6.0. Use and Relationship of Biometric devices with Bioinformatics

moredwarfΒιοτεχνολογία

1 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

158 εμφανίσεις

Bioinformatics

Final Project Report





Biometric Devices



Submitted By:

Asad Ali (0612105)



Submitted To:

Dr.Bushra Ahmed



Dated:

2
nd

April, 2010






ABSTRACT


This research report gives a well organized depiction of the overall
details of vario
us
biometric devices which is the
measurement and recording of the physical
characteristics of
a person in order to verify his authentication.


In the beginning of this report,

a brief background of using these bio
-
metric devices
is mentioned. Afterwards
, a list of different biometric devices namely fingerprinting,
iris scanning, retina scanning, facial recognition and Key stroke pattern recognition is
highlighted along with their working, advantages and disadvantages. In the end role
of bioinformatics in

biometric devices is mentioned along with a small analysis of
work done in Pakistan in this regard. In the end, comparison of all the mentioned
biometric devices is described.



This report will help the readers to

understand the different types of bi
ometric
devices used these days and what are the pros and cons of using such devices.
Moreover, readers will also know that what our country Pakistan is doing in this
direction.



Table of Contents


1.0. Introduction

................................
................................
................................
.....................

1


2.0. What are Biometric Devices?

................................
................................
........................

1


3.0. Various Types of Biometric devices
................................
................................
............

2

3.1. Fingerprint scanning

................................
................................
................................
...

2

3.1.1. What is a Fingerprint?

................................
................................
.........................

2

3.1.2. Fingerprint Patterns

................................
................................
.............................

3

3.1.3. Working

................................
................................
................................
.................

4

3.1.4. Advantages and Disadvantages

................................
................................
........

5

3.2. I
ris scanning

................................
................................
................................
.................

6

3.2.1. What is Iris?

................................
................................
................................
..........

6

3.2.2. Working

................................
................................
................................
.................

6

3.2.3. Ad
vantages and Disadvantages

................................
................................
........

7

3.3. Retina scanning

................................
................................
................................
...........

7

3.3.1. What is Retina?

................................
................................
................................
.....

7

3.3.2. Working

................................
................................
................................
.................

8

3.3.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

................................
................................
........

8

3.4. Facial scanning
................................
................................
................................
.............

9

3.4.1. What is Facial recognition?

................................
................................
.................

9

3.4.2. Working

................................
................................
................................
.................

9

3.4.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

................................
................................
......

11

3.5. Voiceprint recognition

................................
................................
..............................

11

3.5.1. What is a voiceprint?

................................
................................
.........................

11

3.5.2. Wo
rking

................................
................................
................................
...............

11

3.5.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

................................
................................
......

12

3.6. Key Stroke Pattern
................................
................................
................................
.....

13

3.6.1. What is Keystroke Pattern?

................................
................................
..............

13

3.6.2. Working

................................
................................
................................
...............

13

3.6.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

................................
................................
......

14


4.0. Comparison of different biometric devices

................................
.............................

15


5.0. Importance of Biometric devices in Pakistan

................................
..........................

16


6.0. Use and Relationship of Biometric devices with Bioinformatics

.......................

17


7.0. Conclusion

................................
................................
................................
.....................

17


8.0. References

................................
................................
................................
......................

18

Table of Figures



Figure 1: Fingerprint

................................
................................
................................
..............

2

Figure 2: Different fingerprint patterns

................................
................................
...............

3

Figure 3: Plain arch

................................
................................
................................
.................

3

Figure 4: Tented Arch

................................
................................
................................
............

3

Figure 5: Radial Loop

................................
................................
................................
.............

4

Figure 6: Ulnar Loop

................................
................................
................................
..............

4

Figure 7: Image processing

................................
................................
................................
....

4

Figure 8: Minutiae i
n the actual fingerprint image

................................
............................

5

Figure 9: Different fingerprinting results

................................
................................
............

