devices and surveillance cameras.
4


On

August 5, 2009, the
U.S.
D
epartment of
E
nergy (DOE)

awarded ECTY
a contact for over
$100
million to begin work

on

T
he
EV
Project
. The funds, part of the

American Recov
ery and Reinvestment
Act,
support
EVs

with home
-
base, commercial and public chargers in major markets in five states:
Arizona (Phoenix
and

Tucson metropolitan areas), Washington (Seattle

area), Oregon (Portland
, Salem,
Corvallis and Eugene), California (San Diego) and Tennessee.

In addition, T
he

EV Project

is intended to

collect,
analyze data
and
evaluate the effectiveness of

the

new EV charging infrastructure
.
Lessons
learned from The EV Project will enable th
e streamline
d deployment of EVs

throughout the United
States
.
5

On

January 10, 2011, ABB announced that it

had

invested $10 million in ECTY
.
The company’s
investment served as a
for
a
y

into North America’s EV

charging market while providing
ECTY
with a
strong global ally in power delivery systems. Fro
m a strategic perspective,
the agreement allows ABB to
participate in the North America EV market, where, to date, it
has been un
involved.


According to
the

press release issued by ABB, “ECOtality will use
the investment to foster its expansion
and f
inance initial requirements of T
he EV Project, a program to develop electric vehicle infrastructures
in 16 major US cities funded
partly
by a $115 million grant from the U
.
S
. Department of Energy
. The
project inv
olves installation of more than 15,000 chargers to support the deployment of 8,300 electric
vehicles.


A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


6


In addition, the companies have signed an agreement establishing ABB as the preferred supplier for
ECOtality’s

power electronics and component parts in
North America. The companies will work together
to develop charging technologies for electric vehicles that incorporate the advanced consumer interface
and billing functionalities of
ECOtality
’s

Blink
network
. Through its smart grid industry segment
initia
tive, ABB wil
l contribute its expertise
from

several projects in Europe involving integ
ration of EV
charging solutions,


as well as its strong local capabilities in power systems.
6


The first charging station equipped with ABB products is expected to
roll
off the assembly line in

June
2011, following the completion of various charging station pilots. Further, the agreement is very
important to ABB’s overall position in the future of distributed grid resources, integration and
optimization, as well as brand
ing in the space. It also
opens the door for ABB to
begin offering its
comprehensive portfolio of smart grid products and services along the

edge of the U
.
S
.

power grid.


The smart grid, EVs and ABB

A
ccording to the

DOE, a smart grid "integrate(s) advanced

functions ... to enhance reliability, efficiency,
and security ... and also contribute
s

to the climate change strategic goal of reducing carbon emissions.
These advancements will be achieved by modernizing the electric grid with information
-
age technologi
es,
such as microprocessors, communications, advanced computing, and information technologies.”


“Electric grid stakeholders representing utilities, technology providers, researchers, policymakers, and
consumers have worked together to define the functions

of a smart grid. Through regional meetings
convened under the Modern Grid Strategy project of the National Ene
rgy Technology Laboratory
, these
stakeholders have identified the following characteristics or performance features of a smart grid:



Self
-
healing

from power disturbance events
;



Operating resiliently against physical and
cyber
-
attack
;




Enabling active participation by consumers in demand response
;




Providing power quality for 21st century needs
;




Accommodating all generation and storage options
;




Enabling new products, services, and markets
;




Optimizing assets and operating efficiently
.

7


ABB
’s

definition of smart grid goes

beyond that of the DOE to encompass generation, transmission and
distribution of electricity, and accomplish the aims of reli
ability, efficiency and security by the integration
A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


7

of advanced sensors, controls, automation, communications and power electronics technologies, as well
as deep domain expertise. This is optimized on an end
-
to
-
end basis
-

from electricity sources (genera
tion)
through transmission, substations, and distribution down to points of consumption

such as EV charging
stations
.


Part of ABB’s

smart grid initiative
, EV Solutions

is

a global product line within the Power Electronics
Global Product group. The product

line encompasses the emerging market for EV infrastructure, which
focuses on low voltage converters for DC fast charging and cross business unit and divisional
coordination of all EV
S
olution
s

activities on behalf of the Discrete Automation and Motion division.



Numerous

synergies

exist between ABB and
ECTY

which

will benefit

both compan
ies
:


Benefits to
ABB



Guaranteeing
f
low
-
through of
ECTY

project benefits from financial investment and comme
rcial
relationship
;



Strongly

positioning

the company

in EV infrastructure with immediate brand recognition in edge
of grid infrastructure and operations
;



Creating opportunities to demonstrate smart grid prowess via Ventyx
*
;



Creating opportunities to
participate in refinement of EV infrastructure and network through a
highly flexible partner and at lower risk than via a fully internal commitment in an emerging
market
;



Setting the stage for growing pull
-
through of Discrete Automation and Motion, Low Vol
tage
P
roducts and Network M
anagement
products, technologies and services
.


*
ABB acquired
Ventyx
,

the smart grid
software
leader
,

in May 2010. Its solutions cover a range of applications
including asset management, mobile workforce management, energy tradin
g, energy operations, and energy
analytics. The company also provides software solutions, data, and advisory services for planning and forecasting
electricity needs and resultant generation options, including nuclear and renewables.


Benefits to
ECOtality



Creating high brand awareness
;

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


8



Ensuring
technical and product support for deploying the largest installed base of EV charging
stations in Nor
th America by 2012, mainly f
unded through government investment (as
reimbursement)
;



Creating opportunities to demon
strate and refine business models
;



Providing global reach for the company
;



Providing access to utilities both public and private in North America
.


