CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF RAJASTHAN

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CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF RAJASTHAN










Department of Biotechnology


Syllabus

for

M. Sc. Biotechnology

Effective from academic session 2011
-
2013















Central University of Rajasthan

City Road, Madanganj
-
Kishangarh
-
305802

Ajmer District





Sy
llabus
-

M.Sc. Biotechnology


Preamble




The science of Biotechnology has
tremendous potential for application
in agriculture

and
medicine. The linkage between basic and applied research and new discoveries and
innovations can

find direct applications

in a
griculture and human health
. The
breakthroughs in mode
rn biotechnology mainly
include our

ability to produce useful
organisms
through genetic

engineering

and cell

fusion

techniques and

improve
bioprocess

technology

to
purify novel

molecules

generated by su
ch process
es
. It also
involves targeting

drugs,

development

of delivery

systems
and vaccines
.

Considering
this background, the
syllabus
document is essentially to be formulated which focused on
diverse areas
from Cell

Biology, Biochemistry, Immunology and

Genetics with
significant laboratory practices which will

enable the students to have hands on
experience in doing experiments themselves. Therefore the

syllabus

document can be
grouped under following categories.


Basic Sciences



The powerful genetic en
gineering technology comprising the tools to identify, isolate,
and manipulate the individual

genes that control the specific characters in plants,

animals,
humans and microorganisms is the basis for the new developments. The creativity of the
scientists

and

the basic curiosity
-
driven research will be the keys

to the future success.
Research related to
biosystematics

using molecular approaches, mathematical

modeling,
and genetics

including genome
sequencing

for human beings, animals, and plants,

will be
a top most priority as we move into

the next decade. Knowledge of genome sequencing is
clearly

evident in many fields. New genes are

discovered,
which are short, unique and
has
expressed sequenced

tags segments
which
are used as signatures for gene

identi
fication. The
influence of high throughput
sequencing
, collective
ly with rapidly
accumulating
sequenced

data, is

opening new avenues in

biosciences.

The projected
syllabus
document should focus on

identification of new genes, development of new

drug
delive
ry systems, diagnostics, recombinant

vaccines, computational biology, and many
other

related areas
.


Plant Biotechnology


The utilization hybrids vigor including apomixis, genes for abiotic and biotic
resistance

and developing planting material with

desira
ble traits and genetic enhancement of all

major

crops will govern the research

agenda in the next decade.
Combination of
nutrient

management and development of new biofe
rtil
izers and biopesticides would be
significant

from

the view
-

point of sustainable ag
riculture, soil

fertility, and a clean
environment. Stress biology,

marker
-
assist
ed breeding programs, and study
ing the
important genes will
be focused areas
.
Research to develop new genetically

improved
(transgenic) plants for
several legumes, cereals, ve
getables and fruit crops
is well
advanced
. Micropropagation technology has already been exploited considerably by
private sector and has now become an emerging paying business.
The bioresource and
biodiversity constitute the mainstay of the financial
syste
m required

for

plant
biotechnology research. Separation of genes

for plentiful proteins, combining molecular
genetics and chromosome maps, and a much improved

understanding of the evolutionary
association

of the members of the plant kingdom, have led

to th
e potential of plant
species being the key

source of food, feed, fiber, medicine, and industrial unprocessed
material. Molecular fingerprinting and

areas of genomics and
proteomics

will penetrate

the barriers of fertilization to allow transfer of

imp
ortant

characters from one organism

to
another.

By identifying appropriate determinants of male

sterility, we can extend the benefit of
hybrid seeds

to more crops.
There are innumerable possibilities of producing more
proteins, vitamins, pharmaceuticals, colorin
g material, bioreactors, production of edible
vaccines, therapeutic anti
-
bodies and drugs. Promising leads are obtainable in these areas,

and a number of genetically im
proved crops are ready for f
ield trials
. The
judicious use of
these various plant biotec
hnologies is necessary to
plan a

syllabus

document.



Food Sciences


Availability of sufficient food i
s another area in which biotech
nology offers major
inputs for healthier and more nutritious food for over increasing population. There are
also serious
deficiencies of iodine, iron, and other nutrients. The advent of gene transfer
technology and its use in crops, microbes and animals mainly to achieve higher
productivity and better quality, including improved nutrition and storage properties is a
subject
of much consideration. This is necessary to ensure adaptation of living organisms
to specific environmental conditions, to
increase tolerance

to stress conditions, to
increase pest and disease resistance, and to achieve higher prices in the marketplace.
Ge
netically improved foods will have to be developed under adequate regulatory
processes, with full public understanding
following safety

and proper labeling of the
genetically improved foods.
Industrial processes of several bioproducts with well
equipped ma
nufacturing units have to be designed. Development of animal vaccines is
another area requires inclusion in the
syllabus

document.


Environmental Biotechnology


Ever increasing industrial growth, encroachment on forests and other manmade
contribution have
polluted the environment
extensively
. Several engineering and
chemical processes have been effectively employed to reduce the toxicity of pollutants in
the environment. Additionally
, plants

and microbes are becoming important factors in
pollution control.

New developments such as bioindicators, phytoremediation methods,
and bioleaching
, development of biosensors, and identification and isolation of microbial
consortia are priority research areas. Significant work has been done in India, but
developing a mor
e biologically oriented approach towards pollution control would be
enormously

imperative
. Cleaning up the large river systems and ensuring the destruction
of pesticide residue are priorities in which a

biotechnological approach would be
environmentally

sa
fe. Phytoremediation to remove the high levels of explosives found in
the soil has become a reality.


Medical Biotechnology


Advances in molecular biology, immunology, reproductive medicine, genetics, and
genetic engineering have revolutionized our underst
anding of health and diseases and
may guide to an era of predictive medicine. Genetic engineering promises to treat a
number of mono genetic disorders, and unravel the mystery of polygenetic disorders,
with the help of research on genetically improved anim
als. Globally, there are about 35

40 biotechnology
-
derived therapeutics and vaccines in use and more than 500 drugs and
vaccines in different stages of clinical trials. Every year about 12 million people die of
infectious diseases. The main killers accordi
ng to WHO are acute respiratory infection,
diarrhea diseases, tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis, and HIV
-
AIDS. There are vaccines
being developed for many diseases, and diagnostic kits for HIV, pregnancy detection, and
hepatitis are being developed. The tec
hnologies have been transferred to industry.
Instrumentation of medical products in conjunction with biotechnology knowledge is
progressing rapidly under the title biomedical engineering. The
syllabus

document
preparation has
to consider this

subject for f
uture research.


Biodiversity


Maintenance of biodiversity status adequately and stopping further loss of valuable
species is absolutely necessary. There are many gene banks, botanical gardens, and
herbaria for conservation purposes. There are also molec
ular approaches including DNA
fingerprinting for plant conservation. The totality of gene species and ecosystems has
become exceedingly important, not only to understand the global environment but also
from the viewpoint of the enormous commercial signific
ance of the biodiversity.
Biotechnology is becoming a major instrument in conservation biology. Twelve percent
of the vascular plants are threatened with extinction. Over 5,000animal species are
threatened worldwide, including 563 Indian species. India als
o has about 2000 species of
vascular plants that are threatened. Biodiversity is under threat, and understanding the
scale of this destruction and extinction is essential.
A
dditional research is
wanted

on
forests, marine resources, bioremediation methods,
restoration

ecology, and large
-
scale
tree plantations. Marine resources

provide many
commodities

and benefits including

bioactive materials, drugs, and food items and

must be characterized and conserved


Industrial Biotechnology


Progress in biotechnology
has ability to convert basic concepts into products, processes,
and technologies by creating an interdisciplinary team. Among the various disciplines of
Biotechnology, the pharmaceutical sector has a major impact having numerous
diagnostics kits in clinica
l practice.

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
-
based
diagnostics are the most common. Industrial enzymes have emerged as a major vehicle
for improving product quality. Antibiotic and vaccines production
has tremendously
increased using

biotechnology tools
.

The coming decade

will witness a boost in
biotechnology activities in the industrial sector world wide.


Bioinformatics


The integration of biotechnology and informatics is paying rich dividends. Genome
projects, drug design, and molecular taxonomy are a
ll becoming increasingly dependent
on information technology. Information on nucleotides and protein sequences is
accumulating swiftly. The number of genes characterized from a variety of organisms
and the number of evolved protein structures are doubling
every two years. Development
of databases has developed in an unprecedented manner
. Bioinformatics will be a major
component in the
syllabus

2020 prospects.


Human Resource Development


There are sever
al M.
Sc, and post doctoral and training programs in bio
technology in
different institutions and uni
versities covering most Indian s
tates. Short
-
term training
programs, technician training courses, fellowships for students to go abroad, training
courses in Indian institutions, popular lecture series, awards, an
d incentives form an
integral part of the human resource development activities in India. Many students after
completion of their training course join industries or work in biotechnology
-
based
programs in institutions and laboratories. National Bioscience
Career Development
Awards have been instituted. Special awards for women scientists and scholarships to the
best students in biology help promote biotechnology in India and give recognition and
reward to the scientists. To achieve the goal of self
-
reliance

in this field, India will
require a strong educational and
scientific

base;

clear public understanding of the

new
biotechnologies, and involvement

o
f society in many of these biological ventures.

I
ndia
has a large

research and educational infrastructure
c
omprising agriculture

universities,

central and state universities, and national la
boratories and research institutions
. It should
therefore be possible to develop

c
apabilities and

programs so that these
centers

act as
re
gional hubs for entrepreneurs, farm
ers and industrialists.



Objectives:

This postgraduate course covers several of the areas with the following
objectives in mind.



Survey of core concepts in biochemical, genetic, molecular and cellular basis of
biological phenomena and their applications i
n biotechnology.



To employ mathematical, physical, chemical and computational (bioinformatics)
approaches in biotechnology.



To provide strong hands


on


laboratory training.



To develop human resource for biotechnology research, industry and governance.







Duration
: 4 Semesters (2 years)


Eligibility
:


A candidate possessing
Bachelor’s
degree
in Botany/Zoology/

Biochemistry/

Microbiology/Genetics/Medicine/Pharmacy/
Agriculture/Life

S
ciences/Biotechnology/Chemistry/Physics/Mathematics and any other area

of Biological
sciences as main subject with minimum 60% marks
.



Admission

:


Through Entrance Examination to be conducted
by the University
on all
-
India basis.


Sy
llabus for entrance examination will be as decided for the national level examination.