5

Figure 10: Iris Scan
................................
................................
................................
..................

6

Figure 11: Iris Scanning
................................
................................
................................
..........

7

Figure 12:Iris Pattern

................................
................................
................................
..............

7

Figure 13: Retina Scan

................................
................................
................................
............

8

Figure 14: Retinal Scanner

................................
................................
................................
.....

8

Figure 15: Face patterns that can be collected by facial recognition

...............................

9

Figure 16: How facial recognition work

................................
................................
............

10

Figure 17: Facial patterns

................................
................................
................................
.....

10

Figure 18 : Voice Print

................................
................................
................................
..........

11

Figure 19: Voice Printing Results

................................
................................
.......................

12

Figure 20: Key Stroke

................................
................................
................................
...........

13

Figure 21
: Key stroke working

................................
................................
............................

13

Figure 22: Comparison of Different Biometric Devices

................................
..................

13


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

1

1.0. Introduction

Human population around the globe has been rising since the
beginning, according
to March 2010, population of the world as predicted by the United States Census
Bureau is 68104xs00000. With this rapid growth of human beings, the need to
identify each person uniquely amplified. Names wasn’t enough to identity such a

large number of population, something that was unique in all the human beings
across the globe was essential for this mission.


The advent of BIO
-
INFORMATICS brought many new ways to identify each and
every individual uniquely this combination of study ab
out living organisms and
computer science opened closed doors to many new ideas, with bio
-
informatics each
human being can be identified differently with his unique characteristics.


This report focuses on different biometric devices, where and how they a
re used and
what is their purpose. Moreover, how these devices works to identify each and every
one uniquely with their advantages and disadvantages.


2.0. What are Biometric Devices?

The word biometric is defined as

“The measurement of biological data; T
he measurement and recording of the physical
characteristics of an individual for use in subsequent personal identification.” [3]


Biometrics use different parts of the body like eye or fingerprint as a password or
method of identification, in order to re
cognize a person at certain different levels. In
other words, it is the measurement of the biological data that can be used to identify
each individual from another. This measurement can be fingerprint, voice, iris, retina
and so on. Biometrics can be def
ined as the process of automatically detecting
individuals based on his/her physical or behavioral characteristics. Common forms
of biometrics used include fingerprint, facial, iris, retina, speaker (voice),, and
handwriting recognition. Distinctive human
characteristics are used to identify an
individual’s identity. Biometric authentication generally involves verifying the claim
of the user’s identity by one
-
one comparison of the presented biometric credentials
and the registered one.


Biometrics uses cer
tain devices that are known as “biometric devices” and are
responsible for capturing and processing human identification.


The word biometric device is defined as

“Technology associated with secure identification (authentication) of a user of services th
at
rely upon biological identification of an individual.”[4]


Currently, almost all good and recognized companies and institutions in the world
use these biometric devices for their users identification and authentication. They can
also be used as a good s
ource in finding a criminal. These days, biometrics has
Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

2

become more public. In ATM as well, now a days in UK iris scan is used instead of
normal codes to ensure security and authenticity in the system. [1]


Mostly all the biometric systems work in the same

manner. First of all user is
enrolled or registered in the system using any of the specific biometric method.
These methods or devices capture information related to that person and saved that
as a template in the form of a code. Afterwards, during authen
tication every time
this capturing process is performed and the generated results are compared with the
stored template to discover identification. [1]


3.0. Various Types of Biometric devices

3.1. Fingerprint scanning

3.1.1. What is a Fingerprint?

If we
talk about Fingerprinting then we can say that Fingerprint recognition or
fingerprint authentication means verification of an individual’s identity via means of
an automated scanner.


Basically, fingerprint is an impression of an individual’s finger that
consists of ridges
of different parts of a finger. No two people or person can have one same fingerprint,
therefore it is a good technique of user authentication.