S
ustainability

at ABB

ABB’s sustainability strategy “integrates the goals of innovation and sustainable deve
lopment...”
8

Much
like DuPont Co. declared in 2010 that it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by two
-
thirds and reduce
its annual energy consump
tion to 1990 levels, ABB publicly

launched a series of sustainability objectives
for 2010
-
2011.
9



The compan
y’s 12 “green” priorities incorporate its full range of business processes. “The objectives
focus on three main areas:
r
aising ABB’s environmental
performance

and lowering impacts; improving
the management of health and safety, social, environmental and se
curity risks in company operations and
projects; and ways of improving sustainability performance in the supply chain and in company
acquisitions.”
10


ABB’s 12 sustainability objectives are:


1.

R
educe

the

use of energy
at all sites
by 2.5%
;

2.

Develop guidelines

to monitor the environmental impact of transport of goods
;

3.

Monitor and reduce environmental impact from business air travel
;

4.

Phase out the use of hazardous substances in ABB’s products and processes
;

5.

Ensure that environmental and health and safety aspects

are consider in product development
;

6.

Assess
social, security, Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) and environmental risk
early
in
ABB’s project risk management process, to better manage sensitive projects
;

7.

Conduct d
ue diligence on all

companies according

to ABB standards
;

8.

Ensure rapid response capabilities and enable ABB in risk
-
rated countries to prepare and respond
to potential threats
;

9.

Develop ABB travel systems into a
greener,
more supportive system for ABB
;

10.

Continue to pursue the eight elements of th
e OHS Plan 2008
-
2011
;

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


9

11.

Increase monitoring of key potential and existing suppliers to ensure they meet national and
international sustainability standards
;

12.

Extend social, environmental, human rights and health, safety and security risk assessment in
merger
and acquisition processes
.


ABB reports its success at reaching these 12 goals against the Global Reporting Initiative

’s (GRI)
indicators. The international organization “is a network
-
based organization that pioneered the

world’s
most widely used
sustainability

reporting framework. GRI is committed to the Framework’s
continuous

improvement and application worldwide. GRI’s core goals include the mainstreaming of
disclosure on environmental, social and governance performance.

(For a
graphical represe
ntation of
ABB
’s
P
erformance
Against O
bjectives

in

2010

please see Appendix 1
.
)



GRI's Reporting Framework is developed through a consensus
-
seeking, multi
-
stakeholder

process.
Participants are

drawn from global business, civil society, labor, academic

and

professional
institutions.”
11


Additionally, ABB’s metric performance data is vetted by Det Norske Veritas

(DNV)
. Founded in 1864,
the Norwegian
organization

is

an independent body

that provides
third party verification of performance

versus published standards
.
Its mission is to safeguard life, property, and the environment.


Sustainable development at ABB: An a
ssessment

On April 11, 2011, Greentech Media
ranked

ABB
number two on
its list of
The Top Ten Green Giants for
2011
.
Publishe
d annually, the list is comprised of
companies
the online publication bel
ieves will play a
significant role in

being green.


Greentech Media is an online publication which provides “
daily news
and market analysis about the end
-
to
-
end greentech market. Con
tent is organized via dedicated solar,
smart grid and enterprise channels, and includes coverage of other emerging market sectors.
[Its]

audience
is targeted toward business executives and managers who have purchasing and decision making power:
the thought leaders of the fast moving greentech economy.”
12

ABB,

according to the publication
, will be
one of the leaders in what it describes as a

race to acquire smart grid companies.


“Over the past year, ABB has bought electric motor maker Baldor Elect
ric for $4.2 billion,
virtual power
plant developer Ventyx for $1 billion, and
Insert Key Solutions
, which specializes in asset management
A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


10

software
. And Ventyx, an independent ABB subsidiary, recently bought Obvient. The VC group has also
plunked money into companies like car charger ECO
tality…




Despite the company's European heritage, it's also becoming one of the larger green employers in the
U.S
. All of those acquisitions listed above are companies based in the U.S. ABB this month broke ground
on a high voltage cable factory in North Carolina. The $90 million factory will employ more than 100.”
13


In addition, on April 18, 2011, ABB’
s New Berlin, Wisconsin Discrete Automation and Motion
manufacturing
facility became one of the first companies to earn the state’s prestigious Green
Professional status
.


As a Green Professional, ABB has per
formed actions in each of nine ‘sustainability
a
reas’
, and has earned more than 100 points.”
14


Using the Boston Consulting Group
’s

10 question “The Sustainability Audit”
15

as a model, if one were to
audit sustainable development at ABB,
he or she

would discover that the company consistent
ly ranks a
Level

4 Agreement, or at a world class level
.


For example
:

1.

Our c
ompany has a clearly articulated definition of sustainability

and an understanding of
how sustainability is or will be affecting business.

As defined by ABB

“sustainability is about
balancing economic success, environmental stewardship and social progress to benefit all our
stakeholders.

Sustainability considerations cover how we design and manufacture products, what we offer
customers, how we engage supplier
s, how we assess risks and opportunities, and how we behave
in the communities where we operate and towards one another, while striving to ensure the
health, safety and security of our employees, contractors and others affected by our activities.”
16

2.

Our c
om
pany has conducted a thorough assessment of the drivers of sustainability that
present the greatest opportunities and potential risks to the business.

ABB takes what it
refers to
as
a precautionary approach to risk assessment worldwide. “ABB has integrated

Group
-
wide sustainability criteria into its risk assessment of process for projects, as part of ongoing
efforts to minimize potential negative environment or social impacts.”
17


A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


11

T
he company also focuses on
supply chain and

“is increasing monitoring of its key potential and
existing suppliers to ensure they meet national and international sustainability standards.”
18


3.

Our c
ompany has translated analysis into act
ion by defining where and who
will deal with
sustainability as a
business issue.

ABB’s sustainable performance and development is under the
purview of
the

Group Executive Committee. The Head of Sustainability Af
fairs reports to this
body
.

Globally, a network of Sustainability Controllers reports to the

sustainability management
team so that risks and opportunities are integrated and coordinated with the company’s five
divisions and functions.


4.

Our

c
ompany has developed a clear and compelling business case for our sustainability
efforts over the short te
r
m
.

