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DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE

CAMPUSWIDE COURSE SYLLABUS


Campus:




Stanton

Department:




Biology/Chemistry

Course Number/Title:


BIO 250/ Principles of Microbiology

Instructor Name:




Telephone:


E
-
mail:



Pre
-
Requisites:



BIO 120 or BIO 150

Co
-
Requisites:

Course Hours and Credits
:

3:3:4

Course Description:


This is a general course in microbiology that covers microbial structure, metabolism,
growth and control. Microbial genet
ics, virology and fundamentals of the immune
system are included. Laboratory experiments are an integral part of this course.


Required Text:

Foundations in
Microbiology
, 3rd Ed., Talaro & Talaro, WCB
McGraw
-
Hill Publishers


Materials:


Method of Instruc
tion:

Classroom /lab



Manuals:




L
ab Experiments in Microbiology
, J. Carter, DTCC


Disclaimer:
You must have a passing grade in both tests and labs to pass the course.
Due to the nature of the materials used and the time involved, no laboratory may

be
made up. The organisms used in this course are live organisms. When the lab starts,
the door is closed and

the students should not leave until the laboratory period is
completed. If a student must leave prior to the completion of the laboratory exercis
e,
proper procedures, as outlined in the laboratory manual, must be followed.


CORE COURSE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES


The student will be able to:


I.

Perform safety procedures that are essential in a microbiology lab to include
working with pathogens and b
iohazardous materials. (CCC 5,9)


II.

Analyze microbial cell biology as it relates to the structure, function, growth and
metabolism of prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses. (CCC 2,9)



2

III.

Examine microbial genetics and the current applications of biotechnology. (C
CC
2,9)


IV.

Analyze the interactions and impact of microorganisms and humans. (CCC 2,9)


V.

Examine the chemical and physical requirements for cultivation and control of
microbial growth. (CCC 2,9)


MEASURABLE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES


The student will be able to:


1.

Introduction to Microbiology (CCPO IV)

1.1.

Define microbiology.

1.2.

List the organisms studied in microbiology and give a short description of
each.

1.3.

Discuss the role microorganisms play in the environment, food industry,
and medical field.

1.4.

Briefly describe the h
istory of microbiology and th scientists who made
significant contributions.

1.5.

Explain the purpose of Koch’s postulates.

1.6.

Recognize the system of scientific nomenclature that uses genus and
species.

1.7.

Compare the differences between procaryotic cells and eucary
otic cells.

1.8.

List which microorganisms are classified as procaryotes and eucaryotes.

1.9.

Review the classification systems of microorganisms.


2.

Tools of the Laboratory (CCPO I)

2.1.

List the laboratory techniques used to study microorganisms.

2.2.

Discuss the operation of

the compound light microscope.

2.3.

Define resolution, numerical aperture, refractive index, working distance,
focal point and total magnification, and discuss how they affect image
visualization/production.

2.4.

List the advantages and disadvantages of the darkfie
ld, phase
-
contrast,
and fluorescent microscopes, and compare each with brightfield
illumination.

2.5.

Compare electron microscopy with light microscopy.

2.6.

Discuss the procedures used to prepare specimens for microscopy.

2.7.

List the properties of a dye and differenti
ate between an acidic dye and a
basic dye.

2.8.

Compare and contrast simple, differential, and special stains and give
example(s) of each.

2.9.

Differentiate between chemically defined media and complex media.

2.10.

Explain the functions of: general

purpose, selective, d
ifferential and
enrichment media.



3

3.

Procaryotic Cell Structure and Function (CCPO II)

3.1.

Describe and state the function of bacterial appendages: flagella, axial
filaments, pili and fimbriae.

3.2.

Describe the structure, composition and function of the glycocalyx.

3.3.

Compare and contrast gram
-
positive and gram
-
negative cell walls as to
chemical composition, function, and describe factors affecting them.

3.4.

Explain the mechanism of the gram stain.

3.5.

Discuss atypical cell walls.

3.6.