Figure
1
: Fingerprint


Purpose of fingerprint scanning is identification and verification of ones identity.
Fingerprint scanners are the most commonly used biometric de
vices and can be
found in most of the organizations to limit access controls to only authorized
personnel.


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

3

3.1.2. Fingerprint Patterns

Finger print contains many small patterns called loops (that enters from one side,
form a curve and exit from the same
side), whorls (consists of circular ridges) or
arches (that enters from one side, rise in center and exit from other side).


Figure
2
: D
ifferent fingerprint patterns


Further classification of these patterns is described below:

3.1.2.1. Arch patterns

In arch, ridges run from one side and exits at other side. Arches do not have delta, if
any pattern has delta then its called loop and if the
re are more deltas then it’s a
whorl. Arches have two different types, plain or tented.


3.1.2.1.1. Plain Arches



In plain arches ridges flow from one side to the other with a
wave in the centre and do not have any up thrust.



Figure
3
: Plain arch


3.1.2.1.2. Tented Arches



In tented arch there is an up thrust and an angle along
with few chara
cteristics and features of loop pattern.






Figure
4
: Tented Arch


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

4

3.1.2.2. Loop patte
rns

Loop patterns enter, re
-
curves and then exit from the same direction. Every loop has
one delta, core and ridge count. There are two types of loop patterns:


3.1.2.2.1

Radial Loop

In this flow of pattern is in the direction of radius i.e. towards the thumb.



Figure
5
: Radial Loop



3.1.2.2.2

Ulnar Loop

Ulnar loops runs towards little finger and are named after ulna,

a bone in forearm.




Figure
6
: Ulnar Loop


3
.1.3. Working

As any other biometric device fingerprint scanners requires user to register a
fingerprint first. Once a finger print is registered it is stored in the database and used
for verification the next time user tries to log on to the system.


A fi
ngerprint scanner performs two basic functionalities:



It takes the image of person’s finger



Compare the image and the code with the data stored as a template



Figure
7
: Image processing


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

5

When a fingerprint is scanned all the information is observed and clearly taken in the
image form which the scanner can determine the exact angels and arrangement of
the ridges and the valleys as the l
ight reflected from valleys differ form the light
reflected from the ridges as to register the user. If the image obtained from this
process is very dark or very light then scanner will most probably reject the image
and ask for a newer image.



Figure
8
: Minutiae in the actual fingerprint image


Once the image has been accepted by the scanner and stored the next step is to verify
the i
mage with the fingerprint provided while verification. The basic concept behind
most of the fingerprint scanner is to compare specific parts of the finger print instead
of the whole finger called minutiae usually they focus on those points where these
ridg
es end or where one ridge is divided into two separate ridges (bifurcations).
These features are collectively called as
“typica
”.


Finger print scanner employs complicated algorithms to determine the exact angels
of the minutiae and then compare them with

the image stored in the database it is
not necessary for all the angels to match exactly it needs to match sufficiently so as to
be accepted by the scanner, the number varies from scanner to scanner and the
algorithm used. [2]



Figure
9
: Different fingerprinting results


3.1.4. Advantages and Disadvantages

Fingerprint scanning is the most commonly used biometric device, reason for this

being that the hardware required to perform this scanning is very compact and
cheap, we normally see fingerprint scanning in notebooks and such devices.
Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

6

Fingerprint is easy to use and has low power consumption that is why portable
devices in which power c
onsumption is of high priority usually come with
fingerprint scanners. [6]


Fingerprint scanning has some disadvantages as well it is susceptible to noise and
distortion which is caused by any type or dirt or any such thing. There are some
people who do no
t prefer putting their finger on places where other people have
touched before. A part from that, there are some people whose fingerprints have
been spoiled because of any sort of hard work. [7]


3.2
. Iris scanning


3.2
.1. What is Iris?