P
rogramm
e Structure and Courses offered in M.Sc. Biotechnology



SEMESTER I


Code

Title of Course

Type of
course(core/
elective /
supportive)

Level

h/week

Credits

L

P

MSBT 101

Biochemistry


Core

A

3


3

MSBT 102

Genetics


Core

A

3


3


MSBT 103

Mi
crobiology


Core

A

3


3


MSBT 104

Analytical Techniques in
Biology


Core

A

3


3


MSBT 105

Communication Skills

Supportive

B

2


2


MSBT 106

Mathematics for Biologists *

Supportive

B

2


2

MSBT 107

Physics for Biologists*

Supportive

B

2


2

MSBT 108

Biology 1**

Supportive

B

2


2

MSBT 109

Biology 2**

Supportive

B

2


2


MS
BT 110

Biochemistry Laboratory

Core

A


6

3


MS
BT 111

Microbiology & Genetics
Laboratory

Core

A


6

3

*These courses will be taken by students with biology background.

** These

courses will be taken by students who have not studied biology till class 12
th
.


Total credit:

24


SEMESTER
-

II


Code

Title of Course

Type

Level

h/week

Credits

MSBT 201

Cell Biology

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 202

Molecular Biology

Core

A

3

3

MS
BT 203

Immunology

Core

A

3

3

MS
BT 204

Structural Biology

Core

A

3

3

MS
BT 205

Enzymology

Core

A

2

2

MS
BT 206

Virology

Core

A

2

2

MS
BT 207

Biosafety and IPR Issues

Supportive

B

2

2

MSBT 208

Immunology and Cell Biology
Laboratory

Core

A

6

3

MSBT

20
9

Molecular Biology and
Enzymology Laboratory

Core

A

6

3


Total credits:
24


SEMESTER
-

III


Code

Title of Course

Type

Level

h/
week

Credits

MSBT 301

Computational Biology and
Biostati
sti
cs

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 302

Genetic Engineering

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 303

Plant Biotechnology

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 304

Animal Biotechnology

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 305

Developmental and Stem Cell
Biology

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 306

Project

Core

A


2

MSBT 307

Journal Club Presentation


B


1

MSBT 308

Genetic Engineering
Laboratory

Core

A

6

3

MSBT 309

Plant and Animal
Biotechnology
Laboratory

Core

A

6

3

Total credit:
24


SEMESTER
-

IV


Code

Title of Course

Type

Level

h/week

Credits

MSBT 401

Fermentation Technology and
Downstream Processing

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 402

Elective I*

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 403

Elective II*

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 404

Elective III*

Core

A

3

3

MSBT 405

Seminar

Core

A


1

MSBT 40
6

Project

Core

A


8

MS
BT 40
7

Project presentation

Core

A


3



Total credit: 24


*Three Elective courses from the list given below have to be taken which includes, one
course offered by Social Science Department of the University.

List of Elective Courses

for MSBT 402 and MSBT 40
3

:

1.

Human Molecular Genetics

2.

Human Physiology

3.

Genomics and Proteomics

4.

Advanced Immunology


The
elective course,
MSBT 404
, offered by Social Science Department of the University:



Princip
les and practic
e
s of
M
anagement
,

MBA

10
1



Entrepreneurship theorie
s and practices, MBA
207



Marketing management, MBA
201



Final Total Credit:

96

Note: The assessment of the student will be as laid down in the relevant Ordinances on
Examination and Evaluation:

(a) For passing a semester, the assessment of a student
shall be based on:

(i) Continuous Internal Evaluation (CIE) of 50% marks in each course, and

(ii) End Semester Examination (ESE) of 50% of marks in each course.

The CIE will consist of


(i) Sessional Tests (ST) ((ii) Internal Assessment (IA) (20%).

The IA shall comprise of Home Assignments (HA)/attention in the
Class/attendance/Viva
-
voce/Group Discussions/Tutorials/Case Studies etc.




(b) L: Lectures,

I.L
.

: Integrated Learning involving Tutorials, Group Discussions,

Assignments,
Field work; P

: Practicals, Lab work, Project.

(c) Core (C), Elective (E), Supportive and Socially Oriented (S)

(d Syllabus of each course may be presented in the following format



SEMESTER
-
I


MSBT

101
BIOCHEMISTRY



UNIT
-
I


Chemical

basis

of

life
:
Composition

of

living

matter;

Properties of
W
ater
; Properties
of
biomolecule
s

i
n

aqueous environment
;

Bimolecular

hierarchy
;

Macromolecules
;

Molecula
r

assemblies;
Structure
-
functio
n

relationships.


Carbohydrates:

Sugars

-

mono,

di,

and

polysaccharides;

Suitability

in

the

context

of

their

different

functions
-

cellular

structure,

energ
y

storage
,

signaling
;

Glycolytic

pathway;
Kreb

s
cycle
;
Oxidati
ve
phosphorylation
;
Elucidatio
n
o
f
metaboli
c
path
w
ays
;
Logi
c
and
integration o
f central metabolism; entry/ exit of various biomolecules

from central
pathways;
Bioenergetics
-
basic

principles;

Equilibria

and

concept

of

free

energy;

Coupled

processes;

Principles of metabolic

regulation;

Regulatory

steps;

Signals

and

second

messengers.
Glycosylatio
n

o
f

othe
r

biomolecule
s

-

glycoprotein
s

an
d

glycolipids
;

Glycogen
-

Synthesis and Degradation. Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism.
Gluconeogenesis and its Regulation. Metabolism of Fructose and Galactose. Regulation
of Carbohydrate Metabolism.


Contact Hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Amin
o
acid
s and Proteins
:

structur
e
an
d
functiona
l
grou
p
properties
;
Peptide
s
an
d
covalen
t
structur
e
o
f
proteins;
Elucidatio
n
o
f
primar
y
an
d
highe
r
orde
r
structures
;
Evolutio
n
o
f
protei
n
structure
; General reactions of Amin
o Acid Metabolism,
Connection of

essential and non
-
essential Amino Acids with Intermediary

Metabolism.
Decarboxylation of Amino Acids. Processes related

to Ammonia Metabolism, Inter
-
organ

relationships in Amino Acid Metabolism, Non
-
standard

Amino Acids.

C
ofactors:

Vitamins and coenzymes


Contact Hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II
I


Lipid
s
:

structure

and

properties

of

important

members

of

storage

and

membrane

lipids;

lipoproteins; Synthesis of various Lipids, Bile Acids and Cholesterol. Elongation of Fatty
Acids, Des
aturation of Fatty Acids in Microsomes. Regulation of Fatty Acid Synthesis,
Cholesterol Metabolism. Composition and Synthesis of basic groups of

Lipoproteins and
their changes during Transport in the body.


Biomembranes
:

Biomembrane

organization

-

sidedn
ess

and

function;

Membrane

bound

proteins

-

structure,

properties

and

function
;

T
ranspor
t

phenomena


Nucleotides:

Synthesis of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides
De Novo

and its regulation.
Synthesis of Nucleoside Di
-

and Triphosphates, Deoxynucleotides

and

TMP and
Degradation of

Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides. Salvage Pathways of

Nucleotides
Synthesis.


Contact Hours: 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended




Voet D., Voet J.G,

Biochemistry

4
th

Edition., John Wiley and Sons, 2011.



Nelson, D. C. and

Cox, M.M.,
Lehning
er

Principles of Biochemistry
, 5
th

Edition,

W. H. Freeman,

2010
.




Berg J.M.
,
Tymoczko J.L.

and

Stryer L.
,

Biochemistry.
7
th

edition, W
.
H
.

Freeman
and Co. New York, 2011.



MS
BT102




GENETICS








UNIT
-
I


Genes and Chromosomes
-

Introduction and s
cope of genetics; DNA as genetic material;
Structure of nucleic acids; Basic principles of Mendelian genetics
-

Segregation and
Independent assortment,
alleles

and multiple alleles; human
pedigrees

and inheritance;

Cell division
-

Mitosis and meiosis, cell

cycle; Chromosomal basis of inheritance; Gene
interactions; Chromosome and its structure; sex determination and sex
-
linked inheritance;
Dosage compensation.




Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Linkage analysis

and gene mapping in eukaryotes
-

Molecular ma
rkers; Fine structu
re
of the gene and gene concept



Extra chromosomal inheritance

-

mitochondrial and chloroplast inheritance


Bacterial genetics
-

Conjugation, transduction and transformation; Plasmids;
Transposable elements
-

transposons and retrotransp
osons; Genome organization.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
III

Mutations
-

Spontaneous and induced;
Mechanisms

of

mutagenesis;

Assay

of

mutagenic

agents

(Ames

test); Chromosomal mutations
-

numerical (trisomy
, polyploidy

and aneuploidy) and structural chang
es and detection methods. Mechanism of
chromosome mutations; genetic and cytological features of deletions, duplications,
inversions, translocations; somatic and
germ line

mutations.


Population genetics

-

Hardy
-
Weinberg equilibrium; Calculation of allele

frequency;
Molecular Evolution
-

evolutionary changes of nucleotide sequences and DNA
polymorphism;
Genes

in

early

development;

Maternal

effect

genes;

Pattern

formation

genes;

Homeotic

genes.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended




Anthony J.F. Griffiths
,
Susan R. W
essler
,
Sean B. Carroll
,
John Doebley

,
Introduction to Genetic Analysis
, 10
th

edition,

W. H. Freeman and Co. Ltd.,


201
2
.




Snustad, D.R. and Simmons, M.J.
,

Principles of Genetics, 5
th

edition by, John
Wiley

and Sons, 201
0.



William S. Klug,
Michael R. Cummings
, Charlotte A. Spencer and Michael
A. Palladino,
Concepts of Genetics, 9th Edition
,

Benjamin
-
Cummings

Pub
Co.

2008.


MS
BT103




MICROBIOLOGY







UNIT
-
I

Microbia
l

Diversit
y

&

Systematics

-

C
lassica
l

an
d

moder
n

method
s

an
d

concepts
;

Domai
n

an
d

Kingdo
m;

Criteria

for

classification;

Classification

of

Bacteria

according

to

Bergey

s

manual;

General and Salient features of Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, Algae,
Protozoa and Viruses.


Microbia
l

growth
-

Batch
,

fed
-
batch
,

continuou
s

kinetics,
synchronou
s

growth
,

yiel
d

constants
,

method
s

o
f

growt
h

estimation
,

stringen
t

response
,

deat
h

o
f

a bacterial
cell.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Microbial

physiology
-

Physiological

adoption

and

life

style

of

Prokaryotes;

Unicellular

Eukaryote
s

and

the
Extremophiles

(with

classical

example

from

each

group).

Nutritional Diversity
-

Transport of Nutrition, Major and Minor bioelements, nutritional
diversity, oxygenic and anoxygenic, photosynthesis, respiration, fermentations,
chemolithotrophy.


Con
tact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
III

Microbia
l

Interaction
s

an
d

Infection

-

Host

Pathogen

interactions;

Microbes

infecting

humans,

veterinary

animals

and

plants;

Pathogenicity

islands

and

their

role

in

bacterial

virulence
.


