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munchdrabΔίκτυα και Επικοινωνίες

30 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μέρες)

144 εμφανίσεις


Modul


4

Sistem Telepon

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sks

Tim
Bidang

Studi

Telekomunikasi Multimedia

(
Achmad

Ansori
,
Devy

Kuswidiastuti
,
Gatot

Kusrahardjo
, M Aries
Purnomo
)

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Telephony :


A form of telecommunication primarily intended for the exchange

of information in the
form of speech
.


NOTE


This is the definition given in the Constitution of the

International Telecommunication Union (Geneva, 1992)

(CS 1017) (RR No. S1.123).

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Telecommunication Network

Exchange

Transmission

system

Transmission

system

Operations

system

Operations

system

Operations

system

Exchange

Exchange

Workstation

Data communications network

TMN

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User (CTE)


Access


Exchange


Transmission


TMN

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User (CTE)

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Access :

End
-
user connection(s) to core network.

(wireline, wireless, optical fiber)








NOTE 1 :

Core networks include, for example, PSTN, ISDN, PLMN, PSDN,

Internet, WAN/LAN, CATV, etc.

NOTE 2 :

The
end
-
user
may be a single
user
or a
user
accessing

the services on behalf of multiple
users
.

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Wireless access :

End
-
user
radio connection(s)
to core networks.

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Wireless access may be considered from many perspectives,

for example:



Mobility capabilities
of the terminal
: fixed, nomadic (may be


used in different places but the terminal must be stationary


while in use), mobile, restricted mobility (e.g. within a single


cell), etc.



Service support capabilities
:


narrow
-
band, broadband, multimedia, etc.



Type of telecommunication service
: conversational, distribution,


information retrieval.



Connectivity
: (which would depend on the switched network


that the terminal accesses, e.g. Internet, PSTN, etc.).



Radio transmission technology
: access technique (TDMA,


CDMA, etc.), modulation technique (analogue, digital, etc.),


duplex technique (FDD, TDD, etc.), etc.



Delivery mechanism
: terrestrial, satellite, etc.

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PLMN : Public land mobile network

ISDN : Integrated services digital network

PSDN : Public switched data network

PSTN : Public switched telephone network

TDD : Time division duplex

TDMA : Time division multiple access

LAN : Local area network

WAN : Wide area network

CATV : Community antenna television

CDMA : Code division multiple access

FDD : Frequency duplex division

FDMA : Frequency division multiple access

BWA : Broadband wireless access

FWA : Fixed wireless access

MWA : Mobile wireless access

MWS : Multimedia wireless system(s)

NWA : Nomadic wireless access

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user

A

user

B

Hubungan Mesh


Masing station
memerlukan line
sebanyak n
-
1 untuk
terhubung ke yang
lainnya.


Total banyaknya Line
N=(1/2)n(n
-
1), n>>1

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N user

Hubungan Star


Jumlah line N=n, jauh
dapat mereduksi lines
pada Hub. Mesh


Mampu menghemat
line cost

S

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Switching

The establishing, on demand, of an individual connection from

a desired inlet to a desired outlet within a set of inlets and

outlets for as long as is required for the transfer of information.


exchange (switching exchange, switching centre)

An aggregate of traffic carrying devices, switching stages,

controlling and signalling means at a network node that enables

subscriber lines and/or other telecommunication circuits to be

interconnected as required by individual users.


local exchange
[local central office]

An exchange in which subscribers’ lines terminate.


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transit exchange

[tandem exchange, tandem central office, tandem office]

An exchange used primarily as a switching point for traffic

between other exchanges.


combined local/transit exchange

An exchange in which subscribers’ lines terminate that also is
used as a switching point for traffic between

other exchanges.


international exchange

A transit exchange where international circuits and, in general,
national circuits terminate.


digital exchange

An exchange that switches information in digital form through
its switching devices.

Hubungan Tree


Hubungan ini utk jaringan yang besar


Rute yang langsung (direct route) disediakan
utk trafik besar, sebagai “backbone”

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Hubungan Bus dan Ring


Bus dan Ring
digunakan untuk
komunikasi data


Hubungan bus dan
Ring sering
digunakan untuk
LAN



Bus

Ring

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A network comprises
a number of nodes (switching centres)

interconnected by circuit groups (engineering routes).

There may be several direct circuit groups between a pair of

nodes and these may be unidirectional or bothway
.

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Objective of traffic routing :


The objective of routing is to establish a successful connection

between any two exchanges in the network.


The function of traffic routing is the selection of a particular

circuit group, for a given call attempt or traffic stream, at an

exchange in the network.

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Hierarchical Routing

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Operation of the international telephone service


The telephone service is operated :



automatically;



semi
-
automatically;



manually.


It is strongly recommended that the service should be

provided on a
fully automatic basis
, and it should be

possible for
users to reach one another by fully automatic

selection
.


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Automatic operation :

In automatic operation,
the user dials or keys the called number

and the call is established automatically without the assistance

of an operator.


To establish an international call in the automatic service,

the user shall select :



the access code to the international network, which is fixed


according to national requirements;



the telephone country code,


in accordance with ITU T Rec E.164



the national (significant) number,


in accordance with ITU T Rec E.164

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telephone circuit (international or trunk circuits) :


1. The whole of the facilities whereby
a direct connection is


made between two exchanges

(manual or automatic) is


called a telephone circuit.

2. A circuit is called an international circuit when it directly


connects two international exchanges in two different countries
.

3. The term
trunk circuit
is reserved for the designation of


exclusively national circuits.


Note :

The above definitions relate solely to the use of the terms in

operational procedures, no matter how the circuits are actually

made up.

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telecommunication network, telecommunication system

(United States of America) :

All the means of providing telecommunication services between

a number of locations where equipment provides access to these

services.


(telecommunication) terminal :

An equipment connected to a telecommunication network to

provide access to one or more specific services.


NOTE :

The term may be qualified to indicate the type of service or user, e.g.

“data terminal”, “subscriber’s terminal”.


subscriber’s line, subscriber loop :

A link between equipment in a subscriber's premises and the

telecommunication centre providing the required services.

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telephone call :

The interconnection of two telephone stations.


call request :

The first application made by the caller for a telephone call is

called the call request.

In automatic service, the operation of the dial (or key
-
set) by

the caller to obtain a call with his correspondent is comparable

to the call request.


Connection :

A temporary association of transmission channels or

telecommunication circuits, switching and other functional units

set up to provide for the transfer of information between two or

more points in a telecommunication network.

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call attempt
(by a user) :

A single sequence of operations made by a user of a

telecommunication network trying to obtain the desired user,

terminal or service.


Call :

The establishment and use of a complete connection, following

a call attempt.


conversation
(in telecommunication) :

An exchange of information between terminals.


The telephone service is a public telecommunication service

primarily intended for the
exchange of information in the form of

speech
, whereby users can communicate directly and temporarily

between themselves in
conversational mode
.


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The development of digital switching, transmission and signalling

techniques, and their introduction into the public switched

telephone network (PSTN), and the evolution to the integrated

services digital network (ISDN), provides scope for network

based service features.


The range of supplementary services will depend on the signalling

capability in the network, and a number of other factors.




Calling Line Identification Presentation;



Calling Line Identification Restriction;



Call Transfer;



Closed User Group;



Conference Call;



Three
-
Party Service;



Call Forwarding (Busy, No Reply, Unconditional, Call Deflection);



Connected Line Identification Presentation;



Connected Line Identification Restriction.

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