The part of the eye

which is colored is Iris; it is the most visible part of our eye. The
patterns found in the Iris are so unique that it differs even from eye to eye. [9]


The iris in the human eye is located behind the behind the cornea where as it is in
front of the cili
ary body and the lens. [8]


The color of the iris which is the most visible part in the human eye is dependent on
the pigment called melanin. The more the amount of the pigment in the iris, darker is
the iris. [9]



Figure
10
: Iris Scan


Iris recognition is another type of biometric verification of an individual’s identity. It
is based on patter
n recognition technique from a high quality image of the Iris.

3.2
.2. Working

When
we

look into the iris scann
er
4
-
10 inches away from the eye

it focuses on
our
eye

on its own
. When the camera takes the picture it locates



The center of the pupil



The edge

of the pupil



The edge of the iris



The eyelids and eyelashes

Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

7


Figure
11
: Iris Scanning

There are chances that Iris is partially covered by eyelids and eyelashes, for this very
reason algorithms are used to locate the eyelids and eyelashes from the Iris Code
being generated.
Once the clear image is recorded it then ana
lyzes the image for iris
patters and turns them into and Iris Code. Upon verification same process is
repeated and Iris code obtained it compared to the Iris code in database to grant
authentication. The figure below shows the patterns in an Iris. [11]



Figure
12
:Iris Pattern


3.2
.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

The possibility of two irises
generatin
g exactly the same code is very less i.e.
1 * 10 to
the 78
th

power
, and the Iris

Code record size is 512 bytes. Code generated is very small
and resulting in very low response time, it takes only 1
-
2 seconds to identity in a
database of 100,000 Ir
is

Code. [10]


Disadvantage of Iris is that it can consider eyelids and eyelashes as a part of the Iris
and generate the code; many complex algorithms are used to resolve this issue in Iris
scanning. It is also very difficult to get a clear Iris image if t
he individual is more
than 10 meters away, and if the image quality is poor it is rejected by the system.

3.3
. Retina scanning

3.3
.1. What is Retina?

A

retina
of a human being
is a slim tissue
that
contains
different
neural cells located
in the
later

porti
on of the eye.
In retina, structure of capillaries that supply blood to
the retina is too complex; therefore

every human being have a unique scan of it even
twins have different structure of the retina.


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

8


Figure
13
: Retina Scan


A
s each persons retina is unique it is used to authenticate individuals using retina
scanners, it is usually used in high security places like government, or military
offices.


3.3
.2. Working

Retinal scanners are based on infrared light for scanning and map
ping the retina.
When an individual looks into the retinal scanner an invisible beam on infrared light
traces the path on the retina at the back of the eye. Capillaries that are filled with
blood absorb more light than the tissues surrounding it; this diff
erence in the
reflection of the light is recorded by the scanner to map the retina of the individual.
The result of the algorithms that map the retina is then converted into an 80
-
byte
computer code and stored into the database. On verification the same pr
ocess is
repeated and the generated code is compared to the
stored
codes database to find the
similarity
, if a match is found person is authenticated.

[12]



Figure
14
: Retinal Scanner


A retinal scanner requires user to remove glasses, look into the scanner closely, stare
at a point and stay still until the scan is complete, user is req
uired to stay still for
approximately 3 seconds.


3.3
.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

Retina scanning is very accurate no two people have the same retina; the chances of
false positive and false negative are very low. Scanning is very fast once scanned
use
r is verified very quickly.


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

9

Unlike most of the biometric devices retinal scanning is not only used for
authentication it can also be used to identify
different
diseases like
chicken pox,
AIDS, malaria,
a
long with few

hereditary diseases like
sickle cell a
nemia and
leukemia.



The equipment cost of retina scanners is very high, with that retina is can be affected
by cataracts and severe astigmatism. The procedure of retina scanning is not very
user friendly and it requires user to put their eye very close
to the scanner.


3.4
. Facial scanning

3.4
.1. What is Facial recognition?

Facial recognition is the process of identifying an individual by the patterns of his
entire face. It can be done through images and video. It compares the features of the
face and ba
sed on that it authenticates or rejects the individual.



