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Release 16/7/2009

Internetworking

Devices

Chapter 10

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Chapter Objectives


Explain repeater


Discuss the working of a bridge and its types


Explain the working and features of routers


Explain the operation of hubs and hub configurations


Discuss the working of switch and different switching
methods


Explain gateway


Describe multi
-
protocol routers, brouters and layer 3
switches


Explain routing protocols


Troubleshoot different networking devices

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Recall
-

I


Internet Protocol (IP) address is a 32 bit unique
address used by computers for communication.


Classful IP addressing and Classless IP addressing
are types of IP addressing.


List of classful IP addresses are:


Class A address


Class B address


Class C address


Class D address


Class E address

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Recall
-

II


Special addresses are IP addresses which are
never used on the public internet. They are


Private addresses


Loop
-
back addresses


Link
-
local addresses


Mobile IP protocol allows mobile device users to
move from one network to another while maintaining
their permanent IP address.

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Introducing Network Elements


Networking devices interconnects networks


Manage data flow and network traffic

Networking

Devices

Repeaters

Hubs

Bridges

Switches

Routers

Gateways

Other

Devices

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Show Repeater through CBT


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Release 16/7/2009

Hubs
-

I


Simplest and low cost device


Also known as Multi
-
port Repeater


Operates at Physical Layer like Repeater


Data transfer to all the ports


Hub types:


Active hub


Provides signal regeneration


Passive hub


No signal regeneration


Intelligent hub


Provides management of each port

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Operation of Hub

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Hubs Configurations

Hub

Configurations

Standalone

Stackable

Modular


Hub configurations can be used to expand
networks.

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Bridges
-

I


Layer 2 devices
as it works at
Data Link Layer
of the OSI model


Interconnect
multiple LANs
and manages
data flow

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Bridges
-

III


Capable of passing a frame


Check Physical address


Pass frame to the specified segment


Perform error checking on the frame

Bridges

Transparent

Bridge

Translational

Bridge

Source
-
route

Bridge

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Types of Bridge


Transparent Bridge


common in ethernet
network


Translational bridge


used to connect two
different network such as ethernet and token
ring


Source
-
route Bridge


found in token ring
technology

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Bridges
-

IV


Features


Easy to use as just plug in device


Helps in network expansion


Divides large network into small segments


Used for increasing network reliability

Disadvantages


Frames are buffered so provides network delay


During high traffic may overload network


Does not filter broadcast packets


Expensive than Repeaters

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Switches


Provide signal flow management


Replace slower hub


Being a Data Link Layer device uses MAC address
for data transfer


Data transfer to specific port

Switching

Methods

Cut
-
through

Method

Store & Forward

Method

Fragment
-
Free

Method

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Multispeed Switches


Having number of ports such as 100 Base T
and one or two gigabit ports


Port detects the speed of NIC and runs at
that speed is called auto sensing


Port runs at 10, 100 or gigabit is referred to
as 10/100/1000 port

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Routers
-

I


Operate at Network Layer of the OSI model


Can connect nearer or far network segments

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Release 16/7/2009

Routers
-

II


Works in LAN, MAN and WAN environments


Having LAN and WAN ports


WAN port connects to regular phone line or
more advanced telephone connection like
ISDN, ADSL, T1 or may be a cable modem


Route the packets seeing the IP address
stored in the packet


Comes in variety shapes, sizes and functions

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Routers
-

III


Decide the best route with the help of network layer
address


Responsible for Source to Destination delivery of
packet


For routing decisions routers use routing algoritm


Router types:


Static router


Routing tables are manually configured


Dynamic router


Routing tables are automatically
configured

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Release 16/7/2009

Router considers number of hops, time delay and link cost to
find the best path

An autonomous system (AS) consists of network groups and
routers which are managed by a single organisation


Routing Protocols
-

I

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Release 16/7/2009

Gateways
-

I


Operate at all layers of the OSI model


Act as gate to other networks


A default gateway is on the same subnet as your
computer

Gateway

Types

Address

Gateway

Protocol

Gateway

Application

Gateway

Transport

Gateway

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Release 16/7/2009

Gateways
-

II



Address Gateway


Interconnects same protocol
networks


Protocol Gateway


Interconnects different protocol
networks


Application Gateway


Connects two parts of
applications


Transport Gateway


Connects networks at
transport layer

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Other Devices
-

I


Multi
-
protocol router supports multiple
communication protocols


Like router, it operates at Network Layer

Other

Devices

Multi
-
Protocol

Routers

Brouters

Layer 3

Switches

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Other Devices
-

II


Brouter provides combined functions of Bridge and
Router


Works at two layers, Data Link and Network


Can operate only as bridge or only as router


High performance switch operating at network layer
is Layer 3 Switch

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Summary
-

I


Repeater is basically a regenerator as it regenerates
the signal


Repeater and Hub are layer 1 devices as they
operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model


A multi
-
port repeater is known as Hub


Hubs are of three types, active hub, passive hub
and intelligent hub


Active hub regenerates the signal before passing
and Passive hub does not regenerate signal


Types of bridges are Transparent bridge,
Translational bridge and Source
-
route bridge

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Summary
-

II


Switch filters and forwards data to the destination


Switch uses cut through, store and forward or
fragment free method for switching


A router is an intelligent device which functions at
the Network layer


Router is capable of connecting many network
segments even though the segments are far


Routers are of two types, Static router and Dynamic
router


The Netstsat and Route Print commands are used
to view the routing table




Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Summary
-

III


Routing algorithms are used by the routing protocols
to determine the next port to which the packet is to
be sent


Routing protocols are of two types, interior and
exterior


RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF and IS
-
IS are interior
routing protocols and BGP is an exterior routing
protocol


OSPF and IS
-
IS uses Link state algorithm


BGP uses path vector routing



Jetking Infotrain Ltd.

Release 16/7/2009

Summary
-

IV


Gateway is a networking device which converts data
format and not actual data


Backbone is a segment that connects other
segments


Multi
-
protocol routers support more than one
communication protocols and works at network layer


Brouter provides combinational functions of a bridge
and a router


As name suggests Layer 3 switch operates at layer
3 i.e. network layer of the OSI model

Jetking Infotrain Ltd.