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IT 301
-

Basic Computer



1

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

COURSE OUTLINE

I.

Introduction



History of computers



Generation of computers



Classifications of computers



Characteristics of computers



Capabilities and limitations of
computers



Effects of
computers to society


II.

Components of a Computer
System



Hardware



Software



Peopleware and Dataware


III.

Internet



Introduction



Definition of Internet



History of Internet



World Wide Web
/HTTP



Facts and Figures



Definition of Terms



Creating E
-
mail Address



Browsing
different websites


IV.

Microsoft Word



Getting Started with Word



Basic Functions



Editing a document



Using templates and wizards

o

Formatting text

o

Changing the Layout of a
document

o

Using Automated Formattin
g

o

Using Editing and Proofing Tools



Advance Features

o

Working with graphics

o

Working with columns

o

Working with tables

o

Word and the Web


V.

Microsoft Excel



G
etting Started with MS Excel

o

Learning worksheet fundamentals

o

Editing and formatting worksheets

o

Formatting cells

o

Changing print options

o

Working with rows,
columns,
worksheets and workbooks



Basic Calculations

o

Performing basic calculations

o

Using Basic Financial and Logical
Functions

o

Working with Charts



Excel and the Web



Advance Features

o

Working with graphics

o

Working with columns

o

Working with tables


VI.

Microsoft

PowerPoint



Creating a Presentation

o

Modifying a Presentation

o

Working with text



Working with Visual Elements



Using WordArt feature



The Drawing toolbar



Adding pictures



Add text to a graphic object



Add speaker’s note



Add graphical bullet



Customizing a
Presentation


IT 301
-

Basic Computer



2

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

History of Computers

The history of the

computer

owes

its existence to the fact that people, who are lazy by nature,
have always sought to improve their ability to calculate, in order to reduce errors and save time.

Origins: The abacus

The "
1.
abacus
" was invented in the year 700; it was in use for a long
time, and still is in some
countries.

Then came the logarithm

The invention of the
2.
logarithm is generally credited to the Scotsman John Napier (1550
-
1617).
In 1614, he showed that multiplication and division could be performed using a series of
additions
. This discovery led, in 1620, to the invention of the

slide rule
.

However, the true father of logarithm theory is Mohamed Moussa Al
-
Khawarezmi, an Arab
scholar from the Persian town of Khawarezm. This scholar also developed algebra, a term which
comes fro
m the Arabic "
Al
-
Jabr
", meaning

compensation
, with the implication being "looking for
the unknown variable X in order to compensate by balancing the results of the calculations."

3.
The first calculating machines

In 1623, William Schickard

invented the first mechanical calculating machine.

In 1642, Blaise Pascal created the

arithmetic machine

(called the

Pascaline
), a machine that could
add and subtract, intended to help his father, a tax collector.


In 1673, Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz a
dded multiplication and division to the Pascaline.


In 1834, Charles Babbage invented the difference engine, which could evaluate functions.


However, once he learned that a weaving machine (called a Jacquard loom) was programmed
with perforated cards, he
started building a calculating machine that could take advantage of this
revolutionary idea.

In 1820, the first four
-
function mechanical calculators debuted. They could:



add



subtract

IT 301
-

Basic Computer



3

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor



multiply



divide

By 1885, they were being built with keyboards for enterin
g data. Electrical motors quickly
supplanted cranks.

Programmable computers

4.
In 1938,

Konrad Zuse

invented a computer based around electromechanical relays: The

Z3
.
This computer was the first to
use

binary

instead

of decimals


In 1937, Howard Aiken developed a programmable computer 17 metres long and 2.5 metres
high, which could calculate 5 times faster than a human.

It was IBM's

Mark I
.


It was built using 3300 gears and 1400 switches
linked with 800 km of electrical wiring.

In 1947, the

Mark II

appeared, with its predecessor's gears being replaced by electronic
components.

Computers today

It is very difficult today to tell where computers are going. Their development has followed
Moore's Law: "Every three years, four times as many transistors can be put on a chip."


This would imply that there will be 1 billion transistors on a chip around the year 2010.


History, Origins, and Various Generations of Computers
,

Charles Babbage
-

Father of Computing

Jan. 01, 2010 Update: Minor Tweaks were done for keywords.