Figure
15
: Face
pattern
s

that can be collected by facial reco
gnition

3.4
.2. Working


Facial recognition requires 6 steps to be performed to verify a facial pattern stored in
the database.




The first step is detection; it can be done through any digital camera or any
video source.



The second step is to check and the
size, position and the pose of the
forehead. The subject has the potential to be recognized even at an angle of
90.C



The third step is the measurement of the image it checks the curves on the
face and measures the exact curve


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

10


Figure
16
: How facial recognition work


The fourth step is representation, once the measurement is taken from the face about
the curves on the face and then
it is converted into a unique code and that code is
stored in database.



Figure
17
: Facial patterns


The next step to match facial

patterns, if the image taken is 3D and the image stored
is also 3D they can be compared easily and shown, but currently all the images
stored are in 2D so the 3D image needs to be converted to 2D many different
algorithms are used in this process.


The f
inal step is to verify the image and identify the user. Once the images have been
converted into a 2D image is it compared from the database which has all the users if
the image matches user is allowed else denied.

Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

11

3.4
.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

Human

being can uniquely identify each human being by face. Facial recognition
brings this concept to computers. Algorithms and researches recently done shows
that the accuracy of the system has improved a lot since the beginning. It is now even
able to identit
y the difference between twins using 3D images


Some problems with facial recognition that exists are:




Glare on eye glasses or sun glasses can reduce the effectiveness



Hairs hiding the front part of the face.



Lighting should be reasonable low or extreme l
ight would result in
ineffectiveness on the system.



Image quality matters a lot in these systems.


3.5
. Voiceprint recognition

3.5.
1. What is a voiceprint?

A voiceprint is another application of bio
-
metric devices in which voice is used as an
identificatio
n tool. In voiceprint recognition, mathematical formula is used to express
configurations of speaker’s mouth and throat. Moreover, graphical representation is
also used to illustrate that to what extent matching and similarity is there. Thus,
v
oiceprints
are
also a good technique used in authentication via voice.
[15]



Fig
ure
18

: Voice Print


3.5
.2. Working

Every individual’s voice is different because of
vocal cavities and the way someone
move his mouth while speaking totally differs from others.
To register a voice print
in the database individua
l is required to
speak few or more words for a limited
period so that system can identity the person no matter which words you say.


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

12


Figure
19
: Voice Printing Results


Voiceprints are often thought of a wave pattern,

but in reality data which is used in
this technique is called
a sound spectrogram

(a graph of frequencies on vertical axis
and time of voice on horizontal axis)
,
and
not
the
w
aves. Different sound
s create
several
shapes
of different colors
or shades of grey
in order
to show the quality of the
sound

produced
. [16]


3.5
.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

Voiceprint doesn’t require for the person to be present physically so it can be

activated even with a phone call. It is usually used to protect information the
problem with voice print is that it can be faked easily by recording a phone call. Thus
to prevent this voice passwords are kept which are changed periodically, so that
record
ing of phone call wouldn’t work to bypass/ authenticate to the system. [16]


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

13

3.6
. Key Stroke Pattern


3.6
.1. What is Keystroke Pattern?

Moving towards the last biometric devices i.e. Key Stroke Patterns, I would say that
Key stroke patterns use the concep
t of
Keystro
ke dynamics. It
is the detailed

procedure that

that
explains

that at what time
exactly
each key was
pressed and
released
during person typing on the keyboard.



Figure
20
: Key Stroke


3.6.2
. Working

Keystroke dynamics uses and evaluate the manner in which a person type different
characters on a keypad or a keyboard. It basically observes the behavior and way of
typing of a parti
cular person. This device also uses the concept of previously
mentioned biometric devices and it also authenticates a user by comparing the
behavior every time with the previous data stored on the database.


Basically in Keystroke dynamics, there are two m
ost important things. First is Dwell
time (time it takes to press a key) and Flight Time (
the time between
two consecutive
key up and two consecutive key down). The obtained data is processes through an
algorithm, which gives a primary pattern of keystroke

dynamics.