Microbe
s

an
d

Environment
-

Rol
e

o
f

micro
organism
s

i
n

natura
l

syste
m

an
d

artificia
l

system
;

Influenc
e

o
f

Microbe
s

o
n

th
e

Earth

s

Environment

and

Inhabitants;

Ecological

impacts

of

microbes;

Symbiosis
;

Microbe
s

an
d

Nutrien
t

cycles
;

Microbia
l

communicatio
n

system
;

Quoru
m

sensing
.


Applied Microbiol
ogy
-

Overview of applications of microorganisms in Agriculture,
Environment, Food, Industry and Medical Sciences.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended




Michael T. Madigan
,
John M. Martinko
, Paul V. Dunlap and David P. Clark,
Brock Biology of Microorganisms,1
3
th

Edition
,

Pearson Education, Limited,

2011
.



Pelczar

M.J.,
Chan

E.C.S. and
Krieg

N.R.
, Microbiology


Application

based
approach
,
5th

edition
, Mc

Graw Hill
, 2009
.



Tortora G, Microbiology: An Introduction
-
Benjamin Cummings
,

10
th

Edition
,

200
9
.



Willey J, Sherwood and Woolwerton C, Prescott, Harley and Klein’s
,

Microbiology
,

8
th

Edition
,

McGraw Hill International, 20
10
.


MSBT 104





ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN BIOLOGY





UNIT
-
I


Ba
sic Principles and Applications
-

Methods employed for the separation,
C
haracterization and molecular weight determination of macromolecules. Viscosity,
Ultra filtration, Equilibrium Dialysis, Solvent Extract
ion, Ultracentrifugation,
Precipitation, Electrophoresis. Chromatography


Paper Chromatography, TLC,
D
ifferent
t
ypes of L
iquid chromatography.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Microscopy:

Types and Principles
-

Bright Field, Dark Field, Fluorescent, Phas
e
Contrast, Confocal Microscopy, SEM and TEM, Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy,
Flow Cytometry.


Spectroscopic Techniques
-

Basic principles of
UV, Visible

and fluorescence
spectroscopy

and their applications.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
III


Mass spect
rometry techniques
-

MALDI

TOF, LC
-
MS applications, Microcalorimetry:
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and
I
sothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and
its applications in biomolecular stability and interactions.


Radioactive Tracer Techniques

-

Radio
active Decay, Half Life,

,


and



Emitters,
Decay of Radioactivity, Types of Radioactivity Used in Biochemistry, Units of
Radioactivity Measurements, Gas Ionization and Liquid Scintillation Counters, Gamma
Counters, Autoradiography, Biological Hazards of

Radiation and Safety Measures
i
n
Handling Radioisotopes, Biological Applications
.



Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books

recommended




Christian, G. D., Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2004.



Ahuja, S. and Jespersen, N. (Editors),

Comprehe
nsive Analytical Chemistry:
Modern Instrumental Analysis, Vol 47, Elsevier Science, New York, 2006.



Van Holde, K. E., Principles of Physical Biochemistry,
2
nd

edition,
Prentice Hall,
2006
.



Wilson, K. and Walker, J., Principles and Techniques of Practical
Biochemistry
and Molecular Biology,
7
th

Edition, Cambridge Univ. Press, 20
10
.



David Freifelder
, Physical Biochemistry, 2
nd

edition,
John Wiley and Sons 2005.


MSBT 105



COMMUNICATION SKILLS





UNIT
-
I

Process of Communication
-

Concep
t

o
f
effectiv
e
communication
-

Settin
g
clea
r
goal
s
fo
r
communication
;
Determinin
g


outcome
s
an
d
results
;
Initiatin
g
communication
;

A
v
oidin
g
breakdown
s
whil
e
communicating;
Creatin
g
valu
e
i
n
conversation
;
Barrier
s
t
o
effectiv
e
communication
;
N
o
n
verba
l
communication
-

Interpretin
g

no
n

verba
l

cues
;

Importanc
e

o
f

bod
y

language
,

Powe
r

o
f

effectiv
e

listening
;

recognizing
cultural

differences
.


Presentation skills
-

Formal

presentation

skills;

Preparing

and

presenting

using

O
v
er

Head

Projecto
r
,

P
o
wer

P
oint;

Defending Interrogation;

Scientific

poster

preparation

&

presentation;

Participating

in

group

discussions
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II

Technical Writing skills

:
T
ypes of reports; La
y
out of a formal report; Scientific writing
skills: Importance

of communicating Science;
Problem
s

whil
e

writin
g

a

scientifi
c

document
;

Plagiarism
;

Scientifi
c

Publicatio
n

W
riting
:

Element
s

o
f

a

Scientific
paper

including

Abstract,

Introduction,

Materials

&

Methods,

Results,

Discussion,

References;

Drafting

titles and

framing

abstracts
.


Computin
g

Skill
s

fo
r

Scientifi
c

Research
:
W
eb

browsing

for

information

search;

search

engines

and

their

mechanism

of

searching;

Hidden

W
eb

and its

importance

in

Scientific

research;

Internet

as

a

medium

of

interaction

between

scientists
;

Effective

email
strategy

using

the

right

tone

and

conciseness
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books recommended




Moha
n

Krishn
a

an
d

N.
P
.

Singh
,

Speakin
g

Englis
h

effecti
v
el
y
,

2
nd

edition,
Macmillan
,

2009
.



Allen R., How to Write Better English , Penguin Writers' G
uides, 2005
.




Ros Jay

and

Antony Jay, Effective Presentation: How to Create and Deliver a
Winning Presentation , Financial Times Prentice Hall; 2
nd

E
dition, 1999
.



Robert A. Day,

How to Write & Publish a Scientific Paper
,

5th Edition ,Oryx
Press; 5
th

E
ditio
n
,

1998
.



MSBT 106




MATHEMATICS FOR BIOLOGISTS





UNIT
-
I

Real Number System

Elements of Coordinate Geometry and Algebra; Function shifting graphs, trigonometric
functions
.

Permutation, combinations and binomial theorem.

Relations, Function
s, including Periodic Functions, Inverse Functions

Limits and Continuity; Rates of change and limits, rules for finding limits, target values
and formal definition of limits, extension of the limit concept, continuity.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Rat
es and Topics from Differential Calculus such as max/min of functions of

one variable differentials and approximations
.

Partial derivatives, max/min of function of more than one variable and method

of least squares
.

Antiderivatives, Indefinite and definite

integrals
.

Logarithms and Exponential Functions
,

Differential Equations and their applications in biology


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books
recommended




Alan J. Cann,
Ma
ths from scratch for biologists, Wiley
-
Blackwell, 2003
.



Erwin Kreyszing, Advanced Enginee
ring Mathematics,

9th Edition, John Wiley
and Sons,
2006.



Peter C. Foster, Easy Mathematics for Biologists, Hardwood Academic publisher,
1
99
8
.


MSBT 107



P
HYSICS FOR BIOLOGISTS


UNIT
-
I


Quantum Physics
:
Wave versus partic
le, Heisenberg
’s

Uncertainty

principle
,

Matter
waves, Photoelectric effect, Atom and Nuclei,
Elements Fermions,

Quanta,

Particles
,
Schrodinger’s wave equations.


Properties of Matter
:
Elasticity, Hydrostatic, Surface tension, Microscopic

consideration for
study of properties of matter, Atomic and Molecular

structures,

Broad
classification of
solids, Structure

of
crystalline and amorphous
solids, Structure of single
crystals
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Thermal
Physics
:

Laws of Thermodynamics and
thei
r
application
s

in
b
iological

system
s
, Temperature and related topics, Internal energy, Heat and First law

of
Thermodynamics,
I
deal mon
o
atomic gas, Application
s

of first law to

Ideal Gases, Entropy and the
S
econd law
.


Fundamental Electromagnetism
:
Charge a
nd Current, Coulomb’s law,

Electric field, Electrostatic potential,
Gauss’s

law for Electronics, Magnetic

effects on st
ea
dy currents, Forces on current
s

in a magnetic field, Forces on

charges in Electric and Magnetic field, Electromagnetic induction
.


Cont
act hours: 15 hrs


Books
recommended




B. H. Bransden
,
C. J. Joachin
. ,
Introduction to
Quantum Mechanics
,

Longman
Scientific and Technical, 1989.



Beiser, Concept of Modern Physics. McGraw
-
Hill Higher education ,sixth
edition , 2003



K.W. Zeemansky Heat

and

Thermodynamics:. McGraw
-
Hill Education, 1997



Frederick Reif,
Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics:

McGraw
-
Hill,
1965
.



E. M. Purcell, Electricity and Magnetism (Berkeley Physics course) 2nd Ed,
Second Edition

, McGraw
-
Hill, 1985.



D. J. Griffith
s, Introduction to
E
lectrodynamics 3rd Ed
ition,
Prentice Hall, 1999
.



Matthew N. O. Sadiku
,
Elements of Electromagnetism, 3rd Edition Oxford
University Press, 2001
.



Safa O. Kasap
,

Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, TMH McGraw
-
Hill; 2
nd

E
ditio
n, 2001
.


MSBT
108




BIOLOGY

1








UNIT
-
I


Chemical basis of life, water, Carbon and molecular diversity, structure and function of
macromolecules.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell
s;

cell organelles
;

cell division and cell cycle
; cel
l
metabolism


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II

Ecology and Biosphere,
E
cosystems
;
Evolution and natural selection
;
Biodiversity and
tree of life
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books
recommended


Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, and Steven A. Wasserma
n ,
Campbell
Biology, 9th edition,

Benjamin Cummings,

2011.



MSBT 109




BIOLOGY
2








UNIT

I


Plant structure, growth development and reproduction; Photosynthesis; transport;

Response of plants to internal and external signals


Con
tact hours: 15 hrs

UNIT

II


Animal Form and Function; Circulation and gas exchange
;
D
igestive system;
E
xcretion
;

E
ndocrine system
;

R
eproduction

and development;

Nervous system

Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books

recommended


Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael
L. Cain, and Steven A. Wasserman , Campbell
Biology, 9th
E
dition,
Benjamin Cummings,
2011.


MSBT 110


BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY
( Lab
-
1)





1.

T
o

prepare

an

Acetic
-
Na

Acetate

Buffer

system

and

v
alidate

the

Henderson
-
Hasselbach

equation.


2
. Estimation of
S
ugars, Iron, Phosphate, Vitamin C, and
O
rganic acids
.


3. Separation of Amino Acid
s

and Sugars by TLC, Colorimetric Determination of pK of
Amino Acids.

4.

T
o

determine

concentration of
an

unknown

protein

by

plotting

a

standard

graph

of

BSA

using

U
V
-
V
i
s
S
pectrophotometer

and

v
alidating

the

Bee
r
-
Lambert

s

La
w
.


5.

Titration

of

Amino

Acids

and

separation

of

aliphatic,

aromatic

and

polar

amino

acids

by

TLC.


