EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT PARTY LEADERSHIP ONLINE

mumpsimuspreviousΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

25 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

97 εμφανίσεις


EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT PARTY
LEADERSHIP ONLINE

UTILIZING DATA AND SENTIMENT ANALYSIS TO FIND
DEFICITS, MARKET SHARES AND CONNECTEDNESS


CHANDLER THOMAS LLC







Page
2

of
11


Parliament leadership C
onnectedness

to

Online media: How

do the three main EU p
olitical

party l
eaders fair?

The

Europe
an

Union

has not been progressive in communications. It

s timid
and

sil
o
-
ed


approach
with
constituents has undermined sound communication techniques

and principle
s
. While the EU is very good at

technical polic
ies
, the
institution

s
communication
failure
s
have

led to a democratic deficit

within

civil society
. This
has show
n

up in voting rates

and polls
.


G
enerally
speaking politics is about
identity

and empathy,
not so much the
best policy.

The
Reagan and Thatcher

campaigns

proved
it
.

Time and time again
,

I see European
Parliament
Political Parties and leader
s
hip

fail to understand this.

For the last two years


as a US citizen,

I
worked

at

the
Commi
ssion
and Parliament
. In the Parliament I Advised

the EPP Group
President's

cabinet on strategic
Communications
.

At the European Commission I was a policy and communications officer. While
there is plenty of
blame to go around,

I have noted a

push

(
internally
) for development of better

communication
s
. None the less
ins
titution personnel,

who have no desire to adapt

to modern methods
,

a
re the constraints of any

meaningful
change.

With the r
ise in online communication this paper will show how the main political party leaders fair in the online
media
environment.
I will look at
the
top

three main political parties
: T
he European People’s Party (EPP), Socialist
and Democrats (S&D) and
the Alliance

of Liberal Democrats (ALDE).


The

leaders are
:



Joseph Daul
(JD
)


EPP Group
, 272 seats in the EP




Guy Verhofstadt

(GV)



ALDE Group
, 85 seats in the EP



Martin Schulz
(MS)


S&D Group
, 190 seats in the EP

This paper

will look at online media

from October 1
st

2011


December 18
th

2011

to find:

1.

Who has the most
overall online market share


2.

What Leader has the most
correlation

with the

institutions
,
polit
ical parties and the Euro Crisis

3.

What region each
medium

trends

the most

4.

Engagement of regions and mediums

To
get
these results I have to break down the
locations of
online mediums:



Micro media


Twitter



Mainstream
O
nline
Media



Blogs

To get the results, I am using

data softwa
re that does sentiment analysis
1

and online m
edia monitoring (OMM).
With

the wealth of information that exists
online
,

and the tool's ability to analysis text through Natural Language
Processing
2

algo
rithms, it’s possible to get very accurate insights into

how people interact with, and think about
the EU
. Furthermore, this can be done for much cheaper than Focus Groups and polling, which have a bias

inherently
. Online, people’s actions are often less
inhibited. Somewhere
,

with

a medium people are leaving traces
of themselves which in turn can p
rovide
data

scientist
information to break down. Current
linguistic

research
shows that different cultures and upbringings have different patterns in what “frame
” they use to see and explain
the
world
(
Lakoff, 2008)
. By looking at
language online
, it’s possible to
deconstruct

cognitive bias

an
d develop
taxonomies around online actions and demographics
.




1

Sentiment analysis

or

opinion mining

refers to the application of

natural language processing
,

computational linguistics
, and

text analytics

to
identify and extract subjec
tive information in source materials.

2

Natural language processing

(
NLP
) is a field of

computer science

and

linguistics

concerned with the interactions between computers and
human (natural) languages; it began as a branch of artificial intelligence.
[
1
]

In theory, natural language processing is a very attractive method
of

human

computer interact
ion
.

Natural language understanding

is sometimes referred to as an

AI
-
complete

problem because it seems to
require extensive knowledge about the outside world and the ability to manipulate it.