Figure
21
: Key stroke working


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

14

Keystroke logging is done to first register the user
. A
s the user types the algori
thm
records the keystrokes and applies the algorithm to determine the pattern on how
the individual types.

3.6.3
. Advantages and Disadvantages

This is the cheapest form of authentication as it doesn’t require any hardware only a
keyboard to type from. It d
oesn’t require one to have buy expensive equipments it
can work on a normal computer with a keyboard only the algorithm is required to
record the typing pattern.


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

15

4.0. Comparison of different biometric devices



Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

16

5.0
. Importance of Biometric devices in Pa
kistan

Biometrics is a type of system that recognizes person based on his physical or
behavioral traits. It is a technique which verifies a person based on “who you are”
rather than “what you have” or “what you know”, making it very complex to fake.

Things

that you know or things that you have can easily be lost or forgotten.
Whereas authentication based on biometrics doesn’t require you to know or have
anything it recognizes a person based on his characteristics. Fingerprint is the most
common type of biom
etric device used in the entire world including Pakistan. A
working example of this device can be seen in our own university where faculty
members and employee are required to use fingerprint scanner for their attendance.
[17]


In Pakistan crime

rates are
all time high from mobile snatching to planned robberies
to bomb blasts on different occasions. Due to lack of such devices and technology in
Pakistan criminal are roaming the streets. If fingerprints were to be collected,
examined and compared with the da
tabase most of the criminals would be identified
and arrested.


If we talk about government schools teachers rarely appear in class to teach as
attendance can be made through a friend or so, whereas if attendance in those
schools was done through biometric
s each teacher would have to come to school
before he can be marked present for that day.


The need for mass deployment of biometric devices is important for Pakistan to
ensure that employees are present and in the office fir timing they are being paid for

and that teachers are in schools on the required timing so as to educate the youth of
Pakistan. It will also help in reducing the crime rate of Pakistan as most of the
criminals will be caught using forensics.


A part from that, NADRA in Pakistan has achi
eved an honor of developing the first
Multi
-
Biometric E
-
Passports

in 2004
.

This was one of the biggest achievements for
Pakistan that because of NADRA, it has
become one of the first countries in the
world to issue the Multi
-
biometric e
-
Passport
in accord
ance with

ICAO standards.
This record of e
-
Passports is now updated to around 7 million passports.


The key features of Pakistan multi
-
Biometric passport includes:



2D Bar code

[18]



Machine Readable Zone (MRZ)

[18]



Security Substrate and Laminate

[18]



Ultr
a Violet features Micro Printing

[18]



PKI


Public Key Infrastructure

[18]



RFID Chip

[18]



Biometric features namely Facial & Fingerprint

[18]



IPI
-

Invisible Personal ID

[18]



Security Ink

[18]

Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

17



3 Color Intaglio Printing

[18]



Guilloche Patterns

[18]


6.0
. Use

and Relationship of Biometric devices with
Bioinformatics


The technology of biometric devices is completely based on human beings and their
characteristics without biology this technology couldn’t have existed. Biologist found
that the fingerprints are d
ifferent from each other, that each iris is unique and the
voice patterns of each individual differs from another based on this work done by
biologist was this field and technology presented.


A biometric device uses both Information Technology and Biology

to authenticate a
person. When a fingerprint is scanned it is the biology that tells what to scan and
how to identify each one, whereas Information Technology provides the tools to scan
so accurately and store them encrypted and provide a user friendly lo
ok to the users.


Each and every biometric device has an algorithm built into it based on biology and
different patterns that we know because of biologists. The core logic of all biometrics
devices lay in the field of bioinformatics combining the biology
with the computer
science to provide such applications.

7.0
. Conclusion

Biometrics is the finest way till now to identify an individual uniquely. It is a result
of the combination of the two disciplines biology and computer science termed as
Bioinformatics
. These fields open doors to unimaginable things starting to small
things like identifying a human to cloning a human.