The history of

computer development

is often referred to in reference to the different
generations of

computing devices
. A generation refers to the state of improvement in the

product
development process
. This term is also used in the different advancement
s of new computer
technology. With each new generation, the circuitry has gotten smaller and more advanced than
the previous generation before it. As a result of the miniaturization, speed, power, and

computer
memory

has proportionally increased. New disco
veries are constantly being developed that
affect the way we live, work and play.

IT 301
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Basic Computer



4

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

Each generation of computers is characterized by major technological development that
fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, chea
per,
more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. Read about each generation and the
developments that led to the current devices that we use today.

5.

First Generation
-

1940
-
1956: Vacuum Tubes

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitr
y and magnetic
drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire
rooms. A magnetic drum,

also referred to as drum, is a metal
cylinder coated with magnetic iron
-
oxide material on which data
and programs can be stored. Magnetic drums were once
used as

a
primary storage device but have since been implemented as
auxiliary storage devices.


Computer Programmers
, therefore, use either

high level
programming languages

or an

assembly language programming
. An assembly language contains
the same instruc
tions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names
instead of being just numbers.

Programs written in

high level programming languages

retranslated into assembly language or
machine language by a compiler. Assembly language program
retranslated into machine language
by a program called an assembler (
assembly language compiler
).

The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first
-
generation computing devices. The
UNIVAC was the first

commercial computer

delivered to a business client
, the U.S. Census Bureau
in 1951.

Acronym for Electronic Numerical Integrator
a
nd Computer, the world's first operational
electronic digital computer, developed by Army Ordnance to compute World War II ballistic
firing tables. The ENIAC, weighing 30 tons,
using 200 kilowatts of electric power and consisting
of 18,000 vacuum tubes,

1,500 relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors,

capacitors, and
inductors, was completed in 1945. In addition to ballistics, the ENIAC's field of application
included weathe
r prediction, atomic
-
energy calculations, cosmic
-
ray studies, thermal
IT 301
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Basic Computer



5

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

ignition,random
-
number studies, wind
-
tunnel design, and other scientific uses. The ENIAC soon
became obsolete as the need arose for faster computing speeds.

6.
Second

Generation
-

1956
-
1963: Transistors

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in
the

second generation computer
. Transistor is a
device composed of semiconductor material that
amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit.
Invented in 1947 at Bell L
abs, transistors have
become the key ingredient of all digital circuits,
including computers. Today's

latest
microprocessor

contains tens of millions of
microscopic transistors.


7.
Third Generation
-

1964
-
1971: Integrated
Circuits

The development of the
integrated circuit was the
hallmark of the third generation of computers.
Transistors were miniaturized and placed on
silicon chips, called semiconductors, which
drastically increased the speed and efficiency of
computers.

A nonmetallic chemical element in

the carbon
family of elements. Silicon
-

atomic symbol "Si"
-

is
the second most abundant element in the earth's
crust, surpassed only by oxygen. Silicon does not occur uncombined in nature. Sand and almost
all rocks contain silicon combined with oxygen,
forming silica. When silicon combines with other
elements, such as iron, aluminum or potassium, a silicate is formed. Compounds of silicon also
occur in the atmosphere, natural waters,many plants and in the bodies of some animals.

IT 301
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Basic Computer



6

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

8.
Fourth Generation
-

19
71
-
Present:
Microprocessors

The microprocessor brought the fourth generation
of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits
we rebuilt onto a single silicon chip. A silicon chip
that contains a CPU. In the world of personal
computers,the terms microproc
essor and CPU are
used interchangeably. At the heart of all personal
computers and most workstations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of
almost all digital devices, from clock radios to fuel
-
injection systems for automobiles.

T
hree basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors:

Instruction Set
: The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute.


Bandwidth
: The number of bits processed in a single instruction.


Clock Speed
: Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock
speed determines how many instructions per
second the processor can execute.

In both cases, the higher the value, the more powerful the CPU. For example, a 32
-
bit
microprocessor that runs at 50MHz is more powerful than a 16
-
bitmicroprocessor that runs at
2
5MHz.

What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel
4004chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer
-

from the central
processing unit and memory to input/output controls
-

on a
single chip.

Abbreviation of central processing unit, and pronounced as separate letters. The CPU is the brains
of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is
where most calculations take place. In terms of
computing power,

the CPU is the most important
element of a computer system.

On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and
small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor.

IT 301
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Basic Computer



7

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

Two t
ypical components of a CPU are:



The
arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations.




The control unit, which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes
them, calling on the ALU when necessary.