Modern NLP algorithms are grounded in

machine
learning
, especially

statistical

machine learning. Research into modern statistical NLP algorithms requires an understanding of a number of
disparate fields, incl
uding

linguistics
,

computer science
, and

statistics
. For a discussion of the types of algorithms currently used in NLP, see the
article on

pattern recognition
.


Page
3

of
11





So
why
is looking

at online media important?

The

chart

above

(Lau,

2001)

shows

online

media

has

expanded

in

the

last

16

years.

Online

news

has

displaced

print

and

broadcast

to

represent

46

percent

of

all

content

monitored

globally.

Increasingly

online

communication
s
/media

is

becoming

the

main

so
urce

of

people’s

knowledge

for

pol
itical

affairs.

I
n

the

era

of

the

mediatization

in

politics

and

democratic

theory,

which

assumes

that

an

informed

and

attentive

public

is

necessary

for

democracy

to

work

effectively

(Lau,

2001)
,

understanding
online

communications

is

vital.



The

Analysis

of

online

media

is

a

cross

between

what’s

called

data

science
3

and

“Culturomics”

(Leetaru,

September 2011)
.

The

goal

is

to

find

cultural

trends

through

the

computeriz
ed

analysis

of

online

m
edia

to

develop

insights

in

the

functioning

of

human

society
,

thoughts

and

actions

(Michel,

et

al.
,

2011).

This

process

has

been

very

accurate

in

forecasting

instance
s
such

as

box

office

sales

(
Mishne

and

Glance,

2006
)
to

the stock market

(
Bollen
,

et
al.
,
2011).

To

illustrate

the

power

of

data

science

and

sentiment

analysis

in

a

political

context
scientist



using a
super computer
,

a
pplied

tone

and

geographic

analysis

to

a

30

year

worl
d
wide

news

archive.

The

scientist

were

able

to

forecast

the

revolutions

in

Tunisia,

Egypt,

and

Libya,

the

removal

of

Egypti
an

President

Mubarak,

the

stability

of

Saudi

Ar
abia
,

and

est
imated

Osama

Bin

Laden’s

hiding

place

within

a

200

kilometer

radius

in

Northern

Pakistan.

The

point

being

is that

media

has

been

a

very

accurate

source

of

insights

about

the

human

condition

and

thought.

Now

with

the

rapid

expansion

of

online

media
,

there

is

a

wealth

of

untapped

syntax

to

further

analyze
.


The

chart

above

shows

the

volume

of

terms

“European

Parliament”,

“European

Commission”

and

“European

Union”.

The terms

were

translated

into

French,

German

and

Italian

for

accuracy
.

The

data

was

gathered

with

Google

Insights
4

for

Search
.

The

chart

does

not

track

positive

or

negative

sentiment,

just

the

volume

of

the

terms

searched

through

Google
5
.

T
he

data

clearly shows

the

interest

in

the

EU

has

gone

down

since

2004
.

For

both

the

European

Parliament

and

Commission

the

top

term
locations

were

Ixelles,

Luxembourg

and

Brussels



all

home

to

the

institutions
.

This

illustrates

the

“Brussels

Bubble”

many

talk

about
.




3

The profession of interpreting and creating value from Data.

4

With Google Insights for Search, you can compare search volume patterns across specific regions, categories, time frames and
properties.

See

examples

of how you can use Google Insights for Search.

5

Google’s search market share in Europe is around 90%. In the U.S. it’s around 65%.

Page
4

of
11



With the
current financial “
Euro


crisis it would be eas
y to assume that the interest in the EU
-

whether good or
bad
,

would go up

-

which has not happened. The
Google insights data mirrors

voting

participation, which has gone
down (above)
.
Main

variables are
the l
ack of a unified media, hesitat
ion on real
-
time engagement,
fa
ilure t
o
leverage modern instruments
and incentive to engage
.

