Digital Rights Management and

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26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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Digital Rights Management and
Digital Preservation issues in
the context of Digital Copyright
for Digital Library Development

BY


Samir Chandra Das,

Laksman Sarkar, Tanusree Dasgupta









Presented by






Tanusree Dasgupta







Introduction


Digital

library

development

should

be

taken

up

as

an

additional

task

to

populate

the

websites

with

valuable

in
-
house

content

like

research

reports,

publications

of

in

house

researchers,

and

so

on

The

recent

years

witnessed

the

boom

of

the

Internet

the

world

over,

leading

to

the

acceptance

of

the

Web

as

an

alternative

delivery

mode

of

information

products

The

information

centre

is

undergoing

a

transition

from

the

paper
-
dominated

manual

environment

to

the

shared

access

oriented

electronic

environment




The digital library development in the country needs
a two
-
pronged strategy


(i) to digitize local content, and


(ii) to devise options for accessing external resources.



Channels for internal content include journals &
serials for research, conference proceedings, theses
and dissertations and preprints, research and status
reports, textbooks and learning materials,
government publications, spiritual/heritage sources,
tourism information, traditional knowledge, etc. An
important note here is that the WWW is an
international publishing space. As such, many of the
images, texts, and other files may fall under the
copyright laws of other nations, whose attitude
toward ownership of intellectual property may be far
different. For example, Indian copyright laws are
often predicated on moral, rather than economic,
tenets.



Digital Library


Noerr

(
2000
)

suggested

two

possibilities

for

a

digital

library,

either

a

‘library

that

contains

material

in

digitized

form,’

or

a

‘library

that

contains

digital

material’

material’There

were

other

definitions

such

as

‘library

without

walls’

or

‘library

without

books’

and

synonyms

or

related

terms

such

as

‘electronic

library’

or

‘virtual

library’
.

Digital

library

shown

in

Fig
.

1

may

be

treated

as

repositories

of

massive

amounts

of

high
-
quality

information

content

in

digital

form

in

multiple

servers

on

diverse

formats

permitting

access

over

different

electronic

networks

in

a

distributed

environment
.

Some

of

the

purposes

of

the

digital

library

identified

by

the

different

ongoing

projects

were
:


* To collect, store and organize information
and knowledge in digital form.


* Transforming printed information into
digital form.


* Storage, retrieval and handling of ‘easy
-
to
-
use’ electronic information.


* Converting data from diverse media or
formats into digital format.


* Classification techniques for improving
retrieval efficiency


* To promote economic and efficient delivery
of information.


* To leverage the considerable investments in
computing/communications infrastructure.


* Editing and formatting of contents in formats
such as HTML, VRML, PDF, JPEG, MPEG, etc.


* Browsing and querying facilities for content
based retrieval.


Digital Rights Management and
Protection




.

According

to,

DRM

is

a

term

that

is

used

to

describe

a

range

of

techniques

which

collect

information

for

rights

and

right

holders,

so

as

to

manage

copyrighted

material
;

and

the

conditions

under

which

these

materials

will

be

distributed

to

the

users
.

DRM

refers

to

the

protection

of

the

intellectual

properties

of

digital

content

by

controlling

or

detecting

the

actions

of

the

authorized

end

user

to

the

digital

content
.

It

gives

the

digital

object’s

owner

the

ability

to

securely

distribute

valuable

content

such

as

books,

photos,

videos,

magazines
;

at

the

same

time

helps

the

owner

manage

the

content,

avoiding

unauthorized

usage

or

copying
.

The

copyright

protection

is

mainly

achieved

extensive

use

of

digital

watermarking
.

Digital

libraries

aim

at

unhindered

access

to

content

over

computer

and

communication

networks,

which

justify

the

need

for

resorting

to

such

a

setup

for

useful

information

resources
.

Digital Copyright law vs. Digitization

Despite these rapid developments online, digital copyright law has failed to keep
up with change and instead rests on distinct notions of author and user. This
supports the older creative industries while raising severe problems for
intellectual and creative development online.
Litman (2001)

argued that the
traditional development of digital copyright law was a team effort between
established affected industries and legislators, leaving new industries out of the
negotiations, and as a result the law had a certain cultural agenda sympathetic
to the industries that helped construct it. This is the case today, with digital
copyright law focused on the clear separation between author and user and a
favouring of static, passively consumed texts. Although digital copyright law has
always had to balance the opposing tensions of authorial and publisher control
over copyrighted works and the public’s right to access and re
-
use these works,
only recently has intellectual property become a more important global policy
question
(Vaidhyanathan, 2004)
.

CONT…

.
A good computer is one that copies well, quickly and cheaply. The Internet is
a machine for moving copies of data. When the Internet works well, it copies
data quickly and cheaply. The emergence of global digital networks has seen
new social and creative practices emerge, such as appropriation and remix
culture. These practices, which are deconstructing copyright’s historical
conceptualization of the author as auteur and the authority of the author’s
voice, have also emphasized the social constructed ness of the author’s role.
‘Even if copyright is originally a private right belonging to individuals, it will,
when it develops to a certain degree, have a bearing on how to protect the
interests of investors in an attempt to promote socio
-
economic development,
and on the public interests.’



Digital Watermarking



Digital

watermarking

is

a

promising

technology

that

assists

digital

information

publishers

and

distributors

in

fighting

the

battle

against

piracy

in

the

information

age
.

Although

the

development

of

digital

watermarking

is

still

at

its

infancy,

digital

watermarking

has

already

attracted

many

first
-
rate

researchers
.





Many watermarking techniques and commercial watermarking systems have
therefore been developed and have emerged to focus on rights management,
especially copyright protection on digital media content. Moreover, other
applications of digital watermarking are revealed, such as marketing and
advertising. Three basic watermarking processes are required in digital
watermarking. They are watermark insertion, watermark detection, and
watermark extraction. In general, watermark insertion requires:


(i) Original data,


(ii) A watermark, and


(iii) A private key (also known as ‘seed’).