In 1981 IBM intr
oduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the
Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many
areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.

As these
small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form
networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers
also saw the development of GUI's, the mouse and handheld devices

9.
Fifth

Generation
-

Present and Beyond: Artificial
Intelligence

Fifth generation computing devices, based on
artificial intelligence, are still in development,

though there are some applications, such as voice
recognition, that are being used today.

Artificial I
ntelligence is the branch of computer
science concerned with making computers behave
like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. Artificial intelligence includes:



Games Playing
: programming comput
ers to play games such as chess and checkers




Expert Systems
: programming computers to make decisions in real
-
life situations (for
example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)



Natural Language
: programming computers to
understand natural human languages



Neural Networks
: Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types
of physical connections that occur in animal brains



Robotics
: programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimu
li

IT 301
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Basic Computer



8

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human
behavior). The greatest advances have occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer
chess programs are now capable of beating humans. In May,

1
997, an IBM super
-
computer called
Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match.

Discover Computer History

Voice Recognition

10.
The

field of computer science that deals with
designing computer systems that can recognize
spoken words. Note that voice recognition
implies only that the computer can take dictation,
not that it understands what is being said.
Comprehending human languages
falls under a
different field of computer science called natural
language processing.



IT 301
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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor





IT 301
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Basic Computer



10

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

Classifications of Computer


(1)
11.

Micro computers: These computers use a microprocessor chip and this chip is used instead
of CPU means that this microprocessor chip

works

as a CPU.


These computers are also called personal computers. Two major types of these computers are
laptop or Deskt
op computers. Only one user uses these computers at time that's why they are
also known as personal computers.



(2)
12.
Mini Computers: These are powerful computer. These computers come into existence in
1960s at that time mainframe computer was very costl
y. Mini computers were available in cheap
prices, so users start using it.



(3)
13.
Mainframe Computer: It as a very powerful and large computer. You can get idea of its
power as it can handle processing of many users at a time.


Terminals are used to conn
ect a user to this computer and users submit there task through
mainframe. Terminal is a device which has keyboard and a screen. By using terminal users put
inputs into the computer and get the output through screen.



(4)
14.
Super Computers: As the name "
super computer" specifies that these are most powerful
computers even than mainframe. Actually, when we optimize a mainframe computer then we
get super computer.



(5)
15.
Microprocessor: You will find these computers everywhere. Microprocessor chips are us
ed
in many devices as I
-
pod, DVD, headphone etc.




Importance and Characteristics of Computers


It would not be an exaggeration to say that we are at the beginning of another industrial
Revolution. The major cause of the second Industrial Revolution is
the invention of companies.
Of all the electronic devices invented by man, the computer has made the greatest impact. They
have made a potentially significant contribution to the society during the last three decades. They
are so versatile that they have b
ecome indispensable to engineers, scientists, business executives,
managers, administrators, accountants, teachers and students. They have strengthened man’s
power in numerical computations and information processing and thereby have increased the
effectiv
eness of organizations.

Engineers and scientists make use of the high speed computing capability of computers to solve
their complex research and design problems. But for the computer, many of the technological
achievements such as landing on the moon woul
d have been possible.

IT 301
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Basic Computer



11

Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

Computers have helped automation of many industrial and business systems. They are used
extensively in manufacturing and processing industries, power distribution systems, airlines,
banking systems, and so on. Computer aided design (C
AD) and computer aided manufacturing
(CAM) are becoming popular among the large industrial establishments.

Business and commercial organizations need to store and maintain voluminous records and use
them for various purposes such as inventory control, sale
s analysis, pay roll accounting, resources
scheduling and management reports. Computers store and maintain the files and can sort, merge
to update them when necessary. With the introduction of word processor, computers have been
applied to the automation o
f office tasks and procedure. This is aimed at improving the
productivity of both clerical and managerial staff.

The ability of computers to store large amount of data has led to their application in libraries,
documentation centers, employment exchanges,
stock exchanges, hospitals and various other
establishments. The areas of computer application are almost literally too numerous to mention.
Computers have become an integral part of man’s everyday life. They continue to open new
horizons of discovery and
adventure such as the electronic office and the home computer centre.

Lastly, we must remember that computers are machines created and managed by man. A
computer has no brain of its own. Anything it does is the result of human instructions. It is an
obedie
nt salve which carries out the masters’ orders as long as it can understand them, no matter
whether they are right or wrong. In other words, computers lack common sense.