MEP
s

and political parties do not have to raise money for
re
-
election
. There is little reason

for MEPs on an individual level
to actively engage
constituents since European
Parties put

forth the Politicians
.


This

infrastructure

has lead

to
au
tonomy
. Now

EU citizens look

to
ward
s

national
politics

for answers
.


European Parliament
.

The

EPP

Controls

36%

of

the

Market Share of
seats

in

the

EP
,

Followed

by

the

S&D

(
25%) and ADLE (11%)
of
the market share of
each political Group in the
European
Parliament

(EP)

is not in
contrast to each other
.

Those market shares break down
to




EPP
-

49%



S&D
-

34%



ALDE
-

15%


It’s important to
understand that market share (MS) is a Key
Performance Indicator

(KPI)
.
Political Groups are given the same
amount of money to spend

based on

the number of seats they hold.
It

gives us a standard for over and

under performance.

In a vacuum
sentiment

and retention
should be the same for each party.
Market
share online
should

be replicated
.











Page
5

of
11


The

Charts

above

show

the

amount

of

article
s

each

leader

generates

between

1
st

2011



Dec 18
th

2011
.

We

clearly

see

MS

is

in

the

l
ead

followed

by

GV

and

JD.

During

this

time

there

has

been

a

total

of

4790

articles

which

are

broken

down

to:



1597

Avg
Monthly

Articles



462
Avg
Weakly Articles



61

Avg

Daily

Articles


The

amplitude

for

each

leader

(peaks

and

valleys
)

illustrate
s

(especially

on

the

top

chart)

key

offline

political

events
.

T
he

number

of

articles

generated

where

done

so

within

the

context

of

JD,

GV

and

MS
,

and

a

EU

Boolean

search

profile
6
.

The

top

chart

is

not

within

the

context

of

each

Party

President

(PP).

This

means

that

while

most




6

JD/MS/GV and ("Europa" OR "EU" OR "Euro" OR "UE" OR "Brussels" OR "Strasb
ourg" OR "MEP" OR "Brüssel" OR "Europees Parlement" OR
"European Parliament" OR "Parlement européen" OR "Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο" OR "Europäischen Parlaments" OR "Parlamento europeo"

OR
"Parlamento Europeo" OR "Európskeho parlamentu" OR "Parlament Europejski
" OR "Eiropas Parlaments" OR "Parlement" OR "Parliament" OR
"Parlement" OR "Κοινοβούλιο" OR "Parlaments" OR "Parlamento" OR "Parlamento" OR "parlamentu" OR "Parlament" OR "Parlaments" O
R
"EU" OR "UE" OR "European Union" OR "Europese Unie" OR "Union europée
nne" OR "Europäischen Union" OR "Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση" OR
"Unione europea" OR "Unia Europejska" OR "Unión Europea" OR "Comissão Europeia" OR "Comisión Europea" OR "Komisja Europejska"

OR
"Comissão Europeia" OR "Commission européenne" OR "Commissione europea" OR

"Europäische Kommission" OR "European Commission" OR
Page
6

of
11


times

the

peaks

go

up

in

correlation
.

T
hey

are

not

inclusive

of

one

another.

The

bottom

chart

s

rises

and

falls

are

in

correlation

to

market

share

of

each

leader.

Since

the

groups

are

competing

I

value

the chart

as

a good KPI
.

The

software

has

the

ability

to

dive

in to

the

peaks

and

see

what

the

post

themes

are.

The

charts

show

GV

had

a

raise

in

articles

generated

in

October.

For

GV

the

peaks

had

to

do

with

the

bail

out

of

the

Belgian

Bank

Dexia.

MS’s

profile

was

raised

during

Jose

Barroso’s
7

S
tate

of

the

U
nion

Address.

Since

the

S&D

are

the

EPP
’s

(which

party

Barroso

belongs

to)

main

competitor,

t
he

media

wanted

the

“other

side”

of

the

story.

