and their impact

minorbigarmΑσφάλεια

30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

126 εμφανίσεις

Aadhaar
, Direct Benefit Transfers
and their impact



11
th

March 2013



UIDAI

www.uidai.gov.in

1

Structure of the presentation


Overall mandate of the
Aadhaar

Project



Aadhaar

and it’s potential



Direct Benefit Transfer and
Aadhaar


2

Overall mandate of the
Aadhaar

project


3

Context


Providing a formal identity proof to millions of
residents


This identity proof would be a gateway to
access services


N
eed to streamline government expenditure


cut wastage and leakage


Need for a transparent and accountable
system of public expenditure


Social inclusion project with a developmental
focus



4

UIDAI issues
Aadhaar

numbers…

UID = 1568 3647

6218

UID


Unique number


Random number

Basic demographic data and
biometrics
stored

Standardized identity attributes


No duplicates(1:N check)


Minimal demographic data
collected


Name

Parents

Gender

DoB

PoB

Address


5

… and authenticate IDs online, real
-
time

UID = 1568 3647 4958

Central UID database

1:1 check, no ID fraud

Only YES/NO response, no details


no invasion of privacy

Person can see self
-
details, no one else can

Authentication
-

‘Are you
who you claim to be?’

6

Where are we today…


Started issuing in Sept 2010


28
crore

Aadhaars

issued so
far


More than 30
crore

residents
enrolled


Target


60
crore

by 2014

7

Enrolment centre, Andhra Pradesh

8

Enrolment Centre, Jharkhand

9

Enrolment Centre,
Puducherry

10

Aadhaar

and it’s potential

11

Service Delivery potential due to
Authentication


Transactions normally require verification of

identity


Aadhaar online authentication will provide a
common
platform

which can be used across all transactions and
other applications.


Entitlements should reach the intended beneficiary


non
-
transferability

can be ensured


This can be effectively done by
authentication at the
point of service delivery


Many sectors will be able to use as a
proof of presence

for the beneficiary

12

Empowerment, Choice and
Convenience

Identity


Unique identity to every resident of India which is
nationally valid


especially useful for those who have no
proof of identity

Mobility



Aadhaar

authentication because of its on
-
line nature can
also be verified anytime, anywhere.


Gateway to
Services


As
Aadhaar

can become a KYC for a whole range of
products and services (bank accounts, mobile connections,
LPG connections, state Govt. services, insurance,
etc
)

13

Empowerment, Choice and
Convenience

Convenience


Availability of many access points to withdraw benefit
make it far more convenient for the intended
beneficiary.

Auditable and
Transparent


On
-
line real time transaction authentication ensures
that the entitlements reach intended beneficiary.

Choice


Interoperable Micro
-
ATM/FPS network can ensure that
the beneficiary has choice. This enhances her/his
empowerment.

14

Aadhaar

based government application pilots


Country wide spread

Aadhaar

Applications
in States

Jharkhand

MG
-
NREGA,

Scholarships

Andhra
Pradesh

PDS

Maharashtra

Social
Security
Pensions

Karnataka

LPG Subsidy

Sikkim

Employee
Salary

Tripura

Old Age
Pension


15

MNREGA payments through Micro
-
ATM in Jharkhand

16

PDS delivery based on
Aadhaar

Authentication in
East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh

17

Old age pension payment in Tripura

18

Aadhaar platform for Banking


Open Bank Accounts using
Aadhaar



Sufficient KYC


Existing Bank Account can be linked to
Aadhaar

number

Access


Transfer funds to Aadhaar Enabled Accounts


Simplifies disbursal of funds


uses only one account for all
disbursals


Convenience for the beneficiary

Address


Withdrawal and deposit, check balance


End to end auditability and traceability


Inter
-
operable, portable anytime anywhere


Better than local, non
-
interoperable solutions that limit choice

Transactions

19

Mobile
connections

Bank A/Cs, Insurance, etc.

State Government Services

Aadhaar

accepted as KYC for…

1

2

4

LPG Connections

3

Train Travel

5

?

Many other services…

6

20

1.
“Instant” Opening of Bank Account through a Micro
-
ATM based
on
Aadhaar

authentication


hugely empowering to the
unbanked


1.
The Aadhaar e
-
KYC service instantaneously provides basic data
(name, address, date of birth, gender, photograph) of the
beneficiary to the Bank upon successful Aadhaar
authentication.


