Computer History

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26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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:
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رتويپماک هاگراگ


History!

2


A
Computer

is a
device

that is capable of solving
problems or manipulating data by
accepting

data
as input,
performing

prescribed operations both
mathematical and logical on the data, and then
supplying

the results of these operations.



A
Computer

(Computer System) denotes


a set of
computer hardware

and
computer


software

that is used as a
single unit
.

Computer Definition

3


First Generation (1940s to 1959): Vacuum tubes


Second Generation (1950s
-
65): Transistors


Third Generation (late 1950s
-
71):




Integrated Circuits


Fourth Generation (1971
-
Present):




Very Large
-
Scale Integration (VLSI)


Fifth Generation (1981
-
2000): VLSI


Japanese 5th
-
Generation Computer Project


Sixth Generation (From 1980s):



Artificial Neural Networks

Computer History

4


Mostly hard wired vacuum
tube machines


1
user and
1
task


different binary
-
coded
program called a machine
language


Pre
-
Operating System


ENIAC



1
st

Generation Computing

(
1945
-
1955
)

IBM 709 (IBM's first
generation of big
scientific vacuum tube
computers

1959)

5


Electronic Numeral Integrator And Computer


University of Pennsylvania


Consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000
resistors and 5 million soldered joints


160 kilowatts !!


general
-
purpose computer


Instructions and Data both in memory.


Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
(
EDVAC
) designed by
Von Neumann




ENIAC

6






First Computer Bug

7


1955
introduced the transistor


Introduction of separation of
system designers and operators


Punched card era


Magnetic tapes


Introduction of batch systems


Minimal Operating System tasks


system compilers


system loaders

2
nd

Generation Computing

(
1955
-
1965
)

8





2
nd

Generation Computing

(1955
-
1965)

IBM
7094

IBM 1401

9





2
nd

Generation Computing

(
1955
-
1965
)

Early Batch System Operation

10





2
nd

Generation Computing

(1955
-
1965)


Programmer produced
punched card
collection (PCC)


Multiple PCC’s were
transferred to tape


Tape was run on
mainframe


Output printed after
all jobs complete


11


Integrated Circuit (IC)

(1958)


semiconductor


Introduction of basic OS concepts


Monitor and keyboard


Magnetic disk


Birth of Unix


Move to standardized hardware


Multiprogramming gained over batch


multiple jobs in memory at the same time


Becoming smaller & more general purpose


multiple jobs in memory at the same time


Most computing done on Mainframes


birth of the minicomputer (e.g.
DEC PDP
-
11)


3rd Generation Computing

(1965
-
1980)

12





3
rd Generation Computing

(
1965
-
1980
)

Cray 23

Cray 29

13





3rd Generation Computing

(1965
-
1980)

IBM System 360

(360 degrees)


Standard data format

14





3
rd Generation Computing

(
1965
-
1980
)


Multiprogramming


many jobs in memory at once


scheduling became important (1 CPU)


15





4
th Generation Computing

(
1980
-

Present)


go down
-

in size


very large scale
integration (
VLSI
)


Growth of the microcomputer
(PC)


Widespread use of general
purpose single user systems


Timesharing and GUI
environments


Introduction of DOS

IBM PC 1

16


DOS


originally produce by Tim Paterson at Seattle
Computer Products


bought then modified by Bill Gates and Tim
Paterson to become MS
-
DOS


added BASIC


packaged with IBM

s PC
1


Lead to the development of Windows in
1985

4
th Generation Computing

(
1980
-

Present)

17





4th Generation Computing

(1980
-

Present)


ASCI White


Most powerful computing platform ever
built!


12.3
TeraOps (
12
,
300
,
000
,
000
,
000
operations per second)

18


Computers are electronic devices that process
information.


Keys :


1. Data
-
>
Operands


2. Instructions or Operations
-
>
Operators


What is a Computer?