In

mid

December

JD’s

profile

raised

during

the EPP Group’s

Marseilles

conference
where

JD

was re
-
elected
to

serve

as

the

Groups

president.

Prior

Daul

remains

quite

throughout.

Typically

all

peaks

are

correlated

to

all

of

the

leaders

given

that

they

are

all
major

players

in

EU

politics.



European

Parliament

(EP)

Leadership:

Subject

C
orrelation

and

Media

Market

Share

(MS):


The

chart

above

shows

correlation

m
arket

share

of

the

leaders

on

different

subjects
,

including

their

own

party
.

It’s

possible

that

all
leader
s
can

be

in

one

article

so the
totals

can be
over

100%.


The

Green

line

illustrates

what

rank

each

subject

is

in

correlation

to

the

leaders

conglomerated.

The

EU

ranks

1
st

followed

by

the

Parliament



which

should

be

expected,

and

then

the

Euro.

JD

has

the

most

at

81%
.
T
his

is

a
good

indicator

for

further

party

branding

but

not

for

pan

EU

leadership.

On

the

far

right
,

the

chart

shows

the

average

and

over/under

performance

to

the

market

share

of

Parliament

seats.

GV

(ALDE)

is at

+7
,

MS

(S&D)

is
+

20

over

perform

and
JD

(EPP)

is

at

-
20.

This

does

not

fare

well

for

the

EPP

Group.

When

looking

at

the

market

shares

of

EP

leaders

in

context

t
o

one

another,

JD

is

consistently

in

last

place.

So

why

does

the

EPP

vastly

underperform

while

the

S&D

and

ALDE

over

perform
?

This

can

be

due

to

a

number

of

reasons.




JD

d
oes

not

speak

English



The

EPP

being

the

largest

group

cannot

utilize

polarizing

and

thus

mobilizing

language

without

alienating

many

of

their

MEP’s.




JD

has

chosen

to

stay

out

of

the

spotlight

given

that

Jose

Barroso

and

Herman

Van

Rompuy
8

are

EPP.



MS

is

from

Germany

which

is

heavily

discussed

at

the

moment,

and
will

also

become

the

new

President

of

the

European

Parliament

replacing

Jerzey

Buzek
9
.







"Europese Commissie" OR "Comissão" OR "OR" OR "Comisión" OR "Komisja" OR "Comissão" OR "Commission" OR "Kommission" OR
"Commission" OR "Commissie")

7

President of the European Commission
, since 23 November 2004

8

President of the European Council under the

Treaty of Lisbon
.
[5]

He was appointed to chair the institution for the period starting from 1
December 2009 until 31 May 2012,
[6]
[7]

though he only took up his position officially on 1 Janua
ry 2010.
[8]

Page
7

of
11


Robert Fitzhenery
(H
ead of EPP Group Press

and who controls the communications and outreach
budget)

explained to me

that
the EPP

group cannot be to
o

polarizing on political issues
becaus
e of the EPP’s
size
, and
cannot risk alienating
some

MEPs.
On the other end

EPP spokesperson and chief of cabinet
Antoine Ripo
ll

want
s

to be

more polarizing and media smart
.
During my work

with

the EPP, ALDE and GV
was

typically
leading

despite only having an 11% (88 of
754 MEP seats
) market share of the EP
10
. I talked with Neil
Corlet
t,

Head of Press and Communication for
A
L
D
E.
Neil

explained

since

ALDE

was

a smaller group they decided to
follow whatever GV wanted and not deviate from
a few
main point
s
.
In short t
heir message is consistent via
both GV and

ALDE’s MEPs
.

I
t

paid off. ALDE is
outperforming

the EPP and S&D. And both have

more money.
It’s only in
the last two months that MS has been generating so much sentiment.
It will be interesting to see if
this approach pays off in the 2014 EP elections, and will be a good indicator of how mature the online EU
landscape is.

