Smart Parking Sensors

molassesitalianΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

105 εμφανίσεις

Smart Parking Sensors

Mollie Cannon

ENGR 518

12/4/12

The Problem


Number of cars on the road is increasing


Motorists struggle to find available parking


Parking = source of frustration, CO
2

emissions,
waste of fuel, traffic jams

Taken from Google Images

The Solution


Sensors that determine if a spot is occupied or
not


Data sent to smart phones and other devices to
display where parking is available

Taken from Google Images

Types of Car Detection Sensors

1.
Intrusive: installed beneath the pavement


Examples: active infrared sensors, inductive loops,
magnetometers,
magnetoresistive

sensors,
pneumatic road tubes, piezoelectric cables, weigh
-
in
-
motion sensors

2.
Non
-
intrusive: device mounted on a surface
above or below parking space


Examples: microwave radar, passive acoustic array
sensors, passive infrared sensors, RFID,
ultrasonic, video image processing


Video Image Processing

Taken from Mitsubishi Electric

Video Image Processing


Analyzes video imagery to detect changes
between successive frames using CCTV



RabbitCore

Microcontroller image processing
module detects space vacancy from CCTV feed



Data analyzed on microcontroller before sent
through
Zigbee

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)



Video sensor determines if space available

Video Image Processing

Positives


Low maintenance


Cost effective

Negatives


Problems due to incorrect
interpretation of data


Poor lighting around camera
leads to shadows mistaken as
cars

Magnetoresistive

Taken from
Libelium


Libelium

Magnetic

Field Sensor




Detects presence of car through change in
magnetic field


Uses
permalloy

magnetic field sensor (MSF)

Taken from
Libelium


Magnetic Field Sensor


Thin film of
permalloy


Film integrated in Wheatstone bridge where
resistance between 600
-
1200
Ω
; V
supply
= 5V


3
-
axis sensor


Output amplified and filtered


Converted from analog to digital


Limiting hysteresis effects

Node Placement


Buried in pavement under parking spaces


Info relayed to rest of sensor network through
Waspmote’s

Zigbee

radio


Placement in ground depends on type of parking
spot

Libelium

Sensor


Can be programmed by USB connection or
through wireless network


Software upgrades performed over radio
network so sensors
remained buried





Powered through two Lithium non
-
rechargeable
batteries


Streetline


Parking app for smart phone


Gives real time info on open parking spaces

Future of Smart Parking Sensors


Used to predict future parking patterns


Used for pricing strategies


Contribute to smart cities

References

1.
http://www.eetimes.com/electronics
-
news/4216891/Smart
-
parking
-
sensor
-
platform
-
helps
-
city
-
motorists
-
save
-
time
-
and
-
fuel

2.
http://www.libelium.com/documentation/waspmote/smart
-
parking
-
sensor
-
board_eng.pdf

3.
http://www.eetimes.com/electronics
-
products/electronic
-
product
-
releases/operating
-
systems/4224976/Streetline
-
Unveils
-
Next
-
Generation
-
Smart
-
Parking
-
App
-
Platform
--
Parker%E2%84%A2

4.
http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/itj/2009/114
-
127.pdf

5.
http://sfpark.org/how
-
it
-
works/

6.
http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/itj/2009/.101
-
113.pdf