19


Flexibility (general or special purpose)



Purpose (scientific, business )



Power


MIPS (Millions Instructions Per Seconds)


MFLOPS (Mega Floating
-
point Operations Per Second)



Computer classifications

20





Classification by size

1.
Supercomputers

2.
Mainframes

3.
Workstations

4.
Microcomputers

5.
Microcontrollers

21


priced from $500,000 to more than $85
million


thousands of processors

CRAY
-
1, CRAY
-
2, CRAY
-
3





Switching time


Heat

Supercomputers

IBM ASCI White

22


cost $
5000
-

$
5
million


vary in size from small, to medium, to
large, depending on their use


Terminal : means often used to
access a mainframe


a display screen and a keyboard


No process



Price


Special requirements (power, air
-
conditioning)


Mainframes

VP2400 mainframe

23


Mini Computers


Multi user


but usually as dedicated computer


DEC, IBM, HP


Workstations


expensive, powerful computers


usually used for complex scientific,
mathematical, and CAD/CAM




Mini computers and Work Stations

24


Also called personal computers


Cost $500
-

$5000






Laptop computers


Micro Computers

Sony tower PC

25


PDA
-

also called handheld computers or
palmtops


personal organization tools


schedule planners,


address books


to
-
do lists
--
with


send e
-
mail and faxes.


Well
-
known makers of PDAs include Palm,
Handspring, Sony, and Compaq.

Micro Computers

26


also called embedded computers.



Tiny, specialized microprocessors
installed in

smart


appliances and
automobiles.





Micro controllers

27


Hardware


All the machinery and equipment in a
computer system



Software


All the instructions (programs) that tell the
computer how to perform a task



The most important definition

Software/Hardware

28


Computer Hardware


The
collection of equipment

(keyboard, screen,
printer, diskette drive, hard disk drive, central
processing unite, memory and so on) along with
all of the components that connect these
equipment together.


Computer Software


All programs

(operation system, application


software, operating environment) that


govern the operation of computer and


make the hardware run.

Software/Hardware (Another def.)

29

1.
Input

2.
Processing

3.
Storage

4.
Output

5.
Communications




basic operations

Keyboard

Mouse

30


Processing


the manipulation a computer does to
transform data into information.


Case or system cabinet




the box that
houses

the processor chip (CPU),


the memory chips,


the motherboard with power supply


some secondary storage devices.


iMac !?




Processing

Case

31



Processor chip




A tiny piece of silicon that contains
millions of miniature electronic circuits.
Also called the CPU (Central Processing
Unit).



Also known as RAM (Random Access
Memory).


Represent primary storage or temporary
storage.


Hold data before processing and
information after processing.




Processing Cont.

Memory chips

32





33


Primary storage (memory)



Computer circuitry that temporarily holds
data waiting to be processed



Secondary storage (storage)





The area in the computer where data or
information is held permanently



Storage

34


Byte
-

1 character of data



Kilobyte
-

1024 characters



Megabyte
-

1024 KBytes


Gigabyte
-

1024 MBytes



Terabyte
-

1024 GBytes



Storage Cont.

35





Floppy
-
disk drive
-

a storage
device that stores data on
removable 3.5
-
inch
-
diameter diskettes.



Zip
-
disk drive
-

a storage
device that stores data on
floppy
-
disk cartridges with
70
-
170 times the capacity
of the standard floppy.


Storage Cont.

Zip disk

Floppy disk

36


Hard
-
disk drive
-

a
storage device that
stores billions of
characters of data on
a nonremovable disk.





Storage Cont.

Hard
-
disk drive

37


CD (Compact Disk) drive


DVD (Digital Video Disk) drive
-

a storage
device that uses laser technology to read
data from optical disks.







Storage Cont.

38


Output hardware


devices which translate info
processed by the computer into
a form that humans can
understand.


Peripheral device


any component or piece of
equipment that expands a
computer

s input, storage, and
output capabilities.


Sound card


enhances the computer

s sound
-
generating capabilities by
allowing sound to be output
through speakers.


Outputs

39



Monitor

-

the display device
that takes the electrical
signals from the video card
and forms an image using
points of colored light on
the screen.


Printer

-

an output device
that produces text and
graphics on paper.





Outputs Cont.

40


Modem
-

a device
that sends and
receives data over
telephone lines to and
from computers.





Outputs Cont.

41





Put all the hardware together and


42

Any Question?