Computer Crime - Bucknell University

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30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Computer Crime

By: Patrick Wales & Tomas Smaliorius

Baase Ch 5 and Johnson Ch 6

The Early Day’s of Internet &
Hackers


A hacker was a creative programmer who
wrote elegent or clever programs


Regarded as a “Computer Virtuoso”


By early 1980s, hacking took on the
meaning that most people are familiar
with


Why the shift?


Companies began using copyright
and restrictive software license to
prevent redistribution



Would the internet be as useful to you if
all the information
were
free?

A Hacker’s Defense

1.

All information should be free


2.

Break ins illustrate security problems


3.

No Harm, No Foul


4.

Keep Big Brother at Bay


All information should be free


Core Beliefs


Too much information was becoming
proprietary


People are entitled to the access of
information,


ex: the creation of libraries ( equal
opportunity )


Makes collaboration easier amongst
the parties



Who determines what information should be
available or protected from wide
distribution? An individual, a company, a
law, or a country?


Is too much information/knowledge a bad
thing?

Corporations have an invested
interest to stretch the truth.


Dietary supplements don't have to
be approved by the FDA the same
way that pharmaceuticals do.

Break Ins Help Illustrate Security
Deficiencies


On November 2, 1988 Robert T. Morris, a computer science
graduate student, launched a worm


Was the first of its kind, caused systems to slow down


Wanted to demonstrate the weakness of the system after he was
ignored by administrators…except he made an error



If the security system is that poor, is it the hackers fault for
exposing its weakness?


Are we better off after having that attack?


Would there be security problems if hackers didn’t attempt to break
in?

No Harm, No Foul


If a hacker changes nothing, while
learning something about the computer
system a net benefit results


Innocent Crimes


“Datastream Cowboy”, age 16


Wanted proof of existence of aliens



What are the consequences with these
sorts of actions?


What happens when a programmer doesn't
know what he's doing and screws something
up?


What happens if a hacker see's something
that he/she wasn't intended to see?


Wikileaks

-

Compromising national securities.
Collateral murder.

"Well, its their fault for bringing their kids to
battle."

official military statement:

"There is no
question that coalition forces were clearly
engaged in combat operations against a
hostile force," said Lt. Col. Scott Bleichwehl


Keeps Big Brother at Bay


Hackers

can

serve

as

good

vigilantes


Public

needs

protection

against

abuses

and

r
e
strictive

behavior

of

the

government



George

Orwell’s

novel

1984


Thoughtcrime




Where

is

the

balance

between

just

enough

legislation

to

prevent

cyber

crime

but

not

too

much

that

it

infringes

on

our

rights?


Is

Orwell’s

book

an

implication

of

what’s

to

come?



Hack
tivists

To The Rescue


Anonymous


An activist group


Uses the computer as its weapon to leverage
political issues


Operation Last Resort


Demands reform of computer crime laws


In regard to the suicide of Aaron Swartz


Recent Activity: Break in on Federal
Reserve Computers



Has the computer become a stronger
weapon than a gun?


Is this a valid protest, similar to sit
-
ins?


Are groups like these useful?
Necessary to protect our liberties?
Have any real impact?






Old Crimes


Physical crimes now
use IT as a medium


Theft


Breaking and entering


Stalking




How do you quantify these crimes without the physical
presence or fear factor?


Should cyber criminals who commit these crimes using
IT as a medium be subjected to the same punishment
as the criminals who commit these physical?


New Crimes


New crimes created by IT


Phishing


Spyware / Malware


Cyber bullying


File sharing



Is this the same crime, but different
environment?


Are they at all the same?


Cyber bullying










Life sentence? No sentence? Just defamation?



File Sharing


Megaupload site taken down by New Zealand and
U.S authorities


175 Million in Profits


500 Million in piracy losses


Ok over national lines? Allied Lines? Axis lines?


So not just for free information?


Fake ID


Idchief.com making ids f
or minors
to drink
alcohol in the U.S and around the world?

Oh
and also for some terrorists.


Can the government take these guys down as
well?
Is it worth it? Are we the problem?


PirateBay


Illegal file sharing site for individuals and
groups like anonymous.


Who is to blame, the website for providing the
service or the users for demanding and using it?

Minor conflict of interest

Phishing


Is it YOUR FAULT for giving him/her your
sensitive information?

“Your credit card has
been turned off for
security reasons.
Please call this
number to clear this
issue with our security
department.”


Love,


Hacker from Pompano
Florida

So does technology balance itself out?

Statistics

The greatest
amount of
money
transacted was
due to cleanup
costs and
security, NOT
theft.

Businessweek Statistics

Apply Ethical Reasoning to it


How would a Deontologist react to computer
crimes?

Law of univers
ality? Categorical
Reasoning?


How would a Utilitarian react to computer
crimes?

Act, case by
case? Rules? Do we
care if a few criminals get too severe of a
punishment?


Would any of them think that it is perfectly
acceptable?

Protecting
Oneself


Anti
-
Virus and Malware software are used to protect the
computer


Are they safe?


Of the 82 new computer viruses, when matched up against
top antivirus products, initial detection rate was less than 5
%


New Methods are needed



Is use of antivirus software an ethical responsibility and
not just a personal choice?
When you are on a network
with other computers?


Will anyone be fully safe?

Biometrics


“Biological
characteristics
that are unique to
an individual”


Using biometrics
to authenticate the
owner and
protects against
crime


Is biometrics a foolproof
technology?


Will biometrics prove to be
safer or reveal that much
more about the individual?


Legislation against the Cyber Criminals
in U.S


Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (1986)


USA PATRIOT ACT


Raised the maximum penalty


Monitor online activity of suspected hackers
without a court order


What happens when our surveillance capabilities
progress? Drones? Satellite imaging / tracking?
Thoughts?


Why didn’t SOPA or PIPA pass? Wasn’t it to
help deter cyber crime?

The Use of Warrants


4
th

Amendment to the US Constitution requires search
warrants to be specific as to what is to be searched


Example:


Search warrant issued for drug crimes


While opening files, child pornography is also discovered
on the computer


Does the idea of plain view insight applies to computers?


Can a search warrant for a computer be used to uncover other
prohibited information?

Whose Laws Rule the Web?


Yahoo and the selling of Nazi merchandise in France


The current online gambling situation




Which country's laws should apply when Web
content crosses borders?


Can US arrest individuals who did not break the law
of their country, but violated US law or vice versa?

How have we addressed the global
crime


FBI arrest 24 individuals involved in
international cyber crime


8 Countries involved



If countries work together, can they reduce
the number of computer crimes?
Is this
possible?


Is the U.S. allowed to punish people in other
countries?


Where are we Heading?

Is the future safe


Would you rather be over or under protected by the
government?


What happens when our minds are connected to the
internet?


Will there be laws against thoughts?


Can your mind be hacked?


Are you willing to forgo technology to protect yourself even
if it means being cut off socially?


Will there ever be a point that we completely dismiss
technology and go back to our agricultural ways?