ABB has established
mandatory checks

and balance
s

program that it
applies to the development of new products and projects. Known as the GATE model, this
process consists of “a seven
-
step internal approvals process governing the development of new
produ
cts and projects which requires documented assessment in the development phase
of
their

life
-
long sustainability objectives and performance.”
19



5.

Our c
ompany has modeled

the business case for sustainable investments over the long term
.

This statement was answered above in response four.


6.

Our c
ompany has established targets for our sustainability efforts, along with metrics for
measurement tracking and reporting
.

Here again the company stands out as being a leader in
this area. As noted
above, in 2009, ABB
publicly

stated that it would work toward 12
sustainability objectives during 2010 and 2011.

(A
s noted earlier, the company reports against
GRI.
)

ABB also employs three online data collection systems to measure its performance against
i
ts sustainability objectives globally. Additionally, the ABB Group publishes a number of reports
annually with input from each of the 100 countries where it operates, as well as monthly health
and safety reports.

7.

Our c
ompany’s sustainability strategy recei
ves sufficient focus from senior management,
and all responsibilities and accountabilities are clear
.

This statement was answered above in
response three.


A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


12

It is worth noting
,

however
,

that
each of the Executive Committee members

are required to
conduct
self
-
assessments annual
ly

and to report their findings for review to ABB’s Board of
Directors.


8.

Our c
ompany’s sustainability is integrated with our operations, process and culture
.

ABB
considers sustainability an integral part of its internal culture. In f
act, “[s]ustainability is one of
ABB’s core values. This is reflected in part by ABB’s environmental, social, human rights, health
and safety and business ethics policies.”
20


9.

Our
c
ompany’s sustainability agenda is aligned with the relevant external stakeho
lders in
our business systems
.

ABB works closely with external stakeholders in an effort to ensure that
its sustainability objectives are
in line

with their expectations. “ABB conducts formal en
gagement
with stakeholders on t
w
o

levels: At corporate level, and at country and site levels in countries and
regions where ABB has significant operations.”
21


10.

Our c
ompany has the required capabilities and tools to effectively execute our sustainability
strategy
.

ABB has created what it re
fers to
as a Sustainability Toolbox. Intranet
-
based, the toolkit
provides guidelines and comprehensive information related to criteria for new product
development and ongoing projects. Among other things the toolbox provides instruction for how
to apply Li
fe Cycle Assessments and environmental assessments.
22

ABB’s sustainability goals
and practices
aligned with
ECOtality
’s

For the purposes of this paper, it is important to note that prior
to making its investment in
ECTY
, ABB
conducted a
n Environmental,
Health & Safety review of the company. An integral part of the due
diligence process, the review was use
d to determine whether
ECTY
’s s
ustainability objectives
and
practices
align

with
those

of

ABB

Inc
.


According to
ABB Environmental Compliance Engineer
,

Donnell Jackson,
who conducted the
relevant
ECTY

assessment
,
“The
purpose of an

audit of this type is to assess

risk by learning about any
environmental matters the target company is facing.


To obtain the information it needed,
ECTY
’s

management was asked to complete a
four
-
part questionnaire, known

as the Environmental Checklist.
The document covers: environmental, health and safety, real estate and sustainability.


A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


13

Jackson, a 10
-
year veteran of ABB, is responsible for environmental
remediation projects including the
development of remedial strate
gy and compliance with applicable

regulations, industry standards and
ABB’s sustainability goals.


“We begin any audit by asking

the target facility, in this case, ECOtality, to provide any r
eports or studies
that they have been asked to perform at or around their facilities

regarding their operation. We also
ask
them to provide us with a
ny permits that may be required by state or federal regulatory agencies.” The
audit also asks for informati
on regarding whether a facility is leased or owned by the target company.


The audit found that
ECTY

is p
rimarily focused on R
esearch & Development

and that it
leases the
majority of the facilities

in which it operates
. Additionally, the company
does not use or manufacture
hazardous materials during the course of business. As a result,
ECTY

has not been required by any state
of federal age
ncy to file any operational permits
.


“The two facilities that the company does

own


one in San Diego and the

other in Tijuana, Mexico
--

are
very clean and well maintained. We conducted site visits and generate
d

a full environmental, health and
safety report,” Jackson said. “We found that they were in compliance. We did not note anything that
would raise any
red

flags or
concerns.”


“This plays into what we call the Sustainability factor,” explained
Jackson. “The Sustainability Factor
asks questions such as: Are

they collecting any greenhouse data? Do they have an environmental
management system in place?”



The
answer to both questions is no, but as Jackson pointed

o
ut,
ECTY

is a very small company focused
on R&D and not heavy manufacturing. “It would be unusual if ECOtality had such systems in place

at
this point in its maturity
,” he said.


EV

Solutions:
C
reating opportunities for ABB’s growth

“Transport accounts for close to 60 percent of global oil consumption and an estimated 30 percent of
global carbon emissions…The industry is facing mounting pressure to find alternative fuel options and
limit carbon i
mpact of growth. It is within this context

that plug
-
in electric vehicles (PEVs)

estimated at
40 to 65 percent more efficient than conventional vehicles, have receive
d

significant attention
,

and a
number of governments have set ambitious targets for their
adoption.”
23

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


14


In the United States, the Department of Energy award
ed San Francisco
-
based
ECTY

a contract to install
such
an EV infrastructure

nationwide
.
Known as
T
he EV Project
,

the

plan calls for the smart deployment
of 15,000 commercial and residential
charging stations in 1
8

markets in six states and the District of
Columbia, with infrastructure to support 8,300 EV
s within

the
Micro
-
Climates
©

of the states outlined in
T
he EV Project
.
24


According to
ECTY
,

a
n

EV M
icro
-
C
limate

(Figure 1)
ha
s six key
characteristics
:
1)
allow utilities to
manage load demand and influence
consumer
charging behavior;
2)
commercial fast
-
charging stations
attract EV own
er
s
to retail locations; 3)
residential
charging
allows EV owners to monitor battery health
and control c
harging based on utility prices;
4) rapid

charging stations can be installed in strategic
locations like gas stations;
5) secure street charging

is possible in both residential and commercial
locations;
6)
and office parks and

public garages can charge employees for charging time.
25










A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


15

Figure 1


EV Micro
-
C
limate
26




A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


16

Types of charging stations

Charging stations are broken out into three categories:


1.