6.
Protein purification and separation by gel filtration, ion
-
exchange chromatography and
SDS
-
PAGE.


MSBT 111

MICROBIOLOGY AND GENETICS LABORATORY
(Lab
-
2)



1.
Sterilization,

disinfection,

safety

in

microbiological

laborator
y
.


2
.

Preparation

of

media

for

growth

of

various

microorganisms.


3
.

Identification

and

culturing

of

various

microorganisms.


4
.

Stainin
g

an
d

enumeratio
n

o
f

microorganisms.


5
.

Growt
h

curve
,

measur
e

o
f

bacteria
l

populatio
n

b
y

turbidometr
y

an
d

studyin
g

th
e

effec
t

o
f

temperature,

pH
,
carbon

an
d

nitrogen.


6
. Chromosome preparations
-

mitotic and meiotic, salivary gland chrom
osomes
.


7.

UV mutagenesis and Isolation of drug resistant mutants
, transposon

mutagenesis;
Bacterial Conjugation.


SEMESTER II


MS
BT

201

CELL BIOLOGY







UNIT
-
I


Biomembranes
: Eukaryotic membrane structure, molecular composition, organization
and s
ynthesis, membrane transport and transporters, Fick’s law, artificial membrane and
transport studies.


Cytoskeleton:

Microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules


structure and
dynamics. Microtubules and mitosis; cell movements. Intracellular t
ransport and the role
of kinesin and dynein.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT

II


Intracellular Protein Traffic
: Protein synthesis on free and bound polysomes, uptake
into ER, membrane proteins, Golgi sorting, post
-

translational modifications.


Cell Signalin
g
: Cell surface receptors; second messenger system; MAP kinase pathways.
Signaling from plasma membrane to nucleus.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
III


Cell


Cell Adhesion
and Communication
:

Ca
++

dependent cell
-
cell adhesion; Ca
++

independent cell
-
cell adh
esion. Cell junctions and adhesion molecules, movement of
leukocytes into tissues
.


Cell Division and Cell Cycle
: Mitosis, meiosis, cell cycle, role of cyclins and cyclin
dependent kinases, regulation of Cdk


Cycline activity, induction of cancer with res
pect
to cell cycle.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books
r
ecommended




Pollard, T. D., and Earnshaw, W. C., Cell Biology
,

2
nd

Edition, Saunders Elsevier,
2008.



Gerald K., Cell and Molecular Biology, Concept and Experiment, 5
th

Edition,
Wiley, 2007.



Lodish, H., Ber
k A., Kaiser C. A., Krieger M., Scott M.P., Bretscher A., Ploegh
H., and Matsudaira P., Molecular Cell Biology, 6
th

Edition, Freeman, W. H. and
Co., 2008.



Roberts, K., Lewis J., Alberts B., Walter P., Johnson A., and Raff. M., Molecular
Biology of the Cel
l, 5
th

Edition, Garland Publishing Inc., 2008.



James Darnell, Molecular Cell Biology, 6
th

E
dition,
W. H. Freeman &


Co
,
2007.



MS
BT

202



MOLECULAR BIOLOGY







UNIT
-
I


Structure of DNA and RNA
-

Physical Properties of DNA
-

Cot Plot, Kinet
ic and
Chemical Complexity, Satellite DNA. Inverted Repeat Sequences, Highly Repetitive and
Middle Repetitive Sequences. Organization of the Chromosome, Structure of Chromatin
-

Nucleosomes, Chromatin Domains and Isochores, Structure and Functional Organiz
ation
of Centromeres and Telomeres.


DNA Replication
-

Prokaryotic DNA Polymerase I, II and III, Eukaryotic DNA
Polymerases, Fidelity and Catalytic Efficiency of DNA Polymerases, Okazaki Fragments,
Replication Origin, Primosomes, Concurrent Replication Mec
hanism Involving Leading
and Lagging Strands of DNA; Problems associated with linear replicons.


Molecular basis of Recombination, Mutations and Repair.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Transcription
-

Prokaryotic RNA polymerase and sigma factors, Prokary
otic and
eukaryotic promoters, Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases, Class I, II and III gene promoters,
Enhancers and control regions of genes; Mechanism of transcription
-

Prokaryotic and
eukaryotic, Transcription of protein coding genes.


Chromatin structure
a
nd remodeling
, Histone code and histone modifications.


RNA Processing
-

Processing, Capping, Polyadenylation, Splicing. Processing of Poly A
-

mRNA, Group I and II Introns
, Alternate

Splicing, RNA editing. Non
-
coding RNAs.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
III

Translation
-

Genetic Code, Ribosome Structure, tRNAs, Aminoacyl tRNA
s
ynthetase,
Initiation, Elongation, Termination; Translational Control.


Regulation of Gene
Expression:

Prokarytes

-

Operon Concept, Positive and Negative
Regulation, Attenuation, Catabo
lite Repression, Riboswitches. Eukaryotes
-

Generalized
and specialized transcription factors, Transcriptional Activators and regulators.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Bo
oks r
ecommended




Jocelyn E. Krebs, Elliott S. Goldstein and Stephen T. Kilpatrick
,
Lewin
s

Ge
nes X,
9th Edition
, Jones and Barlett Pub., USA, 20
11
.



Watson, J. D.

Tania A. Baker, Stephen P. Bell, Alexander Gann, Michael Levine,

Richard Losick
, Molecular Biology of the Gene, Benjamin Cummings; 6
th

Edition, 2007.



Robert F. Weaver
.

Molecular Biolog
y
, 4
th

Edition,

McGraw
-
Hill.

MSBT 203


IMMUNOLOGY






UNIT

I


Introduction to Immunology
-
History of Development of Immunological Ideas: From
Classical observations of Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur to present day Immunology
,

Evolution of the I
mmune system: From invertebrates to vertebrates
,
The Cellular and
humoral basis of immune response
,
Clonal selection and expansion of antigen specific
cells
,

Principle of Innate and adaptive Immunity
,
Other cells and molecules involved in
the Immune r
esponse
,
Lymphoid Organs and Cellular Traffic
.



Innate Immunity
-

The front line of defense against pathogens
,

Recognition of Pathogen
associated molecular patterns by Toll like receptors
,

Discovery of Toll like receptors
from drosophila to human
,
Innate

Immune system of worms, flies,

plants and vertebrates

The nature of
T
oll like receptors
,
Signalling through
T
oll like receptors
,
Cells and
molecules involved in mounting innate Immunity
,
The Complement system as a part of
the Innate Immunity
.


Antigens
-

Antigen recognition by B and T cell receptors
,
Nature of the antigen molecule

Antigenicity, Immunogenicity,
haptens,

B cell and T cell
epitopes,

Adjuvants and routes
of Immunization
,
Clonal expansion of B and T cells in response to
antigen,

T
independent
and dependent antigen
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Antibody molecule
-
The antibody molecule on B cell surface and
its

structure and
function
,
Generation of diversity in
Immunoglobulin,

Isotypes, Allotypes and Idiotypes

Isotype switch and affinity matu
ration
,
Monoclonal antibodies, their
generation and use

in diagnosis and therapy
,
E
ngineering

antibody molecules for better applications.


MHC molecules
-

MHC molecules, their
structure and

role
in antigen

presentation to T
cells
,
Antigen processing and pr
esentation
,
Non
-
classical MHC molecules
,
MHC
molecules and disease
susceptibility, Super
antigens
.


Development

and Survival of B and T cells
-

Generation of B and T cells in the bone
marrow and thymus
,

Rearrangement of antigen specific receptor gene segm
ents and
control of lymphocyte development
,
Signaling

through antigen specific receptors
,

Other signaling pathways
,
Maturation
of T

and B cells, the
ir migration to lymphoid
organs,

their

spatial distribution
and survival

in the lymphoid organ
.


Contact ho
urs: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
III


T cell Immunity
-

Antigen recognition by T cells
,
The antigen receptors on T cell
surface
,
T cell receptor gene rearrangement
,
Antigen presentation and the role of
macrophages, dendritic cells and cell surface as well as soluble m
ediators in activation of
T cells
,
Activation of non classical T cells
.



Soluble
Mediators
-

Chemokines,

Cytokines,

Lipid mediators
.


Allergy a
nd Hypersensitivity Reactions
-

Allergens, sensitization and production of IgE

Effector mechanisms in allergic
reactions,

Types of Hypersensitivity reactions and
diseases arising out of them
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended



Murphy, Kenneth M.,

Travers, Paul and


Walport, Mark,

Janeway’s

Immuno
Biology,
7
th

Edition, Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Gr
oup, 200
8
.



Kindt, T. J., Osborne, B. A. and Goldsby, R. A. Kuby Immunology, 6th Edition,
W. H. Freeman, 2006.



Paul, W. E., Fundamental Immunology, 6
th

Edition, Lippincott Williams and
Wilkins, 2008.



Abbas, A. K., Lichtman, A. H. and Pillai, S., Cellular
and Molecular
Immunology, 6
th

Edition, Saunders, 2007.


MSBT 204


STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY





UNIT
-
I


Introduction and importance of Bimolecular Structures and Interactions:
Basic
chemical building blocks; Conformation and Configuration; Elementary concepts o
f
thermodynamics relevant for biological systems
.


Forces that determine Bimolecular Structures and Interactions:
van der Waal’s and
Electrostatic Interactions; Hydrogen bonding; Hydrophobic Interactions and Role of
Water in Bimolecular structure; Disulphi
de bonds
.


Techniques for structure determination:

Circular dichroism, X ray diffraction and
N
uclear magnetic resonance.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Amino acids and Protein
s
:
Structures and biochemical properties of amino acids,
Conformational prop
erties of polypeptides and proteins, Definition and examples of
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structures, Concept

of Ф and Ψ angles and
the Ramachandran Plot, Structural aspects of α
-

helix, β
-
sheet and turns in proteins,

Concepts of super
-
secondary structures and domains in proteins,

Membrane Protein
structures and their properties,
Folding
-
unfolding equilbrium and
denaturation of
proteins,
Protein folding problem, misfolding, aggregation and amyloid structures.
Structural role of molecular chaperones
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
III

Nucleic Acid Structure:
Introduction and importance of Nucleic Acid Structure
s
tud
ies,
Chemical constituents of Nucleic Acids Structures of bases and the sugar
-
phosphate
backbone. Chargaff’s Rule and its important for Nucleic Acid Structure, Different types
of base
-
pairing. Concept of tautomerism and its importance for Nucleic Acid Bi
ology.
Conformation of the (deoxy) ribose sugar ring, Structural aspects of double helical DNA
and RNA. Polymorphism in Nucleic Acid Conformation, Structure and properties of t
-
RNA, Physico
-
chemical properties of Nucleic Acids. DNA melting and approximat
e
calculation of T
m
. Use of DNA melting profiles for species comparison, Interaction of
Nucleic acids with small molecule ligands and proteins, Unusual DNA structures.
Triplexes and Quadruplexes, Supercoiling and higher order organization of Nucleic
Acids
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books recommended




Thomas E. Creighton
,
Proteins:
Structure and Molecular Properties, W H Freeman &
Co, 2011.