The Input process output Concept:

Computers follow a cycle of operation known as the
input
-
process output cycle. Raw facts
known as data are provided to the computer. They are encoded in a way that the computer is
able to understand them. The computer then processes the data with the help of certain
instructions provided to it and produces

a meaningful and desired output known as information.
Processing is nothing but manipulation of data in accordance with the needs of the user.

The following are the characteristics of computers:

1) Speed: The computer was invented as a high speed calculat
or. Since then computers have been
made to work at higher speeds. Speed is measured in terms of the processing time the computer
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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

takes to execute a given instruction. The lesser the time, the faster is the computer. We do not
talk in terms of seconds or ev
en of milliseconds (thousandth of a second).

2) Storage: In computers, the internal memory of the CPU or the central processing unit is only
large enough to retain a certain amount of information (i.e. it is finite) It is, therefore, impossible
to store i
nside the computer, huge amounts of information. Much of the data is stored outside of
the memory of the CPU, on auxiliary or secondary storage devices. Small sections of the total
data can be accessed very quickly by the CPU and bought into the main, i.e.

internal memory as
and when required for processing.

3) Accuracy: The computer’s accuracy is consistently high. Errors in the machinery can occur, but
almost without exception these errors in computing are due to human rather than due to
technological wea
kness.

4) Versatility: Computers are capable of performing almost any task, provided that the task can
be reduced to series of logical steps. Modern computers possess certain abilities that are peculiar
to them. They are:

a) Perform complex and repetitive
calculations a rapidly and accurately.

b) Store large amounts of data and information for subsequent manipulations.

c) Provide information to the user

d) Facilitate the process of decision making

e) Draw and print graphs

f) Converse with users through term
inals

5) Diligence: Being a machine, a computer does not suffer from the human traits of tiredness and
lack of concentration. Even if a million calculations are to be made, it will perform the millionth
one with exactly the same accuracy and speed as the f
irst.

Capabilities are,


1. Can solve complex calculations quickly which takes a long time to solve manually

2. Capable of handling and processing large calculations at a single time

3. All

Electronic

Items have some form of Computing functions.


Limitations are,


1.
Cannot replace a Human Brain

2. Works only on Stored Procedures and cannot think on its own.

3. Not all complex calculations can be solved through computers

4. Cannot depend on computers al
l the time

IT 301
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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

AREAS OF IMPACT OF COMPUTERS ON SOCIETY

Personal Impact:


Community Impact:


National Impact:


Global Impact:


Future Impact:

Personal Impact



privacy and personal rights



data banks, computer terminals, data security



employment



job opportunities,

new careers, the need for retraining



business transactions



automated billing, credit cards, interac, consumer spending



the replacement of people through automation



robots, word processing



the impact that a machine has on a human
-

ergonomics

Community Imp
act



employment



traffic control



urban planning



law enforcement

National Impact



communications media



the use of information for control



vote counting



electronic funds transfer



stock
-
market transactions



defense



surveillance



national data banks



employment



shifting patterns



telecommunications



satellite broadcasting



the possibility of fraud or theft using computer based systems



standards for computer hardware and software

IT 301
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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor


Global Impact



reporting of current events



communications media



world government



interna
tional standards



exploration of space and sea



world wide access to data

Future Impact



computers in the home



gaming



learning



electronic mail



shopping



business transactions



information processing, storage and retrieval



the home as a work center



effect on the

family unit and on familiar patterns of life



travel



computer communication as a replacement for travel



the possible disappearance of hard copy as a medium of communication



the cashless society



possible effects on the formal education system



the use of rob
ots in industry and in the home



teleprocessing networks



communications networks


Parts of a computer

If you use a desktop computer, you might already know that there isn't any single part called the
"computer." A computer is really a system of many parts
working together. The physical parts,
which you can see and touch, are collectively called

hardware
. (
Software
, on the other hand,
refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do.)

The illustration below shows the most common har
dware in a desktop computer system. Your
system may look a little different, but it probably has most of these parts. A laptop computer has
similar parts but combines them into a single notebook
-
sized package.

IT 301
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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

Desktop computer system

Let's take a look at
each of these parts.

16.
System unit

The

system unit

is the core of a computer system. Usually it's a rectangular box placed on or
underneath your desk. Inside this box are many electronic components that process information.
The most important of these
components is the

central processing unit (CPU)
, or

microprocessor
,
which acts as the "brain" of your computer. Another component is

random access memory
(RAM)
, which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on. The
informatio
n stored in RAM is erased when the computer is turned off.