Level 1
, or 120
-
volt

chargers
,

are
small and can take between 12

to 24 hours to charge an EV.

2.

Level 2
,
or
240
-
volt
charging
stations
,

utilize ECTY’s Blink network technology.
The
se types of
chargers are
intended for use in
residential and commercial
zones
. The Blink network allows
businesses and individuals to safely and efficiently charge EVs in approximately
three to six

hours. (Figure 2)

3.

Level 3
, or
rapid chargers
,

are specifically engineered for EVs, airport ground support
equipment, material handling,

neighborhood electric vehicle operations, and marine and transit
applications. They allow faster charging


15 to 3
0 minutes on average
--

with less heat
generation and longer battery life than any other fast charge system available. There are currently
6
,000 of these types of chargers ins
talled around the United States.


Figure 2

Level 2 charging station
27




A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


17

Products and systems from
ABB
’s

Low Voltage Products and Discrete Automation and Motion divisions
will be used
as critical components in

both Level 2

and Level 3 chargers.
(Figure
3
)
Under its supply

agreement

with ECTY, ABB will supply
the

ci
rcuit breakers, contactors
,
power electronics

and other
components
. Most Level 3 stations

will require separate assemblies to handle the power electr
onics and
energy storage
. The company is anticipating that as its relationship with ECTY matures, there will be
opportunities for ABB’s Grid Consulting

and
Substations business units

to consult
with
utilities to
ensure
that

their systems can handle

the add
ed stress on the power grid. According to ABB t
here will be

transformer ratings increases,
feeder connections and automation
systems

to integrate larger systems with
utilities

as a result of expanding EV deployment
.



ABB also anticipates that its network management company, Ventyx, will be able to assist
utilities
manage the data an
d back office integration of EV infrastructure.


Figure
3

ABB’s scope of supply in EV charging infrastructure
28



EV

S
upport
E
quipment
: C
ompetitive landscape in North America

According to ABB’s competitive intelligence
,

some
20 companies

globally

have
a
presence in
the EV
charging market
.

In the last
12
-
months, s
everal
have
announced
plan
s

to

deploy

some kind of

EV
Support Equipment (EVSE)

in North America

which
could
potentially
compete with ECTY
.


Domestic Wallbox
3
-
4
kW
Circuit Breaker
Over Current Protection
Grid communication
Measurement Devices
Grid Communication
Charging Control Pilot
Low Voltage Connectors
Public slow and
semi
-
fast charging pole
22
-
50
kW AC
Circuit Breaker
Over Current Protection
Grid communication
Measurement Devices
Residual Current Protection Device
Low Voltage Connectors
User Interface
&
Billing System
Charging Control Pilot
Renewable energy sources
DC
/
DC Converters
Grid communication
Measurement Devices
Public fast charging
station
100
kW DC
MV Switchgear
Transformer
AC
/
DC converter
DC
/
DC Converter
&
Charging controller
DC Circuit Breaker
Grid communication
Measurement Devices
Remote Terminal Unit
User Interface
&
Billing System
LV Plugs and Cables
Residual Current Protection Device
Substation
Substation Automation System
High Voltage Products
Power Transformers
Medium Voltage
Switchgear
Distribution Transformers
Protection
&
Control
Grid communication
Measurement Devices
Network Management
Energy Management System
Generation Management System
Distribution Management System
Energy storage for
grid peak leveling
Grid communication
Measurement Devices
Charging Controller


A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


18


The degree to which these companies have developed marketing campaigns varies

widely
.
Coulomb
Technologies
,
for example,
announced
in June 2010 that it had signed
a joint marketing agreement with
Siemens
, a global competitor or ABB,

to develop an integrated EV product offering. The agreement also
allow
s

Siemens to offer companies, including utiliti
es, electric retailers, municipalities and EV suppliers,
the ability to monitor, bill and clear financial transactions for EV infrastructure market participants.


Targeting automakers and charging station manufacturers, Coulomb’s main marketing message is

that
its
technology
makes PEV use "a practical reality"
for
consumers
who need to
"top off" their
EVs

batteries.
Coulomb’s network technology, known as ChargePoint, can also

keep consumers informed
of

their
vehicle’s charging
status so that

charging stati
on
owners can focus on providing "the tools to effortlessly
track and keep operation costs for plug
-
in electric vehicle charging low."
29


In July 2010
,
General Electric (GE)
, another global competitor of ABB,

unveiled

the

WattStation
. In
development for two

years, t
he charger

is expected to be on the market in

early 2011.

Additionally,
GE
joined forces with

Juice Technologies
. Under that

agreement,
the WattStation

will contain Plug Smart
, an
applic
ation which allows EV
-
owners to
schedule specific times to ch
arge
their vehicles
according to
lowest demand time and prices
.
For installation of residential units, GE has partnered with ServiceMagic
to connect consumers to certified

electricians for installation.


GE’s marketing campaign for WattStation
is very simp
le
. Targeted at retailers and consumers, the
company
’s

messaging
consists of three simple phrases

“Smart Grid ready

, or able to support two
-
communications between the utility and the station
,


Fast charging


and

Future proof

,

or designed to
support the latest technology.
30

It should be noted that GE

Energy Industrial Solutions

has developed an
extensive EV education campaign. Available
on its

website at
http://www.geindustrial.com/products/static/ecomagination
-
electric
-
vehicles
/index.html
, the campaign,
which is aimed at consumers, local government leaders and business owners, explains the importance of
an EV infrastructure in reducing CO
2
emissions, how GE is playing a key role in its development and
deployment as well as

overa
ll environment and economic benefits

of an EV infrastructure
.