Biometrics is a result of bioinformatics and the best solution to identifying a person.
Fingerprint is the most commonly used biometric
device and will remain for a long
time as the most accurate is retina and iris scans but due to the high cost of the
equipment it is most likely that only high security areas will be using such devices
only.


If keystroke recognition makes it way through
and is as secure and accurate as other
it might replace fingerprint due to less cost, whereas retina scan being most accurate
and almost negligible chance of false positive it will be used in high security areas
like government offices and so on.


Pakistan

is moving forward and will soon have implemented this technology like
with passports. Some of the stores are now using RFID technology which shows an
indication of acceptance of technology in the people of Pakistan. Hopefully in the
coming years more of t
hese devices will be in place to make our beloved country
more secure and safe.

Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

18

8.0.
References


1.

LibraryThinkQuest
.
org

“Introduction to Biometrics”. Retrieved March
29,2010 from
http://library.thinkquest.org/28062/intro.html


2.

Tom Harris

“How Fingerprint S
canners Work”. Retrieved March
29,2010 from

http://computer.howstuffworks.com/fingerprint
-
scanner4.htm


3.

W
ik
T
ionary.org

“biometrics”. Retrieved March 29,2010 from

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/biometrics


4.

I
t.
J
hu.
e
du

“biometrics”. Retrieved March 29,2010 fro
m

http://www.it.jhu.edu/glossary/abc.html


5.

IdT
eck.com

“What is Fingerprint Recognition?” Retrieved March
29,2010 from

http://www.idteck.com/support/w_fingerprint.asp


6.

B
iometric
N
ews
P
ortal.com


Fingerprint advantages
”. Retrieve
d March
29,2010
from

http://www
.biometricnewsportal.com/fingerprint_biometrics.asp


7.

IdT
eck.com

“What is Fingerprint Recognition?” Retrieved March
29,2010 from

http://www.idteck.com/support/w_fingerprint.asp
#1


8.

B
ritannica.com


Iris
”. Retrieved March 29,2010 from

http://www.britannica.com
/EBchecked/topic/294031/iris


9.

Vision.a
bout.com


Iris
”. Retrieved March 29,2010 from
http://vision.about.com/od/eyeanatomy/g/Iris.htm


10.

Daniel

“Iris recognition at airports uses eye
-
catching technology”.
Retrieved March 29,2010 from
http://www.howstuffworks.
com/framed.htm?parent=biometrics.htm&url=htt
p://archives.cnn.com/2000/TECH/computing/07/24/iris.explainer/index.html


11.

Tracy V. Wilson

“How Biometrics Works
”. Retrieved March 29,2010
from

http://www.howstuffworks.com/biometrics4.htm


12.

DiscoveriesInM
edicine.c
om

“Retinography”. Retrieved March 29,2010
from

http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/Ra
-
Thy/Retinography.html


13.

WiseGeek.com


How does a Retinal Scan Work?
”. Retrieved March
29,2010 from
http://www.wisegeek.com/how
-
does
-
a
-
retinal
-
scan
-
work.htm


Bio Metric Devices

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________

Page
-

19

14.

Ostaff, Cour
tney
.

(April, 2008) “
Retinal Scans Do More Than Let You In The
Door.



15.

Searchsecurity.T
echtarget.com


Voiceprint
”. Retrieved March 29,2010
from

http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci946211,00.html


16.

Tracy V. Wilson


How Biometrics Wor
ks
”. Retrieved March 29,2010
from
http://science.howstuffworks.com/biometrics3.htm


17.

CNS
.
c
om.pk


Biometric Pakistan

”. Retrieved March 29,2010 from

http://www.cns.com.pk/solutions/bio.htm


18.

W
ikipedia.org


Biometric passport
”. Retrieved March 29,2010 from

htt
p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometric_passport#Pakistan