Alexei V. Finkelstein
,
Oleg Borisovich Ptitsyn
,
Protein physics:
A

cou
rse of lectures
,
Academic Press, 2002
.



Carl
-
Ivar Brändén
,
John Tooze
,

Introduction to Protein Structure
, Garland Pub.,
1999
.



Jack Kyte ,
S
tructure in Protein Chemistry
, Garland Science, 2007
.



David Whitford,

Proteins
-
Structure and function , Wiley, 2005
.



A. Kessel and Nir Ben
-
Tal,
Introduction to
P
roteins
-
S
tructure, func
tion and motion,

CRC press, Taylor and Francis, 2011
.



Georg E. Schulz, R. Heiner Schirmer,
Principles of protein structure, Springer, 1998
.



MSBT 205



ENZYMOLOGY








UNIT
-
I


Scope of enzymology, classification and nomenclature

-

Kinetics: chemical
kinetics;
Variations of velocity with [E], [S], pH and temperature;
E
nzyme inhibition;
B
i
-
substrate
reaction kinetics;
U
ses of kinetic studies in determining enzyme mechanism;
S
cope for
increasing enzyme efficiency; enzyme specificity.


Allostery

-

Alloste
ry

cooperativity in hemoglobin;
various

equations and models of
allostery; Regulation of individual enzyme activity and a single metabolic step.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Enzyme mechanism

-

A
cid, base, electrostatic, metal ion, free radical, transi
tion state
binding and covalent;
P
roximity and orientation effects, contributions of strain;
C
ofactors
function. Experimental approaches to determine mechanism, along with illustration with
eg.

chymotrypsin, lysozyme. Rationale for modification of enzyme f
unction(s) for
application.


Logic / strategies of pathway regulation; multienzyme complexes and polyfunctional
proteins, their importance for cell physiology; enzyme function in vivo & in vivo
kinetics. Enzyme applications.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Bo
oks r
ecommended



P
. F. Cook and W. W. Cleland,
Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism.
3
rd

Edition,
Garland Science
, 2007
.



A. Carnish Bowden,
Fundamental of Enzyme Kinetics, 3
rd

E
d
ition
, Portland
Press
, 2004
.



Price, N. C. & L. S
tevens,

Fundamentals of Enzymology, 3
rd

Ed
ition
., Oxford
University

Press, 1999.


MS
BT

206




VIROLOGY






UNIT
-
I


Viruses
-

Structure

of

animal

viruses

and

plant

viruses;

Classification

of

animal

and

plant

viruses;

Satellite

viruses;

Viroids;

prions;

Diseases

causes

by

animal

viruses

and

plant

viruses;

Economic

loss

due

to

important
viruses
.



Genome

organization

of

animal

viruses;

Replication

of

RNA

viruses;

Replication

of

DNA

viruses
,

Genome

organization

of

DNA

and

RNA

plant

viruses;

Replication

of

DNA

and

RNA

plant

viruses
.



Contact
hours:

15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Infections
-

Methods

to

diagnose

animal

virus

infections:

Electron

microscop
y
,

Tissue

culture

growth

of

viruses

,

V
irus quantitation

assays,

Viral

serology:

ELISA,

neutralization

assays;

Molecular

methods:

hybridization,

PCR, real

time

PCR,

sequencing,

microarray,

gene

silencing

and

antiviral

assays
.



Me
thods

to

study

plant

viruses;

Infectivity

assays



Sap

transmission,

insect

vector

transmission,

agroinfection
(using

Ag
r
obacterium
);

Ultracentrifugation,

E
lectron

micros
cop
y
,

S
erological

methods,

I
mmunelectrophoresis in

gels,
D
irect double
-
antibody
sandwich method, Dot ELISA, Immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM),
Decoratio
n

technique
,

Polymeras
e

chai
n

reaction
;

DN
A

an
d

oligonucleotid
e

microarray
;

Gen
e

silencing,
PTGS

&

TGS
;

V
iral

suppressors

of

gene

silencing.


Contact hours : 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended

1.

Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Parasitology v. 5

,

9
th

Edition,
Edward Arnold,

199
8
.

2.

Acheson NH., Fundamentals of Molecular Virology, Wiley,

2007.

3.

Carter J & Saunders V. Virology: Principles and Applications. 1st Edition, Wiley,
2007.

4.

Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE.
Fields Virology, 5th Edition, Vols. I, II.
Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2006.

5.

Mahy, BWJ & Kangaroo HO., Virology Methods Manu
al, 1st Edition, Academic
Press, 1996.

6.

Murphy FA, Gibbs, EPJ, Holzmek MK & Studdert MJ., Veterinary Virology, 3rd
Edition, Academic Press. 1999.

7.

Ed. C.L. Mandahar, Molecular Biology of Plant viruses, Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Dordrect, 1999.

8.

Roger Hull (
Ed), Mathews Plant Virology, 4th Edition, Academic Press, San Diego,
2002.


MSBT 207


BIOSAFTY AND IPR ISSUES



UNIT
-
I


Introduction to Intellectual Property
:
T
ypes

of

IP:

P
atents,

T
rademarks,

Copyright

&

Related

Rights,

Industrial

Design,

T
raditional

Kno
wledge, Geographical

Indications,

Protection

of

New

GMOs;

International

framework

for

the

protection

of

IP
IP

as

a

factor

in

R&D;

IPs

of

relevance

to

Biotechnology

and

few

Case

Studies;

Introduction

to

History

of
G
A
T
T
,

WTO,

WIPO

and

TRIPS.


Concept of pri
o
r
art
:

Inventio
n

i
n

contex
t

o
f

“prio
r

art”
;

Paten
t

databases
;

Searchin
g

Internationa
l

Databases
;

Country
-
wise

patent

searches

(USPTO,

EPO,

India

etc.);

Analysis

and

report

formation
.


Basics of Patents
:

T
ypes

of

patents;

Indian

P
atent

Act

1970;

Recent

Amen
dments;

Filing

of

a

patent

application;

Precautions

before

patenting
-
disclosure/non
-
disclosure;

WIPO

T
reaties;

Budapest

T
reaty;

PCT

and

Implications;

Role

of
a

Country

Patent

Office;

Procedure

for

filing

a

PCT

application
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


Patent filing and infringement
:
P
atent

application
-

forms

and

guidelines,

fee

structure,

time

frames;

T
ypes

of

patent

applications:

provisional

and

complete

specifications;

PCT

and

convention

patent

applications;

International

patenting
-
requirement,

proced
ure
s

an
d

costs
;

financial

assistanc
e

fo
r

patenting
-
introductio
n

t
o

existin
g

schemes
;

Publicatio
n

of
patents
-
gazette

of

India,

status

in

Europe

and

US
.


Patenting

by

research

students,

lecturers

and

scientists
-
University/organizational

rules

in

India

and

ab
road, credit

sharing

by

workers,

financial

incentives
.


Patent

infringement
-

meaning,

scope,

litigation,

case

studies

and

examples
.


Biosafety
:
Historical

Back
g
round;

Introduction

to

Biological

Safety

Cabinets;

Primary

Containment

for

Biohazards;

Biosaf
ety

Levels;

Biosafety

Levels

of

Specific

Microorganisms;

Recommended

Biosafety

Levels for

Infectious

Agents

and

Infected

Animals;

Biosafety

guidelines

-

Go
v
ernment

of

India;

Definition

of

GMOs

&

LMOs;

Roles

of

Institutional

Biosafety

Committee,

RCGM,

GEAC

etc.

for

GMO

applications

in

food

and

agriculture
;

Environmenta
l

releas
e

o
f

GMOs
;

Ris
k

Analysis
;

Ris
k

Assessment
;
Ris
k

managemen
t

and
communication
;

Overvie
w

o
f

Nationa
l

Regulation
s

an
d

rele
v
an
t

Internationa
l
Agreement
s

including
Cartagen
a

Protocol.


Con
tact hours: 15 hrs


Books
r
ecommended


P Ganguly
,

Intellectual Property Rights, Tata McGraw Hill, 2007.



MSBT 208

IMMUNOLOGY AND CELL BIOLOGY LABORATORY
( Lab
-
3)





Selectio
n

o
f

animals
,

Preparatio
n

o
f

antigens
,

Immunizatio
n

an
d

method
s

o
f

bleeding
,

Ser
um
separation
,

Storage.



Antibody

titre

by

ELISA

method.



Double

diffusion,

Immuno
-
electrophoresis

and

Radial

Immuno

diffusion.



Complement

fixation

test.



Isolation

and

purification

of

IgG

from

serum

or

IgY

from

chicken

egg.



SDS
-
P
AGE
,

Immunoblotting
,

Do
t

blo
t

assays



Blood

smear

identification

of

leucocytes

by

Giemsa

stain



Separation

of

leucocytes

by

dextran

method



Demonstration

of

Phagocytosis

of

latex

beads



Separation

of

mononuclear

cells

by

Ficoll
-
Hypaque



L
ymph proliferation


by

mitogen

/

antigen

induced



L
ym
ph node

Immunohistochemistry

(direct

and

indirect

peroxidase

assay)



Immunodiagnostics

using

commercial

kits



Simple and differential staining procedures, Animal cell culture,



MSBT 209

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ENZYMOLOGY
laboratory ( Lab
-
4)





Isolatio
n of plasmid and genomic
DNA
,

quantitation

of DNA



Sepa r at i on of DNA on
Agarose

gel

electrophoresis



Restriction

Enzyme

digestion

of

DNA



Ligation and
cloning

in a plasmid vector



T
ransformation

of

E.coli

with

standard

plasmids,

Calculation

of

transformation

efficiency



I s ol a t i on
of

recombinant

plasmid

DNA,

Confirmation

of

the

insert,

Restriction

mapping



Polymerase

Chain

R
eaction



Isolation of Enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase

from plant tissue



Enzymatic Assays (Amylase):
Determination of
optimum pH,



Effect o
f

temperature

and
substrate concentration
,



Determination of

Km & Vmax,




Effect of
inhibitors


SEMESTER
-
III


MSBT 301

COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY AND BIOSTATI
STI
CS






UNIT

I


Element
s

o
f

programmin
g

language
s

-

C

an
d

PERL
;

Dat
a

bas
e

concept
;

Databas
e

managemen
t

system;
Databas
e

browsin
g

an
d

Dat
a

retrieval
;

Sequenc
e

databas
e

an
d

genom
e

database
;

Dat
a

Structure
s

and
Databases
;

Database
s

suc
h

a
s

GenBank
;

EMBL
;

DDBJ
;

Swissprot
;

PIR
;

MIPS
;

TIGR
;

Ho
v
ergen
;

T
AIR;
PlasmoDB;

ECDC;

Searching

for

sequence

databas
e

like

F
AS
T
A

and

BLAST

algorithm.