Describe the structure, chemical composition a
nd function of the
procaryotic cell membrane.

3.7.

Describe the composition and functions of structures internal to the
plasma membrane: cytoplasm, nuclear material, ribosomes, inclusions,
and plasmids.

3.8.

Describe the formation, properties, and significance of t
he bacterial
endospore.

3.9.

Compare the size, shape, and arrangement of bacterial cells.

3.10.

Compare and contrast procaryotic and eucaryotic cells.


4.

Microbial Nutrition and Growth (CCPO V)

4.1.

Define bacterial growth.

4.2.

List the chemical requirements for growth and thei
r sources.

4.3.

List nutritional categories of microbes based on their carbon and energy
source.

4.4.

Compare and contrast passive and active transport mechanisms.


4.5.

Explain the important physical requirements for growth including
temperature, pH, and osmotic pressur
e.

4.6.

Classify microbes according to their preferred temperature ranges.

4.7.

Classify microbes on the basis of oxygen requirements.

4.8.

List the toxic forms of oxygen, their origin, and the microbial enzymes
produced to act against them.

4.9.

Describe the phases of a micr
obial growth curve and their relation to
generation time.

4.10.

Describe the phases of bacterial growth.

4.11.

List methods for analyzing population growth.


5.

Microbial Metabolism (CCPO II)

5.1.

Define metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.

5.2.

Describe the mechanism of enzyme a
ctivity and the factors that affect
enzyme activity.

5.3.

Review redox reactions.

5.4.

Review glycolysis, the Kreb’s cycle and the electron transport chain.

5.5.

List the common reactions used in carbohydrate catabolism for ATP
production.

5.6.

Briefly describe alternate cata
bolic pathways and their integration into
cellular respiration.


4

5.7.

Differentiate between aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and
fermentation.


5.8.

Compare lactic acid and alcohol fermentation.

5.9.

Describe lipid and protein catabolism.

5.10.

Describe the major typ
es of anabolism and their relationship to
catabolism.

5.11.

Define amphibolic pathways.


6.

Control of Microbial Growth (CCPO V)

6.1.

Define the key terms related to the destruction or suppression of microbial
growth: sterilization, disinfection, antisepsis, germicide,
bacteriostasis,
asepsis, degerming, sanitization.

6.2.

Discuss the relative resistance of microbes.

6.3.

Differentiate between bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal.

6.4.

Explain how microbial growth is affected by the type of microbe present,
its physiological state, and env
ironmental conditions.

6.5.

Describe the modes of action of microbial control agents on cellular
structures.

6.6.

Compare and contrast physical methods of microbial control.

6.7.

Compare the mode of action and preferred uses for the various categories
of chemical disinfe
ctants.

6.8.

List the tests used to evaluate disinfectants and antiseptics and the
problems associated with each test.


7.

Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (CCPO V)

7.1.

Define chemotherapeutic agent and distinguish between a synthetic drug,
an antibiotic and a semisynthetic

drug.

7.2.

Define spectrum of activity.

7.3.

Discuss the interaction among the host, microbe, and antimicrobial being
administered.

7.4.

Describe the mechanisms by which antimicrobial agents exert their effects
on microorganisms.

7.5.

Describe the method of action of each of

the commonly used antibacterial
drugs.

7.6.

Discuss the problems encountered in using chemotherapy for viral and
fungal infections.

7.7.

Explain the methods by which microorganisms can demonstrate
resistance to chemotherapeutic agents.

7.8.

Discuss methods used to overc
ome drug resistance.

7.9.

Explain and compare tests for microbial susceptibility to chemotherapeutic
agents.


8.

Microbial Genetics (CCPO III)

8.1.

Review the structure of DNA and RNA.


5

8.2.

Review the steps involved in replication of a double
-
stranded molecule of
DNA.

8.3.

Revie
w the steps associated with the translation of DNA into mRNA and
mRNA into a protein.

8.4.

List causes and categories of mutations.

8.5.

Explain and compare the three methods of DNA transfer: transformation,
transduction, and conjugation.

