Office Management Tools

mittenturkeyΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

89 εμφανίσεις

Office Management Tools

Saima Gul

Computer Application


Education


Banking System


Aerospace


Business & Marketing


Government


Entertainment


2

3

A computer is an
electronic machine

that can be programmed to
accept
data

(
input
),
process

it into
useful information

(
output
), and
store

it in a
storage

media for future use

System Unit

What is a Computer?

History & Evolution

Abacus

Difference Engine

Analytical Engine

1944 MARK I

Howard Aiken at

Harvard University

1951
-

UNIVAC1


first
commercial
computer

1954

-

Hewlett and Packard

Met and setup shop in

Garage at Silicon valley

Mechanical Calculator

Abacus

Difference Engine


Analytical Engine

6

Mechanical Calculators

UNIVAC 1

9

1975


Microsoft Founded

Bill Gates with Paul Allen

1976

Apple I and Apple II





1981
-
IBM PC

PC was

introduced.





1989


WWW

Invented by

Tim Berners
-
Lee

1969


Internet was

founded


10

1994


Netscape

Founded by

Jim Clark and Marc Andreesen

Many more….

Question
-


11

PROCESS

OUTPUT

INPUT

What is a Computer?

A computer is an
electronic machine

that can
be programmed to
accept data

(
input
),
process

it into
useful information

(
output
), and
store

it
in a
storage

device for future use

12

Computer Generation

1.
1
st

Generation

2.
2
nd

Generation

3.
3rd

Generation

4.
4th

Generation

5.
5th

Generation

13

1
st

Generation
(1944
-

1958) : Vacuum Tubes


Memory was made up of
hundreds of
vacuum
tubes

or sometimes
magnetic drum


Gave off so much
heat

that even if they were
cooled by gigantic air
conditioners.


Input and output media
were
punched cards

and
magnetic tapes


IBM Punched Card
(input)

Magnetic Tapes
(output)

Vacuum Tubes

(memory)

14

UNIVAC

ENIAC

15


an electronic switch that alternately
allow or disallow

electronic signal to pass, replaces vacuum tubes



These transistors were made of solid material, some of which
is
silicon
, therefore they were
very cheap

to produce



Much
smaller

than vacuum tubes, draw
less power
, and
generate
less heat
,
conduct electricity faste
r
.

2
nd

Generation (1959
-

1964) : Transistor

16

Minicomputer

17


An electronic circuit that
packages transistors and other
electronic components into one small silicon

chip called
semiconductor.


The number of transistors that is placed on a single chip has
increased,
shrinking

both the
size and cost

of computers.


Keyboards and monitors were used.


Magnetic disks

were used widely as secondary storage


3rd Generation (1964
-

1970) : Integrated Circuit

18

Minicomputer

19



A silicon chip on which transistors are
integrated onto it.


Microprocessor

can

do all the processing

of a
full
-
scale computer



smaller in size , faster in
speed.

4
th

Generation (1971
-
Present
) : Microprocessor


These circuit integrations are known as Large
-
scale integrated (LSI) and Very Large
-
scale
integrated (VLSI) circuits

Microprocessors led to the invention of personal
computers.

20


Artificial Intelligence (AI)
concerns with making computers
behave and think like humans.


The
branch of computer
science

that deal with writing
computer programs

that can
solve problems creatively


AI studies include robotics,
expert systems, games, etc..

5
th

Generation (Present & Beyond)

: Artificial Intelligence

21

3 Directions of Computer Development




size



Everything has become
smaller




power



Miniaturization allowed computer makers to cram
more power into their machines, providing
faster
processing speeds

and
more data storage
capacity.




expensive


The price of the
hardware is getting cheaper



22

Classification of Computers

(1) Supercomputers


The
mightiest

computer


The
most expensive
.


process billions of instructions in a second


used by some
exclusive group

only

(2)Mainframes


Process data at very high speed


less expensive

than Supercomputer


used for processing large amount of data


user work with terminal e.g Maybank Mainframe

23

(3)Workstations


Powerful desktop computers


Used by engineers and scientists for
engineering applications,

software development, application
that require a high amount of
computing power

24

(4)Mobile Computing



Small, portable, wireless


communication device.



Ex: laptops, wearable computers,


PDAs, USB flash drives.

25


designed to support a computer network

that allows you to share
files, application software, hardware, such as printers and other
network resources.


Mainframes, personal computers can be used as a server.


Server computers usually have following characteristics:


Designed to be
connected

to one or more networks


The most
powerful
CPUs available


Multiple CPUs

to share the processing tasks


Large memory and disk storage



High
-
speed

communications capabilities



(5)Servers

26


The most common for
home users

,
computers that can fit on a desktop or in
one's briefcase.


Can perform all of its input, processing,
output and storage activities by itself.

(6)Microcomputers / PC

27


i.
Mini


tower

ii.
Desktop


Types of PC

Why are
COMPUTERS


so Useful?


Storage


Reliability


Speed


Accuracy


Communication

28

The End

29