Practical exercises

-

Searching

PubMed,

Introduction

to

NCBI,

NCBI

data

bases,

BLAST

BLASTn,

BLASTp,

PSI
-
BLAS
T.


Cluster

analysis

-

Phylogenetic

clustering

by

simple

matching

coefficients;

Sequence

Comparison;

Sequence

p
attern;

Regular

expression

based

pattern;

Theory

of

profiles

and

their

use

in

sequence

analysis;

Markov models;

Concept

of

HMMS;

Baum
-
W
elch

algorithm;

Use

of

profile

HMM

for

protein

family

classification;
Patter
n

recognitio
n

methods.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT

II


Modelling

-

Methods

for

modeling;

Homology

modeling;

Threading

and

protein

structure

prediction;

Structure
-
structure comparison

of

macromolecules

with

reference

to

proteins;

Force

fields;

Molecular

energy

minimization;

Monte Carlo

and

molecular

dynamics

simulation
.


Practical exercises

-

Sequence manipulation

Suite,

Multiple

sequence

alignment,

Primer

designing,

Phylogenetic

Analysis.

Protein

Modeling,
Protei
n

structur
e

Analysis
,

Docking
,

Ligplo
t

interactions.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
III



Introduction to Statistics
: Selection of Sample or Sampling, Theory:
Q
ualitative,
Random and Non
-
random Sample. Collection of Data, their Classification, Tabulation,
Graphic Representation and Diagrammatic Representation. Measures of Central
Tendency
-

Ma
thematical Averages, Mean, Median and mode.


Statistical Analyses
:
Fundamental

concepts

in

applied

probability;

Exploratory

data

analysis

and

statistical

inference;

Probability
an
d

analysi
s

o
f

on
e

an
d

tw
o

wa
y

samples
;

discret
e

an
d

continuou
s

probabilit
y

mo
dels
;

Expectatio
n

and
v
ariance
;
Centra
l
limi
t
theorem
;
Inference
;
Hypothesis
;
Critica
l
regio
n
an
d
erro
r
probabilities
; Correlation and
Regression.
T
est
s
for
proportion
;
Equalit
y
o
f
proportions
;
equalit
y
o
f
mean
s
o
f
norma
l
populations (varianc
e
known
,
varia
nce
unknown);

t
-
test,

2

test

for

independence;

P
-
value

of

the

statistic;

Confidence

limits;

Introduction

to

one way

and

two
-
way

analysis

of

variance;

Data

transformations
.



Practical exercises:

Introduction

to

MS

EXCEL
-
Use

of

worksheet

to

enter

data,

edi
t

data,

copy

data,

move

data.

Use

of

in
-
built
statistica
l

function
s

fo
r

computation
s

o
f

Mean
,

S.D.
,

Correlation
,

regressio
n

coefficient
s

etc
.

Us
e

o
f

ba
r

diagram,
histogram
,

scatte
r

plots
,

etc
.

graphica
l

tool
s

i
n

EXCE
L

fo
r

presentatio
n

o
f

data
.

Introductio
n

t
o

SYS
T
A
T
package.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended




W
ayn
e

W
.

Daniel
,

Biostatistic
s

:

A

foundatio
n

fo
r

Analysi
s

i
n

th
e

Healt
h

Sciences
,

9
t
h

Edition
,

W
ile
y
,

2009.



Pre
m

S
.

Mann
,

Introductor
y

Statistics
,
7t
h

Edition
,

W
ile
y
,

2010.



Joh
n

A
.

Rice
,

Mathe
matica
l

Statistic
s

an
d

Dat
a

Analysis
,

3
r
d Edition
,

Joh
n

A
.

Rice
,

Duxbur
y

Press
,

2006.



Campbel
l

an
d

Hey
e
r
,

Discoverin
g

Genomics
,

Proteomics
,

&

Bioinformatics
,

2
n
d

Edition
,

Benjamin Cummings
,

2002.



Cynthi
a

Giba
s

an
d

Pe
r

Jambeck
,

Developin
g

Bioinformatic
s

C
ompute
r

Skill
,

1s
t
Edition
,

O’Reilly

Publication
,

2001.





MSBT 303
GENETI
C

ENGINEERIN
G



UNIT
-
I

Enzymes used in Recombinant DNA Technology
:

Restriction

Enzymes;

DNA

ligase,

E. coli
DN
A polymerase I and
Klenow

enzyme,

T4

DNA

polymerase, Reverse
transcriptase,
P
olynucleotid
e

kinase
,
Alkalin
e

phosphatase
.


Methods producing labeled probe:
Nic
k

translation
,

P
rimer extension
,

Radioactiv
e

an
d

non
-
radioactive
probes.


Hybridizatio
n
techniques
:
Northern
,
Souther
n, Western
an
d South Western;
DNA
-
Protei
n

Interactions
-

mobilit
y

shif
t

assay;
DNaseI

footprinting;

Methyl

interference

assay.


Clonin
g

V
ectors:
Plasmids and plasmid vectors
, new generation of plasmid cloning
vectors
;
Lambd
a
vectors
-

In
sertion

and

Replacement

vectors,

Cosmids;

High
capacit y cl oning vectors
-

Y
ACs;

BACs and PACs;

Shuttle vectors;
Expression vectors
-

pMal,

GS
T,

pE
T
-
based
v
ectors
;
Protei
n
purification
;
His
-
tag
;
GS
T
-
tag
;
MBP
-
ta
g
etc.
; V
ectors used for cloning in animal cell
s
-

S
V
-
40
;

v
accinia/baccul
o

and
retrovira
l

v
ectors
;

Plant based
v
ectors,

Ti

v
ectors.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-
II


C
lonin
g

Methodologies:
Methods for construction of genomic and cDNA libraries
-

vectors used, generation of cDNAs, preparation of genomi
c DNA for library
construction, Lambda
in vitro

packaging, Methods used in the i
dentification and
analyses of recombinant DNA clones,

Protein
-
protei
n

interaction

an
d

y
east

two

hybrid

system;

Phage

display;

Cloning for expression,
Principles

in

maximizing

gene

expression.


PC
R:

Primer

design;

DNA

polymerases;

T
ypes

of

PCR



multiplex,

nested,

re
v
erse
transcriptase
,

rea
l

tim
e

PCR
,

colon
y

PCR
,

clonin
g

o
f

PC
R

products
;
Application of
PCR technology.


Methods and applications of site
-
directed mutagenesis.


Con
tact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT
-

III

Methods for DNA Sequencin
g:
Conc ept of
Enzymati
c and

Chemica
l

sequencin
g

o
f

DNA
;

Automate
d

DNA

sequencing;

High throughput sequencing;
RNA

sequencing.



Gene

silencing

techniques:
Introduction

to

siRNA;

siRNA

technology;

Micro

RNA;

Construction

of

siRNA

vectors;

Principle

and

application

of

gene

silencing;

Gene

knockouts
.


Basic concepts in Gene Therapy and vectors used.

T
ransgenics
-

plants and animals
;

Methods for analysis of gene
expression
-

genomics and proteomics.


Contac
t hours: 15 hrs


Books
r
ecommended




S.B
.

Primrose
,

R.M
.

T
wyma
n

an
d

R.
W
.Old
;

Principle
s

o
f

Gen
e

Manipulation
.

6
th

Edition
,

S.B.University
Press
,

2011.



J
.
Sambroo
k
an
d
D.
W
.
Russel
;
Molecula
r
Cloning
:

A

Laborator
y
Manual
,
V
ol
s
1
-
3
,
CSHL
,
2001.



T.A. Brown,
G
ene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An

Introduction. Fifth
Edition,

Wiley
-
Blackwell,
2006
.



Desmond S. T. Nicholl,
An introduction to genetic engineering, Cambridge
University Press, 2002.




MSBT304 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Uni
t

I

Plan
t

T
issu
e

Culture:
Historica
l

perspecti
v
e
;

T
otipotency
;

Organogenesis
;

Somati
c

embr
y
ogenesis
;

Regulatio
n

an
d

applications; Artificia
l

see
d

production
;

Micropropagation
;

Somaclona
l

v
ariation
;

Androgenesi
s

an
d

it
s

application
s

in
genetics

and

plant

breedi
ng;

Germplasm

conservation

and

cryopreservation.


Ag
r
obacterium
-
plant

interaction;

V
irulence;

Ti

and

Ri

plasmids;

Opines

and

their

significance;

T
-
DNA

transfer; Disarming

the

Ti

plasmid.


Geneti
c

T
ransformation:
Agrobacterium
-
mediated

gene

delivery;

Cointe
grate

and

binary

vectors

and

their

utility;

Direct

gene

transfer

-

PEG
-
mediated,

electroporation,

particle

bombardment

and

alternative

methods;

Screenable

and

selectable
markers
;

Characterizatio
n

o
f

transgenics
;

Chloroplas
t

transformation
;

Marker
-
fre
e

met
hodologies
;

Gene
targeting.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Uni
t

II

Molecula
r

Mappin
g

&

Marke
r

Assiste
d

Selectio
n

(MAS):
Quantitativ
e

an
d

qualitativ
e

traits
;

MA
S

fo
r

gene
s

o
f

agronomi
c

importance
,

e.g
.

insec
t

resistance
,

grain
quality

and

grain

yield;

Molecular

po
lymorphism,

RFL
P
,

RAPD,

STS,

AFL
P
,

SNP

markers;

Construction

of genetic

and

physical

map;

Gene

mapping

and

cloning;

QTL

mapping

and

cloning.


Strategie
s

fo
r

Introducin
g

Bioti
c

an
d

Abioti
c

Stres
s

Resistance/
T
olerance:
Bacterial

resistance;

Viral

resistance;

Fungal

resistance;

Insects

and

pathogens

resistance;

Herbicide

resistance; Drought,

salinit
y
,

thermal

stress,

flooding

and

submergence

tolerance.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Uni
t

III

Geneti
c

Engineerin
g

fo
r

Plan
t

Architectur
e

an
d

Metabolism:

See
d

storag
e

prot
eins
;

Protei
n

engineering
;

Vitamin
s

an
d

othe
r

valu
e

additio
n

compounds
;

Source
-
sink
relationships

for

yield

increase;

Post
-
harvest

bioengineering;

Plant

architecture;

Flowering

behaviour
.


Plant
s

a
s

Biofactories:
Concept

of

biofactories;

Fermentation

and

p
roduction

of

industrial

enzymes,

vitamins

and

antibiotics

and
othe
r

biomolecules
;

Cel
l

culture
s

fo
r

secondar
y

metabolit
e

production
;

Productio
n

o
f

pharmaceutically
importan
t

compounds
;

Bioenerg
y

generation
.