8.6.

Define plasmid and transpos
on and discuss their functions.


9.

Viruses (CCPO II)

9.1.

List the characteristics of a virus.

9.2.

Describe the general structure and components of viruses.

9.3.

List the criteria used to classify and name viruses.

9.4.

Compare and contrast the infection processes by lytic and

temperate
bacteriophages.

9.5.

Compare and contrast the lytic cycle of DNA and RNA containing animal
viruses.

9.6.

Discuss viral persistence and the association with cancer.

9.7.

List the techniques used to cultivate and measure animal viruses in the
laboratory.


10.

Infect
ion and Disease (CCPO IV)

10.1.

Define and differentiate between pathogenicity and virulence.

10.2.

List portals of entry and exit of the human body.

10.3.

Explain how capsules, cell wall components, enzymes and infectious dose
contribute to infection.

10.4.

Compare and contrast
the effects of hemolysins, leukocidin, coagulase,
kinase, hyaluronidase, and collagenase.

10.5.

Compare and contrast endotoxins and exotoxins and the mechanisms of
actions of some common toxins.


11.

Host Defenses (CCPO IV)

11.1.

Define nonspecific resistance and list the

mechanisms involved.

11.2.

Describe the body's mechanical and chemical barriers as the first line of
defense.

11.3.

Describe the stages in phagocytosis and list the cell types involved in the
process.

11.4.

Describe the stages of inflammation.

11.5.

Discuss the chemical mediator
s involved in the second line of defense.

11.6.

Discuss complement.


12.

Specific Immunity (CCPO IV)

12.1.

Define specific immunity.

12.2.

Discuss the two branches of the immune system.

12.3.

Compare and contrast B cells and T cells including: origin, differentiation,
subclasses, fun
ctions, products, and interactions.


6

12.4.

Describe the characteristics of antigens.

12.5.

Define hapten and differentiate between haptens and antigens.

12.6.

Describe the structural features of immunoglobulin molecules and
differentiate between the various immunoglobulin fr
agments.

12.7.

Compare and contrast the 5 major classes of immunoglobulins
emphasizing their functions.

12.8.

Define cytokine and list the important ones and their action.

12.9.

Describe the interaction between antigen, inflammation, primary and
secondary immune response.

12.10.

C
ompare and contrast humoral and cell
-
mediated immunity.

12.11.

Differentiate between: natural and acquired immunity; active and passive
immunity.


13.

Immune Assays (CCPO IV)

13.1.

Define serology.

13.2.

Discuss the purpose and general features of immune testing.

13.3.

Compare and con
trast agglutination and precipitation.

13.4.

Differentiate between direct and indirect tests.

13.5.

Explain the theory of neutralization and complement fixation techniques.

13.6.

Discuss the use of immunofluorescence testing.

13.7.

Compare the immunoassays: RIA and ELISA.


14.

Appli
ed Microbiology (CCPO III)

14.1.

Define applied microbiology and biotechnology.

14.2.

Discuss the role microorganisms play in food production.

14.3.

Discuss fermentation technology.

14.4.

List the industrial products that are produced as a result of microbial
metabolism.

14.5.

Discuss
the role microorganisms play in the pharmaceutical industry.


15.

Laboratories (CCPO I, V)

15.1.

Explain the proper use and care of the microscope

15.2.

Demonstrate proper techniques in the microbiology laboratory

15.3.

Perform smear preparation and simple stain

15.4.

Perform and obs
erve differential and special stains

15.5.

Demonstrate pure culture techniques

15.6.

Determine oxygen tolerance of specific microbes

15.7.

Analyze the purpose of various types of media

15.8.

Compare the effectiveness of chemicals on microbial growth

15.9.

Perform antibiotic sensitivity

tests

15.10.

Perform an ELISA for antibody detection

15.11.

Perform a transformation of E. coli with pGal DNA

15.12.

Perform methods for the presence of microbial enzymes

15.13.

Perform and interpret identification methods of enteric bacteria

15.