Breaking

down

Market

S
hares:
Medium and Leadership
:


While

many

public

affairs
/communication

professional
s

talk

in

trendy

ways

about

social

media
,

Twitter

and

Blogs
,

it’s

naïve

to

think

these

are

the

main

channels

for

engagement
.

Online
mainstream

news

simply

dominates

in

comparison.

It

sets

the

tone

of

the

issue,

gets

the

most

comments
,

and

is

shared

the

most

(“Likes/Votes”
11
)
,
which

to

an

extent

show

engagement.

Diving

back

into

market

shares

and

what

leader

controls

each

medium
.

T
he

chart

above

is

a

good

indicator

of

just

ho
w

dominate

Schulz

is
,

present day
.

MS

has

been control
s
just

about

every

medium
,

and other
variables

such

as

comments
.

Starting

from

the

right

we

see

Mainstream

New
s

percentages

and

how

it’s

divided

up:

MS

(63%)
,
G
V

(25%)

and

JD
(
1
2%)



On

the

second

box

from

the

left


MS

ind
12

MS


shows

what

the

market

share

of

the

medium



in

this

case

mainstream,

is

being

use

by

the

Party

Leader
.

In

short

mainstream

news

makes

up

61%

of

Martin

Schulz’s

online

media

comparatively it make up
44%

of

GV

and

35%

of

JD’s.

In

all

case
s

Main

S
tream

online

news

provides

the

most

media

and

comments

for

all

leaders.

Over

the

past

six

month
s

I’ve

see
n

a

rise

in

twitter

which

is

by

far

the

most

dispersed

and

equal

platform

and

also

JD’s

2
nd

highest

individual

medium.










9

Elected as

President of the European
Parliament

on 14 July 2009, succeeding

Hans
-
Gert Pöttering
.
[1]

10

I woul
d have liked to show these results but there is no way to get the
back

data.

11

Think Google +1 and Face book like and URL sharing.

12

“Ind” stands for individual and divides each mediums in to a zero sum game.


Page
8

of
11


We

can

conclude

two

things

from

the prior
chart
:



MS

is

winning

the

online

battle

for

media

and

engagement.

He

owns

94%

of

comments

leaving

only

4%

to

GV

and

3%

to

JD.



JD

severely

underperforms

given

the

EPP
’s

size

and

amount

of

money

they

have.




By

far

the

most

popular

medium

is

Mainstream

news.


Where

is the
media

coming

from
?

The

last chart showed market share

but a
t the end of
the day Politics

is about empath
y and identity.
To

know

how you are
perceived


and
what
media platform
people use
,
and
in a given

region
,

is a huge

strategic
advantage.

The pie chart
show
s

where the
general
media about the leaders are coming from.

The top spot
goes to the

USA (29.5%)
. This a regular trend for the

majority of platforms and
illistraits

the US
A’s

media
dominance,


followed by Germany
(26.6),
and France
(9.2%).


From

the

individual

leader

perspectiv
e

(bottom

pie
chart)
,

Market

shares

for the majority of
media

are

divided

between

Germany,

The
US
A

and

France.



MS
,
German
y

and France
,



GV
’s
,
US

and

Belgium




JD

,
US
A

and

France

















Page
9

of
11


Regions

People

E
ngage:

Defining

engagement:

A

blog

or

T
witter

post
,

“like/vote”

or

comment

on

an

article

is

a

good

place

to

start.

M
edia

output

only

show
s

where

online

media

is coming

from.

While

it’s

important

for

figuring

out

what

journalist

to

contact,

it’s

not

constituent

engagement
;

journalist

are paid

to

write.

The

charts

on

this

page

show

the

location

of

Comments,

blogs

and

twitter

(
Micro

media
)

followed

by

word

clouds.

The

word

clouds

represent

trending
words

for each variable below (Comment Count, Microblogs, Blogs)
.

This

give
s

us

a

good

indication

of

what

is

on

people
’s

mind

within

the

region.

Comment

Count:

I

find

this

facet

extremely

inter
esting.