Plan
t

Genomics
:
Identificatio
n

o
f

candidat
e

gene
s

usin
g

geneti
c

informatio
n

(positiona
l

cloning)
,

U
sin
g

biochemica
l

and
expression

analysis

(microarray

analysis,

proteomics,

metabolomics);

Characterization

and

functional

analysis of

candidate

genes:

transformation,

mutant

populations,

knockout

systems;

Heterologous

expression

systems;
Protein
analysis
;

Bioinformatics

and

databases;

Genoinformatics.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended




Adrian

Slate
r
,

Nigel

Scott

and

Mark

Fowle
r
,

Plant

Biotechnology:

The

genetic

manipulation

of

plants,

1
st

Edition,

O
xford

University

Press, 2003



BR

Jordan ,
The

Molecular

Biology

and

Biotechnology

of

Flowering,

Ed
.
,

2
nd

Edition,

CABI,

2006.



Neil

Wille,

Phytoremediation:

Methods

and

Reviews,

1st

Edition, Humana

Press,

2007.



Denis

Murph
y

,
Plant

Breeding

and

Biotechnolog
y:

Societal

c
ontext

and

the

Future

of

Agriculture,


Cambridge University

Press,

2007.



C. Neal Stewart, Jr., Plant

Biotechnology and Genetics: Principles, Techniques
and Applications, 2008.


MSBT 305


ANIMA
L
BIOTECHNOLO
G
Y



Uni
t

I


Animal cell culture:
Requirements for animal

cel
l, tissue and organ

culture
;

Primar
y

culture
,

secondar
y

culture;
Continuou
s
cel
l
lines
;
Suspensio
n
cultures
;
Somati
c
cel
l
clonin
g
an
d
hybridization
;
T
ransfectio
n
and
transformatio
n
o
f
cells
.


Con
tact hours: 15 hrs


Uni
t

II


Animal

cloning:
B
asic

concepts; Applications of cloning of farm animal and
endangered species;

in

situ

and

ex

situ

preservation

of

germplasm;

in

utero

testing

of

foetus

for genetic

defects;

Pregnancy

diagnostic

kits;

Anti
-
fert
ility

animal

v
accines.


T
ransgeni
c

anima
l

technology

and

its

applications;

Ge ne t he r a p y,

V
iral

v
ectors used for gene transfer,
G
eneration and use of gene knockouts, RNAi
technology.


Contact hours: 15 hrs




Uni
t

III


Hybridom
a
technology:
A
pplications in

diagnostics and therapy;
Approaches to development of vaccines
.

Phage display technology for
production of antibodies
.




Social, Cultural, Economical, Legal and IPR issues in animal biotechnology.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books Recommended




P
ortne
r
,

An
ima
l

Cel
l

Biotechnolog
y
.

2n
d

Edition
,

Human
a
Press
,

2007.



Ian R. Gordon
,

Reproducti
v
e

T
echnologie
s

i
n

Far
m

Animals
,

CA
B

Intl.
,

2005.



Carl A.

Pinkert
,

T
ransgeni
c

anima
l

technolog
y
: A laboratory handbook
,
Academi
c

Press
,

2006.



S.H. E. Kaufmann , Novel vacci
nation strategies, Wiley

VCH Verlag GmbH &
Co. 2004.



S.H. E. Kaufmann , MW Stewart and H Arnold
,
Tolpey and Wilsons
:
Microbiology and Microbial infections immunology,

ASM press 2005.



Manjula Shenoy ,
Animal Biotechnology, Firewall Media, 2007.



R
. Ian Freshney,
Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique and
Specialized Applications, John Wiley and Sons, 2010.


MSBT 306 DEVELOPMENTAL AND STEM CELL BIOLOGY


UNIT I


Model systems:


Drosophila
, Zebra Fish, Frog, Chick and Mouse. Co
ncepts in Pattern
formation, animal vegetal,

dorso
-
ventral and anterior
-
posterior axes, gradients, origin and
specification of germ layers. Cell

cell interactions and cell signaling during
morphogenesis in early embryo;
G
astrulation, neurulation and organ
ogenesis
;

Origin and
fate of neural crest cells.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT II


Differentiation:
Cellular basis of differentiation, trans
-
differentiation, metaplasia and
regeneration.


Growth and post embryonic development:
Apoptosis, aging and senescen
ce, abnormal
development.
Evolutionary developmental biology, environmental effects on
development.


Contact hours: 15 hrs



UNIT III


Ste
m
cell biology:
Applications, types of stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells,
maintenance of stemness and control of di
fferentiation, characterization and
expansion, inducible pleuripotent stem cells.

ES cell technologies, Concept of
Cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books

r
ecommended




S.F. Gilbert

,
Developmental Biology
,

9th ed
ition,

Sinauer

Associates Inc.

20
10.




Lewis Wolpert

,
Principles of Development
,

3rd edition,

Oxford

University Press
,
2007
.



B. I. Balinsky

,
An Introduction to Embryology
, 5th edition
, Thomas Asia Pvt. Ltd.

2004.



R. M. Twyman

Developmental Biology
,
Pu
blisher
-

Bios Scientific Publishers L
td
.
,

2001
.



Robert Lanza, John Gearhart ,
Ess
entials of Stem Cell Biology,

Elsevier
A
cademic
P
ress, 2006.



Werner A. Müller ,
Developmental
B
iology, Springer, 1997.



MSBT 306
PROJECT


MSBT 307
JOURNAL CLUB PRESENTATION


MSBT 308
GENETIC ENGINEERING
(Lab
-
5)


1.

Isolation of genomic DNA from bacteria/ yeast

2.

PCR amplification of a gene and it’s analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis

3.

Isolation of plasmid DNA

4.

In vitro DNA ligation and transformation of
E.

coli
.

5.

Characte
rization of transformants: DNA gel electrophoresis,

6.

Restriction map Analysis.

7.

Southern blot analysis.

8.

Isolation of cytoplasmic RNA.

9.

Separation of poly A+ RNA on oligo dT column.

10.

Electrophoresis of RNA on denaturing gels.

11.

RT
-
PCR technique



MSBT 309
P
LANT AND ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

(Lab
-
6)


Plant tissue culture techniques




Introduction to plant tissue culture technique: Surface sterilization and media
preparation. Role of additives in different explant culture.



Effect of plant growth regulators on var
ious explants for callus induction, Cell
suspension culture, growth analysis, cell plating efficiency.



Organogenesis and Somatic embryogenesis.



Shoot tip and nodal sector culture
.


Animal tissue culture techniques




Introduction to cell culture medium and

the function of different components of
the medium on cell growth.



Familiarisation with tissue culture laboratory and P1 to P4 facilities.



Preparation of glass wares and media for cell culture.



Development and maintenance of cell lines.



Serum and prot
ein free media and their applications.



Application of animal cell culture techniques in hybridoma culture and Stem cell
research.


SEMESTER IV



MSBT 401

FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY AND DOWNSTREAM
PROCESSING



UNIT I


Growth rate parameters:
Specific growth
rate, doubling time, validity of exponential
growth law, growth yield, metabolic quotient, Effect of substrate concentration, Monod
growth Kinetics, Determination of K
s
, Definition of lag period.

Factors influencing choice of method; Dry and wet mass, volu
me, yields, metabolic rates
light scattering cell count.

Balance equation, carbon, Nitrogen balance, oxidation


reduction principles, product
formation.


Batch & Plug Flow Culture:
Open and closed systems, growth phases, Mathematical
model of simple batch

culture, variations in actual practice plug flow culture with and
without feedback.


Chemostat Culture:
General principle, Balance equations critical dilution rate, Biomass
productivity, comparison with batch cultures, residence time distribution, Test of

validity,
imperfect mixing, wall growth Transient state analysis.


Fed batch culture:
G
eneral principle and analysis.

Elaboration of Chemostat
-
Turbidostat, pH stat, D.O. stat cultures control mechanisms, Biomass feedback Internal
and External, Chemostat i
n series Applications.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT II


Product Formation in Microbial Cultures:

Growth associated and non
-
growth
associated Kinetics, Product decomposition, Balance equations for batch and continuous
systems, Effect of environmental condit
ions.


Scale up Principles:

Methods of scale up and their analysis.


Process Control:
Measurement and control of bioprocess parameters like temp., D.O.,
speed, pH, antifoam etc., Basic principles of feedback control.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT III


Down
stream processing:
Bioseparation
-

filtration, centrifugation, sedimentation,
flocculation; Cell disruption; Liquid
-
liquid
extraction; Purification

by chromatographic
techniques; Reverse osmosis and ultra filtration; Drying;
Crystallization; Storage

and
pa
ckaging; Treatment of effluent and its disposal.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended




Mansi, E and Bryce, C. Fermentation Microbiology and Bi
otechnology. Taylor and
Francis,

2007.



Demain, A & Davies, J. Manual of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnolo
gy. Second
edition. ASM press. 1999.



Doran, P. Bioprocess Engineering Principles. Academic Press (Elsevier) 1995.



Stanbury, P, Whitaker, A and Hall, S. Principles of Fermentation Technology
Butterworth Heineman, Aditya Books (P) Ltd. 1997.



Shuler, M and K
argi, F. Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts. Second Edition.
Pearson Education. 2002.



Michael J. Waites ,
Industrial microbiology:

an introduction, Wiley
-
Blackwell, 2008
.



List of Elective Courses [MSBT 402, MSBT

403]



1.

Human Molecular Genetics

2.

Human Physiology

3.

Genomics and Proteomics

4.

Advanced Immunology


HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS

UNIT I


Genes in pedigrees:

Behaviour of monogenic, oligogenic and polygenic; traits/diseases
Behavior a
nd
c
haracteristics of the patterns of inheritance of the DNA sequence, Allelic,
locus and clinical heterogeneity;
C
omplementation study through pedigrees.



Complications to the basic pedigree pattern
:

Complications to the basic pedigree
patterns: pseudodomina
nt, pedigree patterns, nonpenetrance,

imprinting
, anticipation,
germ line and somatic mosaicisms.


Mutations:

Difference between polymorphism and mutations; Types of mutations;
M
utations and DNA repair associated syndromes, Molecular pathology


evaluation

of
pathogenic mutations; Database of pathogenic mutations.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT II


Organization of human genome and genes:

General organization of human Genome
-
Nuclear and Mitochondrial, Mitochondrial Genome organization, Mitochon
drial
mutations
and myopathies.


