Past, Present & Future

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Pan
-
European Research Networks:

Past, Present & Future

Michael Enrico

Network Engineering & Planning

DANTE Ltd


Workshop on “The Internet Protocol & Optical Networking”

Grasmere, Cunbria, UK

23
-
25 September 2002

Agenda


DANTE in Context


Who? What? Where? How?


Who pays?


History (of pan
-
Euro backbone R&E Networks)


The early days (EuropaNET)


TEN
-
34 & TEN
-
155


Today


The GN1 project and GÉANT


Tomorrow


What place for Optical Networking?


Who is



?


D
elivery of


A
dvanced


N
etworking


T
echnology to


E
urope

Who is



?


Legal status: “not
-
for
-
profit” Limited Company
registered in the UK


Governance:


Board of Directors


NREN Policy Committee


Started in 1993


Based in Cambridge, UK


Currently ~ 22 people (most in Cambridge)


Broad European makeup of staff


11 non
-
UK


A Brief History...

In the Beginning (pre 1992)...

EARN



Some links to EARN


(BitNet)

JANET

RENATER

DFN

GARR

RedIRIS

NorduNET



There were NRENs &...



Ad hoc bilateral links

EuropaNET (1992)


RARE contracted EuropaNET from Unisource


Not subsidised by the EC


“Competition” with fledgling E
-
Bone


E
-
Bone later followed the commercial route


Some suspicion from commercial providers


Would EuropaNET restrict itself to R&E?


Typical backbone circuits ~E1


Used Telebit routers


Offered a datagram service (X.25, IP & CLNS)


Finished in October 1995


IBDNS (1995)


International Backbone Data Network Service


Contracted from BT


Used Cisco routers


Typical NREN accesses ~few M


JANET access was 8M at the end


Finished early 1997


TEN
-
34 & TEN
-
155 (1997
-
2001)


IP Backbone built on managed ATM network


DANTE owned (Cisco) routers


TEN
-
34 (Early 1997)


Typical backbone circuit ~16M (e.g. London
-
Paris)


Odd 34M circuit in backbone


TEN
-
155 (Late 1998)


Started with single ring of STM
-
1


Finished up with main ring at 4 x STM
-
1


Typical NREN accesses at STM
-
1


Finished end of 2001

http://www.dante.net/ten
-
155/ten155net.gif

January 2000 Topology

TEN
-
155 Services


IP transit service for European NRENs


Connectivity to North American R&E Networks


Abilene, ESnet & Canarie


via DANTE POP in New York


DANTE World Service


Connectivity to UUnet in NY (by additional subscription)


European Commodity Service


“Peerings” with InfoNet


Managed Bandwidth Service (MBS):


end
-
to
-
end ATM CBR & UBR PVCs


Advanced IP services: e.g. Multicast

A pan
-
European R&E network with a dual remit:



To provide production network services to the
European R&E community



To provide a platform for networking research

GN1 Project:

GN1 Project:


Planned & procured during 2001


Switched on Nov/Dec 2001


10 Gbps in 8 locations, 9 circuits


2.5 Gbps in 7 locations, 12 circuits


3 main providers: COLT, T
-
Systems & Telia


Connects 31 NRENs


Connectivity to North America:


3 x 2.5Gbps


Connects Abilene, Canarie & ESnet


GTR(E)N POP in New York


GÉANT Topology

(Today)

PLUS:

(not shown)


3 x 2.5G to NY


STM
-
1 to Japan


DWS peerings


NREN Accesses


Generous funding of Research Networks by the EC
& ...

How so BIG?

Typical GÉANT POP


A single Juniper M160 router


(except Frankfurt which needs two!)


Ancillary management/monitoring equipment:


In
-
POP (switched) FE & GE LAN


Terminal server router (with ISDN & POTS access)


Two Sun workstations


Housed in 3 or 4 racks or a small suite in (mostly)
carrier
-
neutral datacentres


Most POPs in capital city


Exceptions: DE (Frankfurt), IT (Milan), CH (Geneva),

PL (Poznan)


A POP

(under

construction
!)

Network Management Service


NMS & NOC outsourced to a company in Paris


“Second Line” support performed by DANTE
Operations team (based in Cambridge)


Each NREN has an Access Port Manager (APM)

Customer Services on GÉANT


(Best effort) IP transit for European NRENs


DANTE World Service (chargeable extra)


Native Multicast


Premium IP


L2 VPN (using MPLS)

DANTE World Service


Commodity IP Transit service for NRENs


Chargeable extra


Not all NRENs make use of it


Some use it as a back
-
up to their own commodity
access


2 providers: Global Crossing & Telia (was KPNQ!)


Numerous “peering” points around Europe


Each at STM
-
16


Routing policy: “hot potato”


Subscription levels allowed: up to half of access

New Services


Less than Best Effort (Scavanger)


Currently undergoing tests


MBS Replacement?