In November 2010, Eaton
, a domestic competitor of ABB,

announced a partnership with Mitsubishi
Motors
and Best Buy

to

oversee both the design and manufacturing of the Level 2 charging stations
which

will be sold
at

Best Buy
. Eaton

also
will be the exclusive supplier and installer of the
se

stations

and

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


19

will

suppl
y

chargers to Mitsubishi dealerships.

Similarly to GE, Eaton has chosen to keep its marketing
campaign simple, focusing on three key wor
ds:
r
eliability, efficiency,
and
safety
.

These three messages
are not unique to the company’s EVSEs product line, however. In fact, Eaton uses the same three words
to describe other products and services it offers
,

even those unrelated to EVs.


Sustainabil
it
y: Innovative technologies driving sustainable growth

If innovation is the mother of invention, then innovative technologies are the driving force behind
sustainable growth. The ability to balance the

two

is a critical part of doing business today.
As

Nidumolu
et al,
point out in their article
Why Sustainability is Now the Key Driver of Innovation
,

“smart companies”
recognize that sustainability is at the forefront of innovation.
Based on discussions earlier in this paper,
ABB is
can easily be describe
d as
a
smart company

with sustainable
products and service
s

yielding both
bottom
-
line and top
-
line
results
.

The authors go on to say that

The key to progress, particularly in times
of economic crisis, is innovatio
n… .
That competitive advantage will stand

them in good stead, because
s
us
tainability will always be an integral part of development.”
31



To get to the point however,
N
idumolu and his colleagues
describe five stages
of change and the
associated challenges a company
must go

through when using sustainability to drive innovation.



Stage 1: Viewing Compliance as Opportunity
.
Compliance with local and
federal laws at a global level
can save
money by allowing companies to leverage economies of scale. Additionally, adhering to gl
obal
standards in many

cases can turn “antagonistic regulators into allies by leading the way.”
32


In fact, ABB’s
manufacturing facilities world
wide

are
ISO 14001 or OHS 18001

compliant.

ISO, which
stands for the International Organization for Standardizati
on, promotes the development and
implementation of voluntary international standards, both for particular products and for environmental
management issues. Included in the ISO 14000 series are the ISO 14001
E
nvironmental
M
anagement
Standard and other
standards in fields such as environmental auditing, environmental performance
evaluation, environmental labeling, and life
-
cycle assessment.

33


OHSAS 18000 is an
Occupation Health
and Safety Assessment Series

for health and safety management systems. It is

intended to help an
organization to control occupational health and safety risks. It was developed in response to widespread
demand for a recognized standard against which to be certified and assessed.
34


A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


20

“Because ABB is international, and many of its mate
rials cross borders
,

it is much easier for ABB to
operate under international standards. It is much less confusing than having a patchwork of standards
applied country by country,” said Jackson.
35


Stage 2: Making Value Chains Sustainable
.
By working with its suppliers to develop raw materials and
components that are eco
-
friendly a company
can
improve its
overall
image
,

lower

costs and often times
create new business opportunities.

One of the benefits its

supply relationship with ABB
brings
to ECTY
is
the availability of
materials and components manufactured in accordance with internationally
recognized standards.


Stage 3: Designing Sustainable Products and Services
.
At this stage companies recognize that their
customers want eco
-
friendly pr
od
ucts and services “and that their

business can score over rivals by being
the first to redesign existing products or develop new ones.”
36

Here, the supply relationship mention
ed

in
Stage 2
is reversed
, where

ECTY

is
supplying ABB with systems that address

new markets for eco
-
friendly products.


Stage 4: Developing New Business Models
.
At this stage, a company recognizes the need to

capture

revenue in new ways.

For example, by partnering with ECTY, ABB is in a position to benefit from
revenue associated wit
h the use of EV charging stations, as well as its

more traditional revenue model,
the
sale of equipment

and services into new applications such as EV charging.


Stage 5: Creating Next Practice Platforms
.
As the article po
ints out, sustainability has le
d to the
creation of the smart grid


an important domain for ABB
. “[The smart grid] uses digital technology to
manage power generation, transmission and distribution from all types of sources along with consumer
demand. The smart grid will lead to lower c
osts as well as the more efficient use of energy.”
37


As the five sta
ges relate to ABB’s core businesses, power and automation, the company has successfully
completed
four of the five
.

Currently, the company

is actively engaged in number five, making
the
sm
art
grid a reality.

Examples of

relevant new platforms include solar

energy integrated with energy storage and
EV charging; home automation as the convergence of home energy management, home security and other
networked controls; and distributed energy sto
rage
, whether located in homes as
e
nergy appliances

or
community energy storage in conjunction with public fast
-
charging stations.


A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


21

As
E
Vs become commonplace
,

the need to charge them is expected
to
stress

t
he power distribution
network. As part of the
solution t
here also will be an increase in the demand for rechargeable
distributed
energy storage which also could
reduce the price
of electricity purchased by the consumer
.


Related to this opportunity to create a
next practice platform
,
ABB and GM
,

in Se
ptember 2010,
signed a
non
-
exclusive memorandum of understanding “to cooperate on a research and development project that
will investigate uses for electric vehicle batteries once their useful life in the vehicle is over.

The project
will examine the poten
tial of reusing spent lithium
-
ion battery packs from GM’s electric car, the
Chevrolet Volt, as a means of providing cost
-
effective energy storage capacity

(in distributed energy
storage)
, which will improve the efficiency of electrical systems as they evol
ve into smart grids.”
38


ABB EV Solutions: m
arketing campaign

The questions and issues raised at Stage 4 and 5
highlight

the need for ABB to execute a targeted
an
d

effective marketing c
ommunications c
ampaign.

The

ABB
EV Solutions marketing communications team
has chosen to wait until after
the company’s

annual user
-
conference, Automation & Power World, to
write

and present
a formal

EV Solutions
marketing communications plan

for approval.
The conference,
which is attend
ed by some 4,000 customers and channel partners, takes place between April 18, 2011
and

April 21, 2011

in Orlando, Florida
.