Past

research

about

med
i
a

indicates

the

same

thing.

The

French

love

to

talk

and

post

comments
.
Germans

remain

silent
.

The

data

on

the

right

pie

chart

shows

where

comments

of

online

media

are

coming

from.

It’s

amazing

that

even

for

a
Ge
rman

politician

like

Martin

S
chulz

the

French

still

account

for

93.7

%
of

the
comments

to

Germany’s

.5%.

The

European

Institution

and

German

constituent

relationship

seems

to

be

a

complex

one
.

From

the

word

clouds

of

the

comments
,

the

Euro

is

the

biggest

topic

outside

of

Martin

Schulz
, not a surprise
.









Micro

Blogs

(
Twitter
):

Microblogs place

third

overall

behind

Mainstream

News

and

Blog

for

the

most

media

output.

Twitter

seems

to

be

equal pa
rt

comment
,

social

network,

blog

post

and

news

platform.

This

is

a

unique

standing

and

perhaps

one

of

the

reason
s

why

Twitter

growth

has

been

enormous

in

the

last

year.

The

real
-
time

medium

shows

relevance

and

trends

very

accurately
, and has the most

equal

medium

market

share

between

the

EP

party

leaders.


In

addition

to

comments
,

the

French

are

the

most

active

outside

of

the

USA.

Further

Joseph

Daul
,

who

is

French
,

gets

a

boost

in

market

share

on

the

platform.












Page
10

of
11


Blogs:

The top region for EP leadership being mentioned in blogs is the
US
A followed by the Germany. The
French

take

a

back

seat.

I talked
with

Ben

Opperman
n
, a

German

EPP

Group

international

relations

expert. Ben explained
that
the
German

Green

party
’s

recent

success

in

elections

could

partially

be
attributed

to

their ability to tap into
the German
blog

network
.










Like
s

and

Votes:

(R
ight

chart)

While

the

German’s

leave

the

commenting

to

the

French
,

in

addition

to

Blogging

they

do

tend

to


like

and

vote

.

Unlike

in

other

mediums

t
he

USA

doesn’t

really

show

up,

a
nd

for

the

first

time

Italy

controls a significant market
share
.


I

was

not

able

to

break

down

word

clouds

for

“L
ikes

and

V
otes

.



Conclusion

This

paper

has

show
n

the

deficits
,

mediums

and

market

share

within

the

context

of

EP

Party

leaders

and

online

media.

There

are

still

plenty

of

ways

to

interpret

the

data

and

charts

presented
.

P
oints to

T
ake
Away:



Martin

Schulz

controls

the

majority

of

all

medium

market

share
s
.

It’s

safe

to

conclude

Schulz

received

the

boost

from

Germany

being

central

to

the

Euro

Crisis

(66%

correlation.

First

among

EP

Party

Leaders)
,

and

h
is

accession

to

European

Parliament

President.




The

US

controls

most

of

the

Media

output
.



Joseph

Daul

and

the

EPP

are

underperforming

and

need

to

address

their

deficits.

Final

Thoughts:

As

the S
emantic

Web, Machine Learning and
Natural Language Processing
become

more

evolved;
there

will

be

a

greater

wealth

of

knowledge

that can

be

applied

to

Political

and Governmental issues
.

It
’s
my

opinion

that

governm
ent
s

should

utilize

these

tools

to

govern

actively
,

and

or

form

an

“active

democracy”

that

is

more

in

line

with

what

constituents

want.

Listening

is

the

first

step
.



Page
11

of
11



Bibliography

Lakoff
,

G. (2008, June 20).
ForaTV
.

Retrieved September 5th, 2011, from ForaTV:
http://fora.tv/2008/06/20/George_Lakoff_on_The_Political_Mind

Lau, R. R. (2001). Advantages and Disadvantages of Cognitive Heuristics .
American Journal of Political Science 45

, 951
-
971.