Almost every other part of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. The cables
plug into specific

ports

(openings), typically on the back of the system unit. Hardware that is not
par
t of the system unit is sometimes called a

peripheral device

or

device
.

IT 301
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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

System unit

Storage

Your computer has one or more

disk drives

devices that store information on a metal or plastic
disk. The disk preserves the information even when your computer is
turned off.

17.
Hard disk drive

Your computer's

hard disk drive

stores information on a

hard disk
, a rigid platter or stack of
platters with a magnetic surface. Because hard disks can hold massive amounts of information,
they usually serve as your
computer's primary means of storage, holding almost all of your
programs and files. The hard disk drive is normally located inside the system unit.

Hard disk drive

18.
CD and DVD drives

Nearly all computers today come equipped with a CD or DVD drive, usual
ly located on the front
of the system unit. CD drives use lasers to read (retrieve) data from a CD, and many CD drives
can also write (record) data onto CDs. If you have a recordable disk drive, you can store copies
of your files on blank CDs. You can also

use a CD drive to play music CDs on your computer.

IT 301
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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

CD

DVD drives can do everything that CD drives can, plus read DVDs. If you have a DVD drive, you
can watch movies on your computer. Many DVD drives can record data onto blank DVDs.

Tip

If you have a
recordable CD or DVD drive, periodically back up (copy) your important files to
CDs or DVDs. That way, if your hard disk ever fails, you won't lose your data.

Floppy disk drive

Floppy disk drives store information on

floppy disks
, also called

floppies

or

d
iskettes
. Compared
to CDs and DVDs, floppy disks can store only a small amount of data. They also retrieve
information more slowly and are more prone to damage. For these reasons, floppy disk drives
are less popular than they used to be, although some comp
uters still include them.

Floppy disk

Why are floppy disks "floppy"? Even though the outside is made of hard plastic, that's just the
sleeve. The disk inside is made of a thin, flexible vinyl material.

19.
Mouse

A mouse is a small device used to point to
and select items on your computer screen. Although
mice come in many shapes, the typical mouse does look a bit like an actual mouse. It's small,
oblong, and connected to the system unit by a long wire that resembles a tail. Some newer mice
are wireless.

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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

M
ouse

A mouse usually has two buttons: a primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary
button. Many mice also have a wheel between the two buttons, which allows you to scroll
smoothly through screens of information.


When you move the mouse with

your hand, a pointer on your screen moves in the same
direction. (The pointer's appearance might change depending on where it's positioned on your
screen.) When you want to select an item, you point to the item and then

click

(press and
release) the prima
ry button. Pointing and clicking with your mouse is the main way to interact
with your computer. For more information, see

Using your mouse
.


20.
Keyboard

A keyboard is used
mainly for typing text into your computer. Like the keyboard on a
typewriter, it has keys for letters and numbers, but it also has special keys:



The

function keys
, found on the top row, perform different functions depending on where
they are used.



The

nume
ric keypad
, located on the right side of most keyboards, allows you to enter
numbers quickly.



The

navigation keys
, such as the arrow keys, allow you to move your position within a
document or webpage.

Keyboard

You can also use your keyboard to perform many of the same tasks you can perform with a
mouse.

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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

21.
Monitor

A

monitor

displays information in visual form, using text and graphics. The portion of the
monitor that displays the information is called the

screen
. Like a television screen, a computer
screen can show still or moving pictures.

There are two basic types of monitors:

CRT

(cathode ray tube) monitors and

LCD

(liquid crystal
display) monitors. Both types produce sharp images, but LCD monitors have the
advantage of
being much thinner and lighter. CRT monitors, however, are generally more affordable.

LCD monitor (left); CRT monitor
(right)

22.
Printer

A printer transfers data from a computer onto paper. You don't need a printer to use your
computer, but h
aving one allows you to print e
-
mail, cards, invitations, announcements, and
other materials. Many people also like being able to print their own photos at home.

The two main types of printers are

inkjet printers

and

laser printers
. Inkjet printers are the

most
popular printers for the home. They can print in black and white or in full color and can produce
high
-
quality photographs when used with special paper. Laser printers are faster and generally
better able to handle heavy use.

Inkjet printer (left);
laser
printer (right)



IT 301
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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

Speakers

Speakers are used to play sound. They may be built into the system unit or connected with
cables. Speakers allow you to listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer.