ABB EV Solutions will have a
23’ x 35’
booth
in the Technology and Solutions exhibit hall
. Working
side
-
by
-
side with ECTY, the two

companies
have arranged for a
sample
charging station
and

Nissan

Leaf
to be on
display

in the booth
.



In preparation for Automation & Power World, the marketing team has done the following:



Sent an eBlast
(email)
to all
-
employees reminding them to invite

their customers to a workshop,
conducted by industry experts, examin
ing

the similarities and differences between EVs



Sent an eBlast

(email)

to all
-
employees remind
ing them

to invite their customers to a
panel
discussion, focused on energy storage and the

smart grid



Use
d

Twitter to advertise EV Solutions at Automation & Power World as well as
two

seminars



Use
d

Twitter to advertise the EV Solutions Ride n’ Drive, featuring the

Chevy Volt



Drafted a one
-
page fact sheet
describing ABB
’s

relationship with ECTY

to be distributed at the
EV Solutions booth

During
Automation & Power World, the
marketing team plans

to
:

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


22



Blog each of the sessions described above



Sponsor a Ride n’ Drive event,
featuring the

Chevy Volt and

Mitsubishi
i”



Use Twitter to create additional
buzz
about the Ride n’ Drive




Create 30 sec
ond

to one minute videos of the Ride n’ Drive to be posted on YouTube



Publish a

story
introducing the ABB/ECTY relationship to ABB on
the company’s

Intranet,
Inside ABB,
on

Tuesday
, April 19.



Conduct
media interviews
with
executives
; a schedule of interviews is being developed by the
public relation agencies of both companies



Issue a

joint press release describing the ABB
/
ECTY investment and working relationship
which
is planned

for

distribution

to media outlets


Once work on a f
ormal

marketing communications plan begins, the
EV Solutions marketing
communi
c
ations

team

will
to
tak
e

the following
steps to develop it
:

1.

Step #
1
: Identify
audience
s
: Traditionally, ABB’s audiences
have included public and private
utilities and industry. Thanks to its investment in ECTY, the company finds itself wrestling with
whether or not to expand this list to include
cons
umer

and commercial
market
s
.

For the first time, then, ABB will have to hav
e a clear “understanding of consumer preferences
and behaviors


39

to develop fit
-
for
-
purpose
EV chargers
,
as well as the messages and media to
reach those consumers.

The
M
arketing
C
ommunications
team
has agreed that it will need
to
conduct a market
analysis

to
determine whether
going after

the consumer market

is reasonable

or whether to leave that
function to ECTY
.
Such an analysis will have to be extremely in
-
depth
as it will
have to educate
team

members
on the needs of a group with which it has abs
olutely no experience or knowledge.


A
market
survey

with leading

utilit
y

executives
, another important customer group,

is scheduled
for the week of April 18
, 2011

in conjunction with ABB’s annual customer event Automation &
Power World.


This
investigation
will
help ABB
understand the impact that EV
deployment

will
have on the
se customers and the

power grid. “There are a number of studies which have
measured this impact at a theoretical level, identifying that high
-
scale adoption of PEVs could
have a substantial impact on the grid if charging is not managed or controlled
;

however,
understanding the real impact on the grid by country is still required.”
40

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


23

2.

Step #
2
: Identify
competitors
: As discussed earlier, ABB has identified some

20 companies
glo
bally which have a presence in the EV charging market.
The degree to which these companies
have developed marketing campaigns and key marketing messages varies widely, as seen in
Figure 4.


Figure 4: Market campaigns of
competitive landscape in North
America
41




3.

Step#
3
:
D
evelop

messages
:


The Marketing Communications team has met
a number of times
informally

to develop the
business differentiation statements that uniquely position ABB’s
EV

Solutions

offerings against its competitors
.

A recurring theme has been
the need to address what is known in the industry as
r
ange

anxiety
:

“[E]nsuring consumers are able to appropriately maintain their batteries, easily charge their
vehicles at home and/or public locations and at their convenience,
and

be accurately billed will be
critical to the consumer experience and the successful uptake of PEVs.”
42

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


24

For utility markets, ABB and ECTY will collaborate to use ABB sales channels. Their message
will be “
ABB is strategically positioned to provide

utilities

with comprehensive,
integrated
,

end
-
to
-
end EV solutions
.



This
message is targeted at uti
lities customers who are concerned with grid impact of the
increased power demand as well as reliability and other issues related to deployment of a broad
network of charging stations.

S
uggested s
econdary

message
:

EV

charging stations

are a critical
part of the distributed energy
products and services available from ABB
, but they are o
nly
o
ne part of the company’s offering
.
ABB’s

expertise in the smart grid
strategically positions
the company

to provide

such

and
integrate such

capabilities

as
home energy management,
renewable generation,

and other

networked controls,

a
s well

distributed energy storage
.

4.

Step #
4
: Develop brand strategy
:
Another aspect of ABB’s
marketing campaign is the proper
manner in which to brand the
ECTY
charging stations.

“Branding is crucial for products and
services sold in huge consumer markets. It is also important in B2B because it helps you stand out
from your competition. It brings
your competitive position and value proposition to life; it
positions you as a certain “something” in the mind of your prospects and customers. Your brand
consistently and repeatedly tells your prospects and customers why they should buy from you.”
43

ABB

ha
s extremely stringent rules regarding the manner in which its logo and tagline, Power and
Productivity for a Better World

, can be displayed. Due to the nature of its relationship with
ECTY
,
ABB
’s

identity on the charging station must be carefully considered

and reviewed by the
company’s legal department.
Although powered by products
and systems manufactured by ABB
,

the
stations
themselves are not proprietary products

of the company
. Should one mal
function, for
example,
liability risks might be anticipated if the ABB
t
agline
is
incorporated into the pedestal
.

