PRINCIPLES OF PRINCIPLES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOTECHNOLOGY

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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PRINCIPLES OF
PRINCIPLES OF
BIOTECHNOLOGY
BIOTECHNOLOGY
Dr.
Dr.
Amjad
Amjad
Khalil
Khalil
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Chairman/Biotech
Chairman/Biotech
Research Group
Research Group
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
2
2
What is Biotechnology
What is Biotechnology
Biotechnology, by definition, is
Biotechnology, by definition, is
any technology associated with
any technology associated with
the manipulation of biological
the manipulation of biological
systems, or the product that they
systems, or the product that they
made or the process they carry
made or the process they carry
out.
out.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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3
Another definition:

Biotechnology is a discipline in
which technology is applied in
the production or modification of
molecules, or manipulation of
living organisms, to develop
useful products, processes, or
services.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
4
4
Biotechnology is Multidisciplinary
Biotechnology is Multidisciplinary
Subject
Subject

Biotechnology encompasses a wide range
of fields including
1-
Biological science, chemistry,
2-
Computer science,
3-
Medicine,
4-
Veterinary medicine,
5-
Agriculture,
6-
Environmental science,
7-
Engineering.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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5
How Old Biotechnology
How Old Biotechnology


Biotechnology is very old:
Biotechnology is very old:
-
-
Beer, Bread, and Wine making are centuries old.
Beer, Bread, and Wine making are centuries old.
-
-
1637
1637


Van
Van
leeuwenhoek
leeuwenhoek
-
-
First observation of live
First observation of live
microorganisms
microorganisms
through magnifying lenses
through magnifying lenses
.
.
-
-
1665
1665


Robert Hook
Robert Hook
-
-
First observation of cells
First observation of cells
-
-
1800s
1800s
-
-
Traditional breading
Traditional breading
-
-
plants and animals.
plants and animals.
-
-
1850s
1850s
-
-
Producing Vaccines.
Producing Vaccines.
-
-
Late 1880s
Late 1880s
-
-
Gregor
Gregor
Mendle
Mendle
discovered the laws
discovered the laws
governing the genetic
governing the genetic
inheritance of traits by scientific experimentation.
inheritance of traits by scientific experimentation.
-
-
19940s
19940s
-
-
producing antibiotics.
producing antibiotics.
-
-
1960s
1960s
-
-
Producing high
Producing high
-
-
yielding rice and wheat
yielding rice and wheat
varieties
varieties
-
-
1990s
1990s
-
-
Developing genetically modified plants and
Developing genetically modified plants and
animals.
animals.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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6
How Old is Modern Biotechnology
How Old is Modern Biotechnology


1940s Beadle and Tatum :
1940s Beadle and Tatum :
One gene one (enzyme) protein hypothesis.
One gene one (enzyme) protein hypothesis.


-
-
1944 Oswald Avery and
1944 Oswald Avery and
Hershy
Hershy
-
-
Chase:
Chase:
DNA is the genetic material.
DNA is the genetic material.


1953
1953
-
-
Watson and
Watson and
Crik
Crik
:
:
Discovered the DNA double helix.
Discovered the DNA double helix.


1973
1973
-
-
Boyer and Cohen:
Boyer and Cohen:
Discovered Gene splicing and gene cloning.
Discovered Gene splicing and gene cloning.


1982 Eli Lilly
1982 Eli Lilly
:
:
First recombinant protein
First recombinant protein
(Insulin).
(Insulin).


1986
1986
-
-
Kery
Kery
Millus
Millus
: invented the
: invented the
thermocycler
thermocycler
(Polymerase Chain Reaction
(Polymerase Chain Reaction
-
-
PCR).
PCR).