Leetaru,

K. (September 2011).
culturenomics
2.0:Forecasting large
-
sc
ale human behavior using global news
media
tone and space.
First
Monday,
, Volume 16, Number 9
-

5 .

Sustainable

building

technology

knowledge

representation:

Using

Semantic

Web

techniques.
Detail

Only

Available
By:

Tah,

Joseph

H.M.;

Abanda,

Henry

F..

Adv
anced

Engineering

Informatics,

Aug2011,

Vol.

25

Issue

3,

p547
-
558,

12p;

DOI:

10.1016/j.aei.2011.02.006

Who

Said

What?

The

Effects

of

Source

Cues

in

Issue

Frames.
Full

Text

Available
By
:

Hartman,

Todd;

Weber,

Christopher.

Political

Behavior,

Dec2009,

Vol.

31

Issue

4,

p537
-
558,

22p,

4

Charts,

2

Graphs;

DOI:

10.1007/s11109
-
009
-
9088
-
y

Does

framing

work?

An

empirical

study

of

Simplifying

Models

for

sustainable

food

production.
Detail

Only

Available
By:

Jaspaert,

Koen;

Van

de

Velde,

Freek;

Brône,

Geert;

Feyaerts,

Kurt;

Geeraerts,

Dirk.

Cognitive

Linguistics
,

2011,

Vol.

22

Issue

3,

p459
-
490,

32p,

5

Diagrams,

22

Charts;

DOI:

10.1515/COGL.2011.018

The

impact

of

metaphorical

framing

on

term

creation

in

biology.
Detail

Only

Available
By:

Volanschi,

Alexandra;

Kübler,

Natalie.

Terminology,

2011,

Vol.

17

Issue

2,

p198
-
223,

26p,

1

Chart

Power

to

the

frame:

Bringing

sociology

back

to

frame

analysis.
Detail

Only

Available
By:

Vliegenthart,

Rens;

van

Zoonen,

Liesbet.

European

Journal

of

Communication,

Jun2011,

Vol.

26

Issue

2,

p101
-
115,

15p;

DOI:

10.1177/0267323111404838

Identity,

non
-
identity,

and

near
-
identity:

Addressing

the

complexity

of

coreference.
Detail

Only

Available
By:

Recasens,

Marta;

Hovy,

Eduard;

Martí,

M.

Antònia.

Lingua,

May2011,

Vol.

121

Issue

5,

p1138
-
1152,

15p;

DOI:

10.1016/j.lingua.2011.02.004

Fitting

Ranked

Linguistic

Data

with

Two
-
Parameter

Functions.
Full

Text

Available
By
:

Wentian

Li;

Miramontes,

Pedro;

Cocho
,

Germinal.

Entropy,

2010,

Vol.

12

Issue

7,

p1743
-
1764,

22p,

4

Charts,

5

Graphs;

DOI:

10.3390/e12071743

Semantic

Web

Technologies

for

supporting

learning

assessment.
Detail

Only

A
vailable
By
:

Castellanos
-
Nieves,

Dagoberto;

Fernández
-
Breis
,

Jesualdo

Tomás;

Valencia
-
García,

Rafael;

Martínez
-
Béjar,

Rodrigo;

Iniesta
-
Moreno,

Miguela
.

Information

Sciences,

May2011,

Vol.

181

Issue

9,

p1517
-
1537,

21p;

DOI:

10.1016/j.ins.2011.01.010

Works
Cited

Lakoff
,

G. (2008, June 20).
ForaTV
.

Retrieved September 5th, 2011, from ForaTV:
http://fora.tv/2008/06/20/George_Lakoff_on_The_Political_Mi

Lau, R. R. (2001). Advantages and Disadvantages of Cognitive Heuristics .
American Journal of Political
Science 45

, 951
-
971.

Leetaru,

K. (September 2011).
culturenomics
2.0:Forecasting large
-
scale human behavior using global news
media
tone and space.
First
Monday,
, Volume 16, Number 9
-

5 .