1.
The e
-
KYC service can scale up to lakhs of transactions on a
daily basis


2.
Provides convenience to the unbanked. Enables opening of
large number of bank accounts on scale.

Aadhaar

e
-
KYC Service

21

Direct Benefit Transfer and
Aadhaar


22

All direct cash transfers into one account

Aadhaar Payments Bridge

Multiple

Schemes

One

Aadhaar

linked

account

APB Compatible with CPSMS

23


1111 2222 3333

End
-
to
-
End Direct Benefit Transfer Enabled
by Aadhaar

Pension

MGNREGA

Scholarship

xxxxx

-----

-----

Radha

111122223333

xxxxx

yyyyy

-----

-----

Radha

111122223333

xxxcccc

-----

-----

Radha

111122223333

Bank


1111 2222 3333

1. Aadhaar to

de
-
duplicate
databases

4. Withdraw from
any
MicroATM



Choice and
Convenience

2. Aadhaar as KYC to
open bank account

Aadhaar Payment Bridge

3. Aadhaar as a payment



destination



-

Bank Account portability



-

M
any schemes, one
Aadhaar

linked



bank account

5. Auditability and traceability of transaction

24

Micro
-
ATM transactions

1.
Handheld device and battery powered

2.
Online connectivity through mobile
n
etwork

3.
Micro
-
ATM standards set by RBI and IBA
(manufactured by multiple vendors)

4.
Biometric scanners are certified

5.
Interoperable devices and can work for
any bank and any BC

Total
online transaction
time less than 15 seconds



Verified
on the ground from Tripura,
Jharkhand, Maharashtra,
and Andhra Pradesh


25

4. Authenticate

2. AADHAAR number, money
transfer instruction, biometrics

Convenient cash withdrawal

Resident

BC with Micro
-
ATM

Ram’s bank account

BC’s bank account

Interoperable Switch

1. Withdrawal request

3. Forward to switch

6. Debit

7. Credit

8. Inform: Call / SMS

9. Cash

UIDAI

5. Authorize

26

4. Authenticate
and execute

2. Money transfer instruction +
biometrics

Inclusive convenience banking

Resident
-

Ram

UID 2563 8564 4663

BC (
Kirana
, SHG, PO etc))

With Micro
-
ATM

UID: 7233 5968 3094

TransferMoney

From

UID 2653 8564 4663

To

UID 7233 5968 3094

Amount 300

Ram’s bank a/c

BC’s bank a/c

NPCI switch

ID
mapper

1. Withdrawal
request

3.NPCI request

5. Authenticate

6. Debit

7. Credit

8. Info
-

IVRS/ SMS

9. Cash

Any
BC

Any
micro
-
ATM

Any
amount

Any
Bank

27

Use of Data Analytics

in

monitoring implementation

28

Dimensions of the Project


Scale


Geographically


Daily Operations across India


25,000+ stations deployed


Speed


~1m/day mark reached in less than 18 months of
1
st

Aadhaar

Generated


Operations Model


Public (Registrar)
-
Private (EA) partnership driven




Data Analytics plays a crucial role to provide
neutral

insight
to UIDAI as well its partners.

Relevance of Data Analytics


Neutral & Objective


Facts validating opinion, increases confidence of team and
management in pursuing directions


Cost Economics


Automation in data collection


Quality of Insight


capability to understand trends across
large sample space


Empowers with Agility


New Initiatives and its impact can be
analysed

for rapid
course correction.


Enables audit of large operations with details in low cost

Uses of Data Analytics

Take Early
Corrective
Action(s)

Enable Improved
Decision Making

CASE STUDIES OF
-

DATA ANALYTICS

All India


Upload Time Delay

(days)

Monitoring & sharing packet upload delay information with partners,
incorporating new policy initiatives, has led to significant
improvement in
minimising

the delays.

Data Analytics empowers to differentiate the field reality from the
rumors. Here we monitor, changes to enrolment time with changes
in software version to evaluate between software improvement to
economic viability for partners and resident time involvement.

Distribution of Enrolment Duration

(min
)

Deep
-
dive analysis on enrolment time, further provides insight on
majority of enrolment cases versus few outliers cases.

*sample size is 20
-
55Lac enrolments in each month

Comparing distribution of Aadhaar & Biometric Exception (BE)

Outliers : BE % is much
greater

than
Aadhaars

Generated %

36

E
mpowers

the management to
identify areas where detailed
audit is required.

BE Cases


detailed analysis



Monitoring and awareness has lead to reduction in dubious Bio
-
Metric exceptions cases.



Awareness is maintained with partners, that this monitoring
should not lead to exclusion of genuine Biometric Exception Cases



Aadhaar is always stretched itself to be as inclusive and resident
friendly as possible.

Biometric Exception as a % of Enrolment

SHARING DATA @ UIDAI

Public Data Sharing

https://portal.uidai.gov.in/

Public Data Sharing


GoI

has notified the “National Data Sharing and Accessibility
Policy (NDSAP)” in March 2012


Datasets pertaining to Enrolment are available through the
UIDAI data portal


Data can be accessed manually as well as Programmatically

https://data.uidai.gov.in

Dataset

Frequency

1

Aadhaar

Generated by State, District

Enrolment

Daily, Incremental

2

Aadhaar

Generated by Registrar
-
EA

Enrolment

Daily, Incremental

3

Aadhaar

Generated by Gender
&
Age band

Enrolment

Daily, Incremental

4

Enrolments processed in detail

Enrolment

Daily, Incremental

5

Total
Aadhaar

Generated

Enrolment

Daily, Cumulative

Automated Meta
-
data Capture


Enrolment Packet


Individual Screen Timings


People Involved


Geographical Location


Several Quality parameters


Devices


Date & Time of Operations


Any Exceptions


Sync Operations


Packet Upload


Visual Quality Checking


Biometric Uniqueness



Aadhaar Generation


Print Letter Generation


Physical Letter Printing


Letter Dispatch


Confirmation / Return



Authentication


Agency Involved


Type of authentication


Response Timings


Success/Failure


Failure Reasons



Use of Data Analytics in
Authentication


43

Early Correction Action(s)