2001
2001
-
-
Human Genome Project.
Human Genome Project.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
7
7
Modern Biotechnology Refers to 3 Major Concepts
Modern Biotechnology Refers to 3 Major Concepts
A
A
-
-
Molecular Biology:
Molecular Biology:
branch of biology that deals with nucleic acids and
branch of biology that deals with nucleic acids and
proteins, at the molecular level.
proteins, at the molecular level.
B
B
-
-
Molecular Genetics:
Molecular Genetics:
The study of the molecular structure , regulation
The study of the molecular structure , regulation
and function of genes.
and function of genes.
C
C
-
-
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA
Technology)
Technology)
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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8
Key Element of
Key Element of
Biotechnology/Genetic
Biotechnology/Genetic
Engineering is:
Engineering is:
The ability to use Recombinant
The ability to use Recombinant
DNA methods to move a gene
DNA methods to move a gene
from any organism to any other
from any organism to any other
organisms.
organisms.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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9
DNA : The Genetic Materials
DNA : The Genetic Materials


Genome (carry the biological information)
Genome (carry the biological information)


Genome made up of DNA and RNA
Genome made up of DNA and RNA
molecules.
molecules.


DNA and RNA are made up of chains of
DNA and RNA are made up of chains of
monomeric
monomeric
subunits called Nucleotides.
subunits called Nucleotides.


Each nucleotide made up of 3 molecules:
Each nucleotide made up of 3 molecules:
1
1
-
-
Pentose sugar
Pentose sugar
-
-
2
2


deoxyribose
deoxyribose
.
.
2
2
-
-
A nitrogenous base
A nitrogenous base
3
3
-
-
A phosphate group.
A phosphate group.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
10
10
Human genome comprises of 3,200,000,000
Human genome comprises of 3,200,000,000
nucleotides (about 35,000 genes)
nucleotides (about 35,000 genes)
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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11
DNA is the Molecule of
DNA is the Molecule of
Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
12
12


Each nucleotide made up of 3
Each nucleotide made up of 3
molecules:
molecules:
1
1
-
-
Pentose sugar
Pentose sugar
-
-
2
2


deoxyribose
deoxyribose
.
.
2
2
-
-
A nitrogenous base
A nitrogenous base
3
3
-
-
A phosphate group.
A phosphate group.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
13
13
The Structure of DNA Molecule
The Structure of DNA Molecule
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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14
The Structure of DNA
The Structure of DNA
Molecule/cont.
Molecule/cont.
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Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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15
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2008
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16
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17
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Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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18
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Monday, February 18 ,
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2008
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19
DNA Replication
DNA Replication
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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20
DNA Replication/cont.
DNA Replication/cont.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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21
Genes and Chromosomes
Genes and Chromosomes
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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22
Karyotyping
Karyotyping
of Human
of Human
Chromosomes (46)
Chromosomes (46)
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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23
From Gene (DNA) to Protein
From Gene (DNA) to Protein


The Central Dogma
The Central Dogma


DNA
(gene)
mRNA
Protein
Trait
(or phenotype)
Transcription
Translation
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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24
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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25
Recombinant DNA Technology
Recombinant DNA Technology
2 Key Elements are Required to
2 Key Elements are Required to
prepare
prepare
Recombinant DNA Molecule :
Recombinant DNA Molecule :
1
1
-
-
Restriction Enzymes.
Restriction Enzymes.
2
2
-
-
Plasmids
Plasmids
-
-
Expression
Expression
Vectors.
Vectors.
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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26
1
1
-
-
restriction Enzymes
restriction Enzymes


Key Elements:
Key Elements:


1
1
-
-
Restriction Enzymes
Restriction Enzymes
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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27
2
2
-
-
Plasmid
Plasmid
-
-
Expression Vector
Expression Vector
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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28
Recombinant DNA technology
Recombinant DNA technology
-
-
Gene
Gene
Cloning
Cloning
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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29
Gene Cloning/Cont.
Gene Cloning/Cont.
Allow the cell to grow and then
extract the desired product
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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30
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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DNA on
DNA on
Agarose
Agarose
Gel
Gel
Electrophoresis
Electrophoresis
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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32
Genetically Modified Bacteria
Genetically Modified Bacteria
Monday, February 18 ,
Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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33
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Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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Bacterial colonies on Agar Plate
Bacterial colonies on Agar Plate
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Monday, February 18 ,
2008
2008
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35
THANK YOU
THANK YOU