The debate regarding how to

best

brand the

Level 2 charging

stations has been tabled for the next
several months.
In the meantime, ECTY has ag
reed to use the programmable seven
-
inch monitor,
located in the middle of each of the stations to promote ABB in
a mutually beneficial maneuver
.


5.

Step
#5
: Establish metrics for message success of campaign
:
The overall success of ABB’s EV
Solutions marketin
g communications will have to be measured. Determin
ing

the R
eturn on
A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


25

I
nvestment

of the messages and tactics used in the campaign will go a long way in securing future
budget dollars.

ABB is currently developing the necessary metrics for measuring the
success of
its EV Solutions marketing campaign.


6.

Step#6
: Establish a budget
: The EV Solutions marketing

communications

team is actively
developing and refining the brand

as well as
evaluating
the
appropriate
channels
which will be
required to

promote it. T
hese
channels and sales tools
include web sites, blogs, e
-
mail
campaigns, sales presentations, brochures, ads, social media, etc.

A
dditionally,

ongoing

analysis
and tracking of

expense
s related to

promoting and advertising EV Solution
s with customers is
un
derway
.


ABB’s annual budget season begins in September at which the marketing communications team
will present a comprehensive budget to management for approval. In the meantime, funding is
being provided ABB’s five divisions and Business Development
Function.


Conclusion

ABB is argu
ably one of the most sustainability focused

companies in the world
, and, as is evidenced

in
the

above, i
t also
is
clearly
aligned with its supp
ly chain to improve
sustainability

in
all aspects
its
businesses and

ope
rations.
Earlier this year, in fact, the c
ompany announced that it
developed a Supplier
Sustainability Development Program to strengthen the performance of its supply chain
. This

p
rogram
aims to develop suppliers

into strategic

business partners that
share

ABB’s commitment to sustainability.

The program

is based on monitoring and auditing suppliers, along with training suppliers and ABB
personnel, and is supported by a dedicated sustainability expert within the Supply Chain Management
function along with a

diverse, cross
-
functional reference team.”
44

In this manner, ABB will continue to work with companies like ECOtality to successfully meet the
12
sustainability objectives it set for itself

in 20
0
9

so that


business and sustainability become

seamless and
indistinguishable
.

45


The
various
Marketing Communications team
s within ABB are
committed to working with

internal
business groups within the company
like EV Solutions to

develop Marketi
ng and Communications plans
A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


26

which will

educate constitue
nts
on the benefits of
energy efficiency, energy independence and
environmental attributes while further strengthening ABB's image with respect to

sustainability.



A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


27


APPENDIX

1
46
:

Performance against objectives

Sustainability objectives 2010/11


Overview
of progress at end of 2010


Status of
completion

1.

All sites to reduce use of energy by 2.5
percent annually



Energy audits conducted or planned in 23 most energy
-
intensive
production sites





Energy savings in buildings programs developed in top

20 countries,
representing more than 80 percent of ABB real estate




Program to develop Group
-
wide approach to energy efficiency in
buildings and production established, coordinated with Group Functions
Real Estate, Operational Excellence and
Sustainability Affairs


2.

Develop guidelines to monitor the
environmental impact of transport of goods



Pilot projects under way in Italy, Saudi Arabia, United States





Key Performance Indicators developed




Carbon dioxide emissions from cross
-
border transportation collected
and evaluated




Draft guidelines developed and due to be tested in 2011


3.

Monitor and reduce environmental impact
from business air travel



Data collection and methodology for
emissions calculation established
and tested; first data collection accomplished





Review of reduction possibilities commenced


4.

Phase out the use of hazardous
substances in ABB’s products and
processes



Status investigated of use/phasing out of

hazardous materials in
countries/local business units





Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) reduction program established in
Power Products division, which is responsible for more than 70 percent
of Group VOC emissions




Group
-
wide list of
restricted substances updated; program to enhance
implementation under way


5.

Ensure that environmental and health and
safety aspects are considered in product
development



Survey among product and project managers of current practices
completed;
program to further embed sustainability aspects in
development



6.

Early assessment of social, security, OHS
and environmental risk in ABB’s project
risk management process, to better
manage sensitive projects



Quarterly meetings with two divisions (Pr
ocess Automation and Power
Systems) to identify potential risks at the project pursuit stage rather
than at the later stage of tendering, with ongoing involvement of
sustainability and security experts in project risk reviews and evaluation





Ongoing

training for business managers and key functions to raise
awareness of potential security and health and safety risks, as well as
global human rights training program rolled out in 2010


7.

Due diligence on all security companies
according to ABB
standards



After initial trials, global program to assess security companies piloted
in Sweden. Most of global roll
-
out expected in 2011



8.

Ensure rapid response capability and
enable ABB in risk
-
rated countries to
prepare and respond to potential
threats



Launch of ABB threat map and new security Web site which helps
company to prepare for, or mitigate, potential threats





Crisis workshops and exercises in 18 countries involving 450
employees




Facility Security project prepared with
Group Functions Real Estate and
Supply Chain Management. Launch in 2011


9.

Develop ABB travel security system into a
more supportive system for ABB



Improvements to travel security system completed in 2010. System now
includes all main threat areas,
including maritime threats, plus
supporting documentation for travelers



10.

Occupational Health and Safety Plan
2008

2011 continues, as approved by
Executive Committee



Training and improvement programs in Power divisions with high
-
voltage audits,
medium
-
voltage safety training sessions in different
countries, and Energizing Safety initiative for substations





Framework strategy for Process Automation division developed
focusing initially on four business units (Service, Marine,
Metals/Minerals and Turbocharger service)




New leadership training program launched in 2010 targeting senior
business managers. New safety behavioral program also launched


11.