The output is the watermarked data. A watermark consists of a number of
binary bits that represent information about the ownership of the media,
the user’s identity, the description of the original data, and so on. The
watermark insertion process as shown in Fig. 2 embeds a watermark into
the original data. Depending on the applications, the watermark can be
perceptible or imperceptible in the watermarked data. For applications that
require that the original data not be perceptually distorted, an
imperceptible watermark is desired. For other applications that require that
the embedded data, for example a company logo or trademark, to be
shown, a perceptible watermark is preferred. Watermark extraction and
watermark detection as depicted in Figs. 3 and 4 are respectively used to
retrieve and verify the embedded watermark from the watermarked data.
In watermark extraction, a public key is used together with the
watermarked data to retrieve the embedded watermark. In watermark
detection, a public key and a specified ID watermark are used together
with the watermarked data to determine whether or not the watermarked
data contains the expected watermark.


Fig. 2.
Watermark insertion.


Fig. 3.
Watermark
extraction.



Copyright Issues and Licensing

Copyright protection pertains to the unauthorized reproduction of works,
and not to the physical objects; thus no copyright issues are raised by
libraries acquiring books and making them available for the reading public.
Scanning printed works and creating bitmapped versions of them, or
converting these to ASCII form, does constitute reproduction, but is likely to
be protected under the archival reproduction exemption of the law. But what
is almost certainly not permitted under the exemptions is making such copies
available to several simultaneous readers on their terminals. Hence libraries
and other providers of electronic texts will have to secure permission from the
copyright holders for all the activities that users can engage in, such as,
displaying text on their screens, downloading, printing, and so on. Suitable
licensing arrangements that protect the economic interests of the owners of
the intellectual property will be necessary and at the same time permit the
public to access information in the new and powerful ways that have become
available. It should be noted that while negotiating licenses will be
straightforward in some cases, as in the case of a single electronic journal that
a library wants to make available to its readers, it may be extremely
complicated and time consuming in other cases, such as when a university
creates a multimedia product with hundreds or thousands of sources for the
materials that are included in the product.


CONT..


Moreover, copyright, most recently embodied in the
US in the Copyright Act of 1976, provides important
exemptions for noncommercial activities
characterized by ‘fair use,’ such as research and
teaching, and archival reproductions (for, say,
damaged items that cannot be replaced at reasonable
cost). Copyright attempts to provide a balance
between the interests of the owner of the intellectual
property and the public at large, and may provide
much better protection of the interests of the public
than might be the case if access to intellectual
property were always governed by private contracts
permitting no exemptions.




Contd...



With

the

emergence

of

electronic

reproduction

of

works,

as

well

as

of

electronic

creation

of

original

works,

the

issue

of

copyright

protection

for

the

owners

of

intellectual

property

has

become

an

important

issue

addressed

by

numerous

authors

(Ginsburg,

1993
,

Lyman,

1995
)
.

While

the

virtual

library

concept

may

suggest

that

in

the

future

there

will

be

no

need

for

‘physical’

libraries,

particularly

because

individuals

may

purchase

licenses

directly

from

vendors

of

electronic

materials,

it

seems

fairly

clear

that

a

world

without

library

entities

would

not

be

in

the

interests

of

the

reading

public
.

The

marginal

cost

of

providing

a

single

access

to

a

particular

work

is

or

is

near

zero
;

hence,

optimality

in

pricing

requires

a

zero

price,

which

would

not

permit

vendors

to

survive
.

But

if

each

access

is

priced

at,

say,

average

cost,

accesses

by

the

public

will

tend

to

be

discouraged
.

The

more

reasonable

solution

then

is

for

libraries

to

purchase

site

licenses

for

particular

works,

which

permit

free,

unlimited

viewing,

downloading,

and

printing

by

readers,

and

the

price

of

which

will

have

to

be

set

in

the

aggregate

in

such

a

manner

as

to

ensure

vendors

a

reasonable

revenue

and

profit

without

bankrupting

library

budgets
.


Conclusions




E
-
commerce and digital rights management
companies will be able to offer more security
due to more flexible regulations. The major
contributions of this paper include the
following:


(i) Discussing the implementation of digital
watermarking in SDMI
-
based DRM systems;


(ii) Studying the use of digital watermarks
and rights information for DRM;


Contd...



(iii) Exploring the applicability of value
-
added
features in DRM system, such as marketing,
for DRM using digital



watermarking technology.

CONT…

Though ‘knowledge is power,’ there was a
feeling earlier that seizing one’s knowledge
was difficult. This is not true now with daily
improvements in wiring the world. In the
emerging networked world, your knowledge
is identified as yours and the rights will be
attributed to you only when you have
properly recorded it and taken enough
security mechanisms to improve and
maintain it.


CONT…


Resorting to what the developed world does is the right means
to give more visibility to the intellectual property of
developing nations. Digital libraries have much significance in
preservation and access of content. Perhaps it is time to
propose an Indian digital library of theses and dissertations,
along with similar initiatives for Indian journals as well as out
-
of
-
print books. There is an equal concern for a country so
diverse and large as India to identify national, regional and
local institutions to share the responsibility of digitizing and
preserving the country’s intellectual output. The emerging
information age also calls for proper documentation and
conservation of local arts and culture, traditional systems of
medicine and engineering, indigenous vocational systems, etc.
Through pragmatic application of digital technology, we may
be able to spread the conserved knowledge to a larger
audience not only to improve the living standards of the local
community but also to claim the country’s rightful place in the
global village.

FROM NBU

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THANK
YOU
ALL