Need to be able to provide support for projects

(e.g. GRIDs, 6net, testbeds, etc)


Could use Premium IP but what about traffic isolation?


Could use MPLS L2 VPN but what about BW
guarantees?

Extending the Reach of GÉANT


EUMEDCONNECT


Providing IP connectivity to EUMEDIS NRENs


Phase 1 (feasibility study) now complete


Phase 2 (procurement, implementation & operation) to
start shortly


Lifetime up to summer 2006


CAESAR


Extending IP connectivity to Latin America


Still in feasibility stages

A Bit about IP Routing


IGP is OSPF


TE performed via OSPF metrics


Plan to migrate to IS
-
IS (to allow for IPv6 support)


EGP is BGP4


Full mesh of iBGP peerings (no Route Reflectors)


eBGP peerings with all external peers


Multicast extensions (MBGP)


Each router maintains a full Internet routing table


IP Multicast Service


Access to the service:


Via primary access port


Another possibility is via a GRE tunnel (currently
nobody!)


Support PIM
-
SM v2 only


3 Rendezvous Points (RPs) in network


Source distribution via MSDP peerings


Looking at SSM


Operational procedures

(rolling out now)


Goal: fully supported service as for unicast


Plus specific monitoring


Troubleshooting


Extension of the trouble ticket systems to multicast
incidents


More information on Multicast Setup




http://www.dante.net/nep/GEANT
-
MULTICAST

Premium IP Service


Aims to provide international Virtual Leased Line
based on DiffServ


The Premium IP service is an end
-
to
-
end service
(site to site) crossing multiple administrative
domains


Defined on the basis of the DiffServ EF PHB
which is required to offer:


Bandwidth, low loss, upper bounded delay and
jitter

Premium IP: VLL Service

UK

DE

NREN Janet

DFN

AS20965

GÉANT backbone

AS786

AS680

A

B

Regional

Network

Regional

Network

SE

FR



streams < 5 %

of the BW access


Rate limitation is applied

on the NREN access


Premium IP packets are tagged with DSCP code =46.


Rate Limitation is applied per aggregate on the NREN’s access, based on
the total demanded bandwidth towards the destination.


Admission Control is made manually based on the Sum of bandwidth
already booked on the destination access.


The Optical Networking bit...

GÉANT’s Optical Networking Today


DANTE does not operate it’s own transmission
infrastructure


GÉANT Connectivity:


International Leased Lines


Unprotected SDH circuits for 622M or less


Unprotected “lambdas” for 2.5G and 10G


Often 2.5G “lambdas” are really SDH circuits


“White light” (G.957/691) “Thin SDH” interfaces


Use SR or IR POS interfaces on routers



GÉANT’s Optical Networking
Tomorrow?


Two drivers:


Support for higher bandwidths:

what happens when NRENs start to subscribe to 10G?


Support for projects/user groups:

how do we extract arbitrary bandwidth “channels” from
2.5/10/40G core circuits?


Support for Higher Bandwidths


Will router vendors offer 40G interfaces (soon)?


Next generation “40G capable”


What will be the form of these interfaces?


STM
-
256 on white light?


Will xWDM interfaces become incorporated into
routers?


Already appearing in SDH switches


Does this help us at all?


Will operators offer coloured interfaces?

Support for Projects/User Groups


Just use Layer 3 Techniques?
(some say yes!)


Simplify L2


Use 40G if possible


Are the routers really up to it (2.5G or 10G tunnels?)

Operator


Network


Add L2 switch/mux capability ourselves?

Support for Projects/User Groups

Keep POS i/f


STM
-
n

Channelized mode

POS STM
-
n i/f

STM
-
m(<n)

Operator


Network


Add L1 capability ourselves?


Offer BoD?
(some say no
-

leave it to operators!)

Evolution of GÉANT?

Operator


Network

Light channel, λ bundle or even managed fibre?

Nature of i/f?

Optical Testbed Possibilities


Some European NRENs now have access to dark
fibre:


CESNET (Czech Republic)


PSNC (Poland)


SWITCH (Switzerland)


PSNC has been trying out Alcatel DWDM
equipment

Optical Testbeds

Optical Testbed Possibilities II


ASTON Project EoI (FP6):


A

S
tep
T
owards the provision of
O
ptical
N
etworking


Has come out of TF
-
NGN activity on optical networks


Information gathering, knowledge distribution


Find partners to do Europe
-
wide testing of technologies
& methodologies


Create feedback loops with manufacturers & providers


Results used for engineering new network architectures
& provisioning models

Conclusions


Research Networking Community has High
Demands


Early Adopters


Some European NRENs are starting to do their
own transmission


Probably not going to happen on pan
-
European
scale
(at least for foreseeable future)


However, feeling is that GÉANT and European
NRENs
will

go more optical…


…we’re just not quite sure how!

Thank You

&

Questions?