Some examples from Aadhaar authentication
service that helped improve service during
early stages of roll out:


Better control of device level changes through
backend Response Error analysis


Early fraud detection / leakage prevention by
doing Number of Attempts analysis


Feedback to respective ecosystem partners to
fine
-
tune their systems

Example 1:

Better Control of Device Level Changes

Return Code

January

February

March

April

500

48

36

0



501

0

0

4

4

502

0

2

48

19

510

67

0

0



541

0

0

42

167

561

567

67

19



562

73

18

3

3

563

0

5597

58462



564

0

0

0

1

566

0

18

0

68

570

1

0

0



Load testing done
by the ASA

Indicates possible
uncontrolled
changes at devices


In

the

authentication

service,

UIDAI

has

developed

different

return

codes

which

represent

various

reasons

why

an

authentication

request

may

get

rejected
.


An

early

analysis

of

transactions

and

the

return

code

helped

identify

problems

at

device

level

application

and

frequent

changes

in

them
.


Accordingly,

partners

were

sensitized

and

corrective

action

taken

to

improve

the

success

rate
.

Months

1 Attempt

2 Attempts

3
-
5
Attempts

5
-
8
Attempts

>8
Attempts

February

978

352

417

60

23

March

1320

402

441

34

9

Example 2:


Early Fraud Detection / Leakage Prevention


During

early

days

of

pilot

for

LPG

cylinder

delivery,

a

gradual

rise

was

observed

in

the

reject

rate

for

biometric

authentication
.


Detailed

analysis

of

the

data

reflected

that

some

delivery

boys

were

trying

to

by
-
pass

the

system

by

putting

their

own

fingerprint

for

a

resident’s

Aadhaar

(which

is

expected

to

be

rejected)
.

They

would

show

that

the

authentication

has

failed

and

use

manual

override

methods

to

sell

the

cylinder

else

where
.


An

early

analysis

of

this

data

and

drill

down

to

such

distributors

/

delivery

boys

helped

detect

potential

leakages

early

and

corrective

action

was

taken
.

Improved Decision Making


Some examples of decisions taken based on
data analytics to make Aadhaar
Authentication more robust:


Drawing up device standards, certification
guidelines and other backend configurations
based on data collected from various proof on
concept studies and pilots


Authentication modalities to ensure universal
coverage and near 100% accuracy

Example 3:


Drawing up device standards and other authentication guidelines


Before

launching

biometric

authentication

services,

UIDAI

undertook

extensive

field

studies

(
PoCs
)

and

captured

extensive

data

to

decide

on

appropriate

device

standards

and

backend

set

up
.


Based

on

this

data,

UIDAI

took

decisions

on

matters

such

as

device

standards,

two
-
finger

authentication

support

etc
.

Device

Area

(pixel)

Area

(mm)

FAP

Classification

MINEX

Compliance

FRR
Single
Finger

FRR
Two
Fingers

1

320 X 480

16 x 24

FAP 20

Yes

1.84%

0.63%

2

320 X 480

16 x 24

FAP 20

No

2.14%

1.03%

3

320 X 480

16 x 24

FAP 20

Yes

2.23%

0.70%



8

320 X 480

16 x 24

FAP 20

Yes

3.48%

1.06%

9

352 X 544

18 x 28

FAP 20

Yes

4.01%

0.57%

10

256 X 400

14 x 22

FAP 10

Yes

4.57%

1.24%



19

256 X 324

13 X 16

FAP 10

No

7.84%

3.38%



25

280 X 352

14 x 17

FAP 10

Yes

18.97%

9.65%

26

280 X 352

14 x 17

FAP 10

Yes

22.81%

8.97%

To conclude…


The
Aadhaar

number is
a form of

empowerment
to those who had no proof of
formal identity


Empowerment is
achieved
by providing
access, choice, empowerment and
convenience


Government spends
large amounts on social
welfare
programmes



49


Obligation on State to have the capacity to ensure
effective implementation as well as reduce leakage
and corruption. The expenditure should reach the
intended beneficiary


The
Aadhaar

project is
one of the means
by which
efficient delivery of service and inclusion with access
can be enhanced.


Extensive use of data analytics tools to improve
monitoring of implementation



50

The impact…

Digital
Identity

Local
Language
Content

Credit
Registries

Digital /
Online
Payment

Mobile
Commerce

Insurance,
banking

Govt.
Services

Social
Networks

Aadhaar identity
platform and Aadhaar
enabled applications

can help a billion people

to participate

in digital economy

and avail services
tailored to them!

Thank You

52