Increase monitoring of key potential and
existing suppliers so that ABB is not


Project to monitor suppliers in high
-
risk production extended in 2010





Supplier Code of Conduct, defining the minimum sustainability

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


28

Sustainability objectives 2010/11


Overview
of progress at end of 2010


Status of
completion

complicit in any social, environmental,
human rights or health and safety abuses

standards for any company wishing to sell to ABB, introduced and sent
to top 1,000 suppliers (representing more than 50 percent of ABB’s
annual purchasing volume); being cascaded to remaining su
ppliers via
local ABB organizations



Training of more ABB auditors under way


12.

Extend social, environmental, human
rights, and health, safety and security risk
assessment in mergers and acquisitions
(M&A) processes.



Sustainability checklists
for M&A process updated in 2010;
sustainability workstream now embedded in due diligence processes





Regular consultations between M&A and sustainability experts
established to identify potential risks at early stage of feasibility
evaluation



A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


29





1

“The Business of Sustainability, Imperatives, Advantages and Actions,” The
Boston Consulting Group,
Summer
2009, p
g
5.

2

Defining Sustainability, College of Engineering & Architecture Website, The University of Washington,
http://www.arch.wsu.edu/09%20publications/sustain/defnsust.htm.

3

Sustainability Performance 2009, GRI Indicators, ABB Group, pg. inside front cover.

4

EC
Otality website, http://ecotality.com/company.php.

5

ECOtality website, http://ecotality.com/companies/theevproject.php.

6

ABB enters US market for electrical vehicle infrastructure with ECOtality stake,
http://www.abb.us/cawp/seitp202/aae0a3860be2e578c12578140035faf8.aspx.

7

Department of Energy, http://www.oe.energy.gov/smartgrid.htm.

8

The Challenges of Innovating for Sust
ainable Development,” MIT Sloan Management Review, Fall 2003, p
g
. 61.

9

“The Challenges of Innovating for Sustainable Development,” MIT Sloan Management Review, Fall 2003, p
g
. 61.

10

Sustainability Performance 2009, GRI Indicators, ABB Group, pg. 2.

11

Globa
l Reporting Initiative, http://www.globalreporting.org/AboutGRI/WhatIsGRI/.

12

Greentech Media About Us, http://www.greentechmedia.com/about/.

13

Kinnalos, Michael, Greentech Media, “The Top Ten Green Giants of 2011,” April 11, 2011,
http://www.greentechmedi
a.com/articles/read/the
-
top
-
ten
-
green
-
giants
-
for
-
2011/N3.

14
Eggart, Tim, ABB Receives Green Professional Status, WI Sustainable Business Council, April 18, 2011.

15

The Business of Sustainability, Imperatives, Advantages and Actions,” The Boston Consulting Group, Summer
2009, Appendix II

16

Sustainability Performance 2009, GRI Indicators, ABB Group, pg. inside front cover.

17

Sustainability Performance 2009, GRI Indica
tors, ABB Group, pg. 11.

18

Sustainability Performance 2009, GRI Indicators, ABB Group, pg. 2.

19

Sustainability Performance 2009, GRI Indicators, ABB Group, pg. 16.

20

Sustainability Performance 2009, GRI Indicators, ABB Group, pg. 15.

21

Sustainability Perfo
rmance 2009, GRI Indicators, ABB Group, pg. 17

22

Sustainability Performance 2009, GRI Indicators, ABB Group, pg. 16.

23

Changing the game, Plug
-
in electric vehicle pilots, Accenture, p
g
.5.

24

ABB corporate presentation.

25

EV Micro
-
Climates
©,
Ecotality, pg2.

26
EV MicroClimates©, ECOtality corporate brochure, p
g
2.

27

Provided by Colin Read of ECOtality.

28

ABB Corporate presentation.

29

Coulomb Technologies, Inc.

http://www.coulombtech.com.

30

General Electric, http://www.geindustrial.com/products/static/ecomaginat
ion
-
electric
-
vehicles/ge
-
wattstation.html.

31

Nidumolu, Ram et.al., Why Sustainability Is Now the Key Driver of Innovation,” Harvard Business Review, p
g
.3.

32

Nidumolu, Ram et.al., Why Sustainability Is Now the Key Driver of Innovation,” Harvard Business Rev
iew, p
g
.3.

33

Environmental Protection Agency, http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/wastewater/Environmental
-
Management
-
System
-
ISO
-
14001
-
Frequently
-
Asked
-
Questions.cfm.

34

OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health &

Safety Zone, http://www.ohsas
-
18001
-
occupational
-
health
-
and
-
safety.com/what.htm.

35

Donell Jacskson, environmental compliance engineer, ABB Inc., interview March 7, 2011.

36

Nidumolu, Ram et.al., Why Sustainability Is Now the Key Driver of Innovation,” Harv
ard Business Review, p
g
.6.

37

Nidumolu, Ram et.al., Why Sustainability Is Now the Key Driver of Innovation,” Harvard Business Review, p
g
.8.

38

ABB and GM to collaborate on electric car battery research,
http://www.abb.com/cawp/seitp202/d3e2f486303c1d47c12577a500479955.aspx.

39

Changing the game, Plug
-
in electric vehicle pilots, Accenture, p
g
.6.

40

Changing the game, Plug
-
in electric vehicle pilots
, Accenture, p
g
.6.

41

Information compiled for ABB corporate presentation and corporate websites of the companies there in.

A
BB Inc., and ECOtality


30







42

Changing the game, Plug
-
in electric vehicle pilots, Accenture, p
g.
9.

43

Marketing [m.o.] http://www.marketingmo.com/strategic
-
planni
ng/brand
-
strategy/.

44

Embedding sustainability in our business, abb.com,
http://www400.abbext.com/2010/sr/embeddingsustainability/embeddingsustainability.html?cat=b.

45

Embedding sustainability in our business, abb.com,
http://www400.abbext.com/2010/sr/embe
ddingsustainability/embeddingsustainability.html?cat=b.

46

ABB Group Sustainability Performance 2010, Performance Against Objectives, abb.com,
http://www400.abbext.com/2010/sr/performanceagainstobjectives/performanceagainstobjectives.html?cat=c.