Nuclear Genome Organization
: size and banding of human chromosomes; distribution
of tandems and interspersed repetitive DNA, Gene distribution and density in human
nuclear genome, Organization of genes: rRNA encoding Genes, mRNA encoding G
enes,
small nuclear RNA genes, Overlapping genes, genes within genes, multigene families,
pseudo genes, truncated genes and gene fragments



Gene mapping:

Mapping: physical and genetic; Strategies in identifying human disease
genes:
Human Genome project


History and Reality; Techniques and Technology
involved in genome

mapping
-

low and high resolution mapping; Strategies and
milestones in mapping and sequencing of human genome approaches to physical and
genetic mapping; Principles and strategies for identi
fying unknown disease or
susceptibility genes; Beyond genomics


the physical and genetic mapping the post
genomic era.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT III


Potential of using animal models for human diseases, Types of animal models,
Transgenic animals
-

gener
ation, detection and use in the study of different diseases,
Genes in Pedigrees, Complex diseases.


New approaches to treating disease
-

Treatment of genetic disease ; gene therapy; methods
for inserting and expressing a gene in a target cell or tissue; Met
hods for repairing or
inactivating a pathogenic gene in a cell or tissue; Some examples of attempts at human
gene therapy;

Cancer genetics
-

evolution of cancer; Oncogenes; Tumor suppressor genes; stability of
the genome; control of the cell cycle.


Evolut
ion of human genome; Molecular phylogenetics and comparative genomics;
Evolution and migration of human populations.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books
r
ecommended




Mic
hael R. Speicher
,
Stylianos E. Antonarakis
,
Arno G. Motulsky
,
Vog
el and
Motulsky's Human Genetics: Problems and approaches, Springer, 2009.



S
trachan Tom and Read Andrew P.

Human Molecular Genetics, 4
th

Edition,
Garland Science (Taylor and Francis Group),
2010
.



S. Atherley, Alan G., Jack R. Girton, and John H. McDonald
.

The Science of
Genetics.Orlando, FL: Saunders College Publishing,
1999.



Anthony J. F. Griffiths,
Susan Wessler; Sean B Carroll; John Doebley
, A
n
Introduction to Genetic Analysis, Freeman,
10
th edition

20
12
.



Hartl, D. L. and E. W. Jones,
Genetics: Principl
es and Analysis, 4 ed. Jones &
Bartlett, Sudbury

1998.



Singer
.
M., and P.

Berg
.

Genes and Genome: a changing perspective
,

University
Science Books
,

1998
.



T. Strachan, Andrew
P. Read,
Human molecular genetics ,
Garland Science, 2004



HUMAN
PHYSIOLOG
Y




UNIT I


Digestive System
: Food Intake and Regulation, Digestive Processes, Enzymes and
Secretions in the Oral Cavity
and their

Functions, Stomach
and Intestine
, Digesti
ve
Glands
and their

Regulation, Disorders and Homeostatic Imbalances.


Cardiovascular System:

Formed Elements of Blood, Blood Plasma, Blood Groups,
Blood Coagulation, Homeostasis, Heart and Cardiac Cycle, Origin, Conduction and
Regulation of Heart Beat,

Cardiac Disorders, Lymphatic System


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT II


Respiratory System:

Exchange of Gases, Transport of Gases, Control and Regulation of
Respiration, Disorders.



Nervous System: Nervous System:

Components of the Nervous System, Neuron an
d
Glial Cells
-

Different Types, Structure, Function. Synapse: Nerve Impulse Transmission,
Neurotransmitters. Organization of Nervous System
-

CNS, PNS. PNS
-

Somatic Nervous
System; Autonomic Nervous System
-
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic System; Enteric
Ne
rvous System.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT III


Uro
-
Genital System:

Mechanism of Urine Formation and Regulation, Haemodialysis
and Homeostatic Imbalances In Excretion, Reproductive Cycles, Fertilization,
Implantation, Nidation and Placentation and Regulat
ion of Fertility.


Skeletal System:

Components of Skeletal System; Skeletal Organization; Axial and
Appendicular System; Bone Structure and Function, Development and Growth.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended




John E. Hall,
Guyton

and Hall
Textbook

of Medical Physiology,
12
th

Edition,
Saunders
, 20
1
0.



Tortora, G. J. and Derrickson, B. H., Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, Weily
and Sons, 2009.



Breedlove, M. C., Watson, N. V., Rozenzweig M. R., Biological Psychology: An
Introduction to Behavioural
, Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Sinauer
Associates, 6
th

Edition, 2010.



Gilbert, S. E., Developmental Biology, Sinauer Associates, 6
th

Edition, 2010.



Hell, J. W., Ehlers, M. D., (Editors), Structural and functional organization of the
synapse, Spring
er, 2008.



Turkingtons, C., The Brain and Brain Disorders, Viva Books, 2009.



Kandel, E., Schwartz, J. and Jessell T., Essentials of Neural Science and Behaviour,
McGraw
-
Hill, 2003.



Cornin, M. T. D., Livingstone, D. J., Predicting Chemical Fate and Toxicity,

CRC
Press, 2004.



Levitan, I. B., Kaczmarek L.K., The Neuron, Cell and Moleculer Biology, Oxford
University Press, 2001.


GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS




UNIT I


Genomes :

History of genomics, DNA based phylogenetic trees, genomes and human
evolution, evol
ution of nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes, the concept
of minimal genome and possibility of synthesizing it, genetic maps, physical maps,
EST and transcript maps, exomes, comparative genomics and colinearity, synteny in
maps
.

Whole Genome se
quencing and analysis:

Genome sequencing methods review,
analysis of the genomes of viruses, bacteria, archaea, eukaryotic


fungi, parasites,
plant genomes (
Arabidopsis

and rice), Animal genomes (fruit fly, mouse, human).



Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT

II

Annotation of whole genome sequence and functional genomics:

In Silico
methods, insertion mutagenesis, Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes
(TILLING), management of data, gene expression and transcript profiling, EST,
contigs and unigene sets, us
e of DNA chips and microarrays.


Pharmacogenomics:

Use in biomedicine involving diagnosis and treatment of
diseases, genomics in medical practice, personalized medicine, DNA polymorphism
and treatment of diseases,
A
pplication of SNP
-
technology
-
mapping gen
es underlying
monogenic and multigenic disorder, use of SNP in pharmacogenomics,
pharmacogenomics and industry.



Contact hours: 15 hrs


UNIT III

Proteomics:

Introduction and overview of tools used in proteomics studies, protein
-

protein interaction,

DNA
-

Protein interaction, application of quantitative proteomics
for the analysis of protein
-

protein interactions and interactomes, two
-
hybrid
systems, mass spectrometry for the analysis of protein complexes, their significance
and limitations.

Drug Dis
covery and Development:

Structure prediction and human proteomics,
mutant proteins, use of computer simulations and knowledge
-
based methods in the
design process, proteomic methods for the detection and analysis of protein
biomarkers for diseases, De
-
novo
design; making use of databases of sequence and
structure, protein structure and drug discovery, proteins in diseases, current issues,
drug targets, drug efficacy, protein chips and antibody microarray techniques in
cancer research.



Contact hours: 1
5 hrs


Books r
ecommended




Pevsner, J.,
Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics, Second Edition, Wiley
-
Blackwell, 2009.



Mount, D. W.
, Bioinformatics
: Sequence and Genome Analysis, CBS Publishers,
2004
.



Liebler, D.,
Introduction to Proteomics: Tools for New B
iology, Human Press
Totowa, 2002.



Campbell, A.M. & Heyer, L.J.,
Discovering Genomics, Proteomics and
Bioinformatics, Benjamin/Cummings, 2002.



Dubitzky, Werner; Granzow,
Martin; Berrar, Daniel P.
Fundamentals of Data



Mining in Genomics an
d Proteomics
,

Springer
-
Verlag
(Eds.) 2007.



Arthur M. Lesk
Introduction to Protein Science, Architecture, function, and



Genomics: Second edition,

Oxford University Press,

2010.



John Parrington, Kevin Coward,
Comparative genomics and proteomics in drug



discove
ry: Taylor & Francis Group, 2007
.


ADVANCED IMMUNOLOGY


UNIT I


Immune response in infection:
Infectious agents and how they cause diseases, Innate
immune response giving cue to adaptive immune response. The humoral response to
infection, Generation of neu
tralizing antibodies and control of infection, Adaptive
immune response to infection, the role of CD4+ and CD8+ and other T cells, The
mucosal immune response, Generation of Immunological memory, Immune response in
Bacterial, parasitic and viral infecti
ons, Study of host pathogen interactions, Mechanisms
of pathogen survival in an immune competent host, Indicators of protective immunity,
Immune modulation and failure of host defense mechanisms in infection.


Contact hours: 15 hrs




UNIT II


Auto immuni
ty and Transplantation reactions:
Nature of Immune response to self

Prevention of such responses, Genetic and Environmental basis of auto immune response

Immunological mechanisms of transplant rejection, Mechanisms of transplant survival,
Immunodeficiency
diseases,
Genetic basis of Immunodeficiency, Acquired Immune
deficiency
.


Tumor Immunology:
Failure of the Immune system in Cancer, Immune modulation for
control of Cancer, Immuno therapy for Cancer
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs



UNIT III


Vaccines:
Approache
s for vaccine development
,
New Vaccine development
,
Live
Vaccine
,
Peptide Vaccine
,
Naked DNA vaccine
,
Subunit Vaccine
,
Delivery of Vaccine
through mucosal route, Adjuvants for Vaccine, Failures of vaccines
.


Contact hours: 15 hrs


Books r
ecommended




Murphy
, Kenneth M.,

Travers, Paul and


Walport, Mark,

Janeway’s

Immuno
Biology,
7
th

Edition,

Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, New York and
London, 200
8
.



Stefan H.E. Kaufmann

and
Michael W
.
Steward
,
Topley Wilson’s Microbiology
and Microbial Infectio
ns Immunology, 10
th

Edition, Ed.


Stefan H.E Kaufmann

and Michael W. Steward Hodder Arnold ASM Press, 2005.



Stefan H.E. Kaufmann,
Novel Vaccination Strategies Ed
.

W
iley
-
V
CH Verlag
GmbH &Co., 2004.



Kindt, T. J., Osborne, B. A. and Goldsby, R. A. Kuby Immu
nology, 6th Edition,
W. H. Freeman, 2006.



Paul, W. E., Fundamental Immunology, 6
th

Edition, Lippincott Williams and
Wilkins, 2008.



Abbas, A. K., Lichtman, A. H. and Pillai, S., Cellular and Molecular
Immunology, 6
th

Edition, Saunders, 2007.



Eli Benjamini,

Richard Coico, and Geoffrey Sunshine ,
Immunology, A Short
Course, F
if
th Edition
by
, Wiley.



Peter J. Delves, Seamus J. Martin, Dennis R. Burton, and Ivan M. Roitt
,

Roitt's
Essential
Immunology
,
1
2
th Edition,
Blackwell Publishing
, 2011
.


MSBT
40
4 Elective
III: Social science


The
choice of
courses for MSBT 404 are:



Principles and practices of Management,

MBA 101



Entrepreneurship theories and practices, MBA
207



Marketing management, MBA
201


MSBT
40
5 Seminar

MSBT
40
6 Project

MSBT
40
7

Project presentation