Goal 7 MICROBIOLOGY EOG Review answer sheet 2012

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12 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Goal 7: Microbiology



1
. Name the only
organelle

found in bacteria cells.

R
ibosome

2
. True or false. Bacteria are found everywhere on Earth.

True

3
. In the following table, choose the general pathogen for each disease given.

The
following legend will

be used to save space:
B


bacteria, F


fungus, P


protist, V


virus.


Pathogen

B

F

P

V

Pathogen

B

F

P

V

AIDS




X

Athlete’s foot


X



botulism

X




cancer (some types)




X

cholera

X




diphtheria

X




dysentery



X


food poisoning

X




gonorrhe
a

X




H5N1 (avian flu)




X

hepatitis




X

influenza




X

leprosy

X




Lyme disease

X




malaria



X


measles




X

pneumonia

X




polio




X

SARS




X

small pox




X

stomach ulcers

X




syphilis

X




trypanosomiasis



X


tuberculosis

X




typhoid
fever

X




yellow fever




X


4.
mutagen



a substance that is capable of inducing a mutation, such as UV radiation



5.

mutate



to change or undergo some type of change, as in a DNA mutation



6.
parasite


an organism that lives on or in an organ
ism of another species (host) and receives


nourishment from the host at its expense, such as a tapeworm.


7.

vector


an intermediate organism that helps to spread disease; the vector is generally not


harmed by

the pathogen it harbors; example: a tick is a vector for Lyme disease



8.
contagious


capable of being spread from one organism to the next



9.

epidemic


An outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads rapidly and widely.



10.
carrier



an orga
nism that is infected with and can transmit a disease
-
causing agent, even



though the carrier may show not symptoms of illness or disease


11.
pandemic



a disease that has become prevalent throughout an en
tire country, continent,
or



the

whole world; epidemic over a large area
.



12.
. How are the following diseases spread within the human population?



C
holera



drinking water that is contaminated with a certain type of bacteria



African sleeping sickne
ss (trypanosomiasis)



must be bitten by an infected


Tsetse fly



B
ubonic plague



must be bitten by an infected flea



M
alaria, West Nile virus, yellow fever, and encephalitis




must be bitten by


an infected mosqu
ito



H5N1(avian flu)



must have direct contact with infected birds



A
thlete’s foot



bare feet must come in contact with surfaces contaminated



with

the fungus



Lyme disease, Rocky mountain spotted fever



mus
t be bitten by an infected


tick



I
nfluenza


contact with infected person or contaminated objects



B
otulism


must eat contaminated food



H
epatitis


must have contact with body fluids of infected person


13
. True or False. Bacteri
a divide and reproduce very quickly. Theoretically, a population
of 2 bacteria can reach a population of about 8.5 billion in only 16 hours.

true


14
. You come in contact with thousands of
pathogens

every day. What
keeps you from being sick all the time o
r worse, dead?

Your immune system constantly detects and eliminates most pathogens
before they can cause disease.


15.
Active immunity

is obtained by exposure to a pathogen (often via
vaccines). It stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies.


16.

Passive immunity

involves the transfer of antibodies from one
organism to another. Active immunity is more long
-
term because the
antibodies involved are yours. Passive immunity is designed to give your
body a wake up call so it will begin to make its own
.









17
. What are at least 5
healthful behaviors for preventing disease
?

1
.
Keep you immune system and body strong,

2
.
r
educe your exposure to disease

3
. wash hand regularly

4
.
eat a nutri
tious diet

5
.
ma
intain and healthy body weight

6
.
get e
nough rest


18
. Who gave the
first human vaccine
?
Edward Jenner

Against what disease?




cowpox/smallpox



19
. How are
antimicrobial products

(antibacterial soaps, etc.) and
antibiotics

(penicillin, etc.) similar and different?


Similarities

Differe
nces

both fight bacterial disease

antimicrobial products are designed to kill
bacteria
before

they get into your body


antibiotics are usually administered after the
bacteria is in your body and causing disease or
infection


20
. True or False.
Antibiotic
s
are effective against
viruses
and

protists
.

False


21
.
A
microbiologist

studies microbes and microbial diseases


22
. __
Biotechnology
___ is the use of living organisms, or parts of organisms, to produce
products used by people, including __
medications
___
and ___
food
___.


23
.
What makes bacteria so well suited to
biotechnology
studies?

They reproduce very quickly, their DNA is easy to manipulate, they are expendable



24
.
P
iggyback vaccine

is made by using a harmless virus to carry a specific gene from
ano
ther source; when injected they cause an organism to produce antibodies for the target
disease.

25.
DNA vaccine

does not promote the production of antibodies but of killer
-
T cells,
white blood cells that attack and destroy invading microbes.




26.

List

some practical applications of
biotechnology

in agriculture?

Scientists are looking for ways to alter crops to make them

resistant

to
disease,

herbicides
, and
frost
.
They are trying to improve

taste
and
nutrition

and to improve

crop yields
.


27
. Discuss a
t least two
ethical dilemmas

facing biotechnology.


genetically modified organisms, using non
-
human organisms to produce products for
humans, anything logical