Computer speakers

Modem

To connect your
computer to the Internet, you need a

modem
. A modem is a device that sends
and receives computer information over a telephone line or high
-
speed cable. Modems are
sometimes built into the system unit, but higher
-
speed modems are usually separate components
.



System software

System software

provides the basic functions for computer usage and helps run
the

computer

hardware

and system. It includes a combination of the following:



Device drivers



Operating systems



Servers



Utilities



Window systems

IT 301
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Basic Computer



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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

System software is responsible for managing a variety of independent hardware components, so
that they can work together harmoniously. Its purpose
is to unburden the

application
software

programmer

from the often complex details of the par
ticular computer being used,
including such accessories as

communications devices
, printers, device readers, displays and
keyboards, and also to partition the com
puter's resources such as memory and processor time in
a safe and stable manner.

Programming software

Programming software

usually provides tools to assist a progra
mmer in writing

computer
programs
, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. The
tools include:



Compilers



Debuggers



Interpreters



Linkers



Text editors

An

Integrated development environment

(IDE) is a single application that attempts

to manage all
these functions


Application software

Application software

is developed to aid in any task that benefits from computation. It is a broad
category, and encompasses

software

of many kinds, including the

internet browser

being used to
display this page. This category includes:



Business software



Computer
-
aided design



D
atabases



Decision making software



Educational software



Image editing



Industrial automation



Mathematical software



Medical software

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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor



Molecular modeling software



Quantum chemistry and solid state physics software



Simulation software



Spreadsheets



Telecommunications

(i.e.,

the Internet

and everything that flows on it)



Video games



Word processing


Architecture

Users

often see things differently than programmers. People who use modern general purpose
computers (as opposed to

embedded systems
,

analog computers

and

supercomputers
) usually see
three layers of software performing a variety of
tasks: platform, application, and user software.



Platform software:

Platform

includes the

firmwa
re
,

device drivers
, an

operating system
, and
typically a

graphical user interface

which, in total, allow a user to interact with the computer
and its

peripherals

(associated
equipment). Platform software often comes bundled with the
computer. On a

PC

you will usually have the ability to change the platform software.



Application software:

Application software

or Applications are what most people think of
when they think of software. Typical examples include office suites and video games.
Application soft
ware is often purchased separately from computer hardware. Sometimes
applications are bundled with the computer, but that does not change the fact that they run
as independent applications. Applications are usually independent programs from the
operating s
ystem, though they are often tailored for specific platforms. Most users think of
compilers, databases, and other "system software" as applications.



User
-
written software:

End
-
user development

tailors systems to meet users' specific needs.
User software
includes

spreadsheet templates and

word processor

templates. Even email
filters are a
kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and often overlook
how important it is. Depending on how competently the user
-
written software has been
integrated into default application packages, many users may not be aware of the distinctio
n
between the original packages, and what has been added by co
-
workers

Documentation

Most software has

software documentation

so that the

end user

can understand the program,
what it does, and how to use it. Without clear documentation, software can be hard to use

especially if it is very specialized and relatively complex lik
e

Photoshop

or

AutoCAD
.

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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

Developer documentation may also exist, either with the code as comments and/or as separate
file
s, detailing how the programs works and can be modified.

Library

An executable is almost always not sufficiently complete for direct execution.
Software
libraries

include co
llections of

functions

and functionality that may be embedded in other
applications. Operating systems include many standard Software libraries, and a
pplications are
often distributed with their own libraries.

Standard

Since software can be designed using many different

programming languages

and in many
different

operating systems

and

operating environments
,

software standard

is needed so that
different software can understand and exchange information between each other. For instance,
an

email

sent from a

Microsoft Outlook

should be readable from

Yahoo! Mail

an
d vice versa.

Execution

Main article:

Execution (computing)

Computer software has to be "loaded" into the

computer's storage

(such as the

hard
drive

or

memory
). Once the software has loaded, the computer is able to

execute

the software.
This involves passing

instruction
s

from the application software, through the system software, to
the

hardware

which ultimately receives the instruction as

machine code
. Each instruction causes
the computer to carry out an operation



moving

data
, carrying out a

computation
, or altering
the

control flow

of instructions.

