How to Configure a Router

AMΔίκτυα και Επικοινωνίες

2 Νοε 2011 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Proper configuration of the router is the precondition for networking and Internet access. Let's begin with the description of its functions. In general, router is a network device that is a communication node between the sending and receiving endpoint. The control of the traffic is called routing. Router creates a routing table or routing information base (RIB) that stores the best routes to certain network destinations, or the "routing metrics" associated with those routes, and the path to the next hop router. It allows to direct the packets to specified destinations. The routing process means interaction of at least two subnets.

Original Polish version by Lukasz Sawicki


Proper configuration of the router is the precondition for networking and Internet
access. Let's begin with the description of its functions. In general, router is a
network device

that is a communication node between the sending and receiving
endpoint. The control of the traffic is called
routing
. Router creates a routing table or
routing information base (RIB) that stores the best routes to certain network
destinations, or the "ro
uting metrics" associated with those routes, and the path to
the next hop router. It allows to direct the packets to specified destinations. The
routing process means interaction of at least two subnets.


The immense growth of the number of Internet users
is the reason of remedial
measures that overcome the limits of Ipv4 (Internet Protocol version 4). One of the
measures is routing. It means linking of internal network with a pool of "private" IP
addresses to the public network. Simply the router uses less

(external) IP addresses
than the number of supported computers in the local network. The diagram below
depicts the typical solution.


Example of routing with NAT function

Router configuration example is based on the

TP
-
Link TL
-
WR340G device


Notice: TP
-
Link TL
-
WR340G N2952 does not support ADSL service (it is not
equipped with ADSL modem).


Router
/
Cisco routers

connects two or more logical subnets, e.g. external network
with Internet acc
ess (WAN) with local network (LAN), making a bridge for
information exchange. Without proper configuration the connection would be
impossible. In most cases, router acts as a specialized computer (replacing a standard
computer) working in external network,

with software and hardware tailored to the
tasks of routing and forwarding. It allows to create internal (local) network.


In this case, the computer configuration involves:



taking down all settings of the NIC (working in external network),

o

IP address

o

Subnet mask

o

Default gateway

o

Preferred DNS server



changing the way of address assignment to dynamic (DHCP), or setting fixed
IP address from the router's range,



connecting the computer with LAN port of the router.


Example of assigning a fixed IP address
for TCP/IP protocol. This option is used when
the router does not assign addresses automatically. At this stage there is no need to
enter default gateway nor DNS servers parameters.


After restarting the computer, there is possibility of connecting with th
e router (via
Internet browser). The logged in user (the initial user name and password are given
in the user's manual) can configure the router.


The login window


The easiest way of configuring the router is use of "Quick Setup" option.


The first dia
log box


To begin configuration we should choose
Next
.


It is important to select adequate kind of WAN connection type:

There are three possibilities:



PPPoE
-

in the case of network using PPPoE protocol (rather untypical),



Dynamic IP
-

the router will get
IP address automatically (the most common
option),



Static IP
-

in the case of fixed IP address.


Choice of WAN connection type


For
Static IP

option there are needed the settings of the NIC (to be entered). In the
case of
Dynamic IP

this box will be omitt
ed:



After configuring WAN port parameters the next step is setup of Access Point:


Planning to use access point, it is needed:



to select suitable channel,



to set SSID,



to choose the region (country),



to

set data encryption and cryptographic keys (in the tab
Wireless >>
Wireless Settings
).



Access Point setup box


It is important to choose adequate region:


Region selection box



Information on successful completion


It should be remembered that the a
ddresses of the internal LAN have to be different
from that of the WAN port (the same address would cause instability e.g. auto
-
reset
of the router). For example, with IP address of WAN 192.168.1.1, the LAN network
can be addressed 192.168.(not 1).1, or in

quite different range, e.g. 150.10.0.1.

To set LAN parameters we enter
Network >> LAN
:


LAN address setup


Some ISPs identify the user by the MAC address of the NIC. To keep it unchanged
(after exchanging the NIC port for the router's port) we use MAC C
lone option
(
Network >> MAC Clone
):



MAC Clone option


In the
DHCP >> DHCP Settings

box there is possibility of setting DHCP server
parameters. With such configuration of the DHCP server the local computers can
obtain their IP addresses automatically. It is a very convenient solution.



Example configuration of DHCP server


To ensure security of WiFi network it is needed to employ data encryption and assign
cryptographic keys, in the
Wireless >> Wireless Settings

box.


Currently the best security level in home WLANs is provided by WPA2
-
PSK encryption (see
below):



Advanced
settings of Access Point


It is indispensable to change the default passwords in the administrator panel (
System Tools >>
Password
). On the Internet there are active programs which try to log in to routers of the users
that have forgotten to do so:



Chan
ge the default password !


In the
Status

window we may preview all the settings:


Status window


It is reasonable to save the configuration data:

System Tools >> Backup &Restore Configuration
.



More Notes:

More guides, news and tips of routers, switches, firewall security and other popular
network hardware you can visit:
http://blog.router
-
switch.com/