Quality and reliability

Main articles:

Software quality
,

Software testing
, and

Software reliability

Software quality is very important, especially for commercial and system software like

Microsoft
Office
,

Microsoft Windows

and

Linux
. If software is faulty (buggy), it c
an delete a person's work,
crash the computer and do other unexpected things. Faults and errors are called "
bugs
." Many
bugs are discovered and eliminated (debugged) through

software testing
. However, software
testing rarely



if ever



eliminates every bug; some programmers say that "every program has at
least one more bug" (Lubarsky's Law). All maj
or software companies, such as Microsoft, Novell
and

Sun Microsystems
, have their own software testing departments with the specific goal of just
testing. Software can be t
ested through

unit testing
,

regression testing

and other methods, which
are done manually, or most commonly, automatically, since the amount of code to be tested can
be quite large.

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Angela A. Diniega

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License

Main article:

Software licen
se

The software's license gives the user the right to use the software in the licensed environment.
Some software comes with the license when purchased off the shelf, or an OEM license when
bundled with hardware. Other software comes with a

free software license
, granting the recipient
the rights to modify and redistribute the software. Software can also be in the form
of

freeware

or

shareware
.


Peopleware

is a term used to refer to one of the three core aspects of computer technology:
hard
ware, software, and peopleware. Peopleware can refer to anything that has to do with the
role of people in the development or use of computer software and hardware systems, including
such issues as developer productivity, teamwork, group dynamics, the psyc
hology of
programming, project management, organizational factors, human interface design, and human
-
machine
-
interaction


The Baran model

23.
Paul Baran

is considered one of the main figures in the creation of the Internet. In 1964, he
had the idea to create a network in the form of a large web. He had realized that a centralized
system was vulnerable, as destroying its core would bring down all communica
tions. For this
reason, he created a hybrid network using both mesh and star topology, in which data would
travel dynamically, "searching" for the clearest pathway, and "waiting" if all routes were blocked.
This technology was called "packet switching."

Th
e

Internet

is a global system of interconnected

computer networks

that use the standard

Internet Protocol Suite

(TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a

network of networks

that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local
to global scope, that are linked by a broad

array of electronic, wireless and optical networking
technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of

information

resources and services, such as the
inter
-
linked

hypertext

documents of the

World Wide Web

(WWW) and the infrastructure to
support

electronic mail
.

Most traditional communications media including

telephone
, music, film, and television are
reshaped or redefined by the Interne
t, giving birth to new services such as

Voice over Internet
Protocol

(VoIP) and

IPTV
.
Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to

Web site

technology, or are reshaped into

blogging

and

web feeds
. The Internet has enabled or
accelerated new forms of human interactions through

instant messaging
,

Internet forums
,
and

social networking
.

Online shopping

has boomed both for major retail outlets and
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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

small

artisans

and traders.

Business
-
to
-
business

and

financial services

on the Internet affect

supply
chains

across entire industries.

The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the United
States government in collaboration with private co
mmercial interests to build robust, fault
-
tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S.

backbone

by
the

National Science Foundation

in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial
backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies,
and the me
rger of many networks. The

commercialization

of what was by the 1990s an
international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspec
t
of modern human life. As of 2009, an estimated quarter of Earth's population used the services of
the Internet.


Information

24.
The World Wide Web

Beginning in 1980, Tim Berners
-
Lee, a researcher at CERN in Geneva, engineered a hypertext
navigation system, and developed, with the help of Robert Cailliau, a software program
called

Enquire

for navigating it.

In late 1990, Tim Berners
-
Lee finished the p
rotocol

HTTP

(Hypertext Transfer Protocol), as well
as

HTML

(HyperText Markup Language) for browsing networks by using hype
rlinks. The

World
Wide Web

was born.

World Wide Web browser software, such as

Microsoft
's

Internet Explorer
,

Mozilla
Firefox
,

Opera
,

Apple
's

Safari
, and

Google Chrome
, let users navigate from one web page to
another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents. These documents may also contain any
combination o
f

computer data
, including graphics, sounds,

text
,

video
,

multimedia

and
interactive content including
games
,

office applications

and scientific demonstrations.
Through

keyword
-
driven

Internet research

using

search engines

like

Yahoo!

and

Google
, users
worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse a
mount of online information.
Compared to printed

encyclopedias

and traditional

libraries
, the World Wide Web h
as enabled
the decentralization of information.

The Web has also enabled individuals and organizations to

publish

ideas and information to a
potentially large

audience

online at greatly reduced expense and time delay. Publishing a web
page, a blog, or building a website involves little initial

cost

and many cost
-
free

services are
available. Whereas operations such as

Angelfire

and

GeoCities

have existed since the early days of
the

Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and MySpace currently have large
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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

followings. These operations often brand themselves as

social network
services

rather than simply
as web page hosts.

Advertising

on popular web pages can be lucrative, and

e
-
commerce

or the sale of products and
services directly via the Web continues to grow.

When the Web began in the 1990s, a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web
server, formatted with

HTML
, ready to be sent to a user's browser in response to a request. Over
time, the process of creating and serving web pages has become more automated and more
dynamic. Websites are often created using

content management

or

wiki

software with, initially,
very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of a club or
o
ther organization or members of the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing
pages designed for that purpose, while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML
form. There may or may not be editorial, approval and secur
ity systems built into the process of
taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.


Data transfer

File sharing

is an example of transferring large a
mounts of data across the Internet. A

computer
file

can be emailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be uploaded to a
website or

FTP

server for easy download by others. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto
a

file server

for instant use by colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be
eased by the use of "
mirror
" servers or

peer
-
to
-
peer

networks. In any of these cases, access to the
file may be controlled by user

authentication
, the transit of the file over
the Internet may be
obscured by

encryption
, and money may change hands for access to the file.


Webcams

are a low
-
cost
extension of this phenomenon. While some webcams can give full
-
frame
-
rate video, the picture is usually either small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch
animals around an African waterhole, ships in the

Panama Canal
, traffic at a local roundabout or
monitor their own premises, live and in real time. Video

chat rooms

and

video conferencing

are
also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams, with and without two
-
way
sound. YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free
strea
ming video with a vast number of users. It uses a

flash
-
based web player to stream and show
video files. Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own
personal profile. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions, and upload hundreds
of thousands of videos daily.


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Angela A. Diniega

Instructor

ARPANET

In August 1969, separate from the military project, the experimental network

ARPANET

was
created by ARPA (
Advanced Resear
ch Projects Agency
, a division of the United States
Department of Defense) in order to link four universities together:



The Stanford Research Institute;



The University of California at Los Angeles;



The University of California at Santa Barbara;



The
University of Utah.

The ARPANET is now considered the precursor to the Internet. At that time, it already included
several fundamental characteristics of the current network:



One or several cores could be destroyed without disrupting the network's operatio
n;



Communication between machines could take place without the direction of a central
machine;



The protocols used were basic.


25.
E
-
mail

In 1971, Ray Tomlinson developed a new means of communication:

electronic mail
. The contents
of the first e
-
mail were:

QWERTYUIOP

Additionally, the character "@" was already being used to separate the user's name from the rest
of the address.

In July 1972, Lawrence G. Roberts improved upon the horizons pioneered by Tomlinson by
developing the first application for listing,

selectively reading, archiving, and responding to or
forwarding an e
-
mail. Since then, e
-
mail has never stopped growing in influence, becoming the
most common use of the Internet at the turn of the 21
st

century.

Also in 1972 (October), the ARPANET was
introduced to the general public for the first time, at
the ICCC (International Computer Communication Conference). Around that same time, ARPA
became DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) and the term "internetting" was
used to refer to ARPANE
T, which was later shortened to "Internet."

TCP protocol

The NCP protocol then in use did not enable error checking, and therefore was in principle
usable only on the ARPANET, whose infrastructure was correctly controlled.

For this reason, Bob Kahn, who came to ARPA in 1972, started work on a the foundation for a
new protocol, called

TCP
, for routing data over a network by fragmenting it into small packets
.
In the spring of 1973, he asked Vinton Cerf (then at Stanford) to help him build the protocol.

In 1976, the DoD decided to use TCP on the ARPANET, composed of 111 interconnected
machines. In 1978, TCP was split into two protocols:

TCP

and

IP
, forming what would become
the

TCP/IP suite
.

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Instructor

DNS

The naming system

DNS

used today was implemented in 1984, in order to remedy the lack of
flexibility inherent in

hosts files
, in which machine names and their respective addresses were
stored in text files that

had to be updated manually.

RFCs

In 1969, Steve Crocker (then at the University of California) perfected the "Request for
Comments" (
RFC
) system. It was a group of documents in memorandum fo
rm, allowing
researchers to share their work.

Jon Postel (6 August 1943
-

16 October 1998) was in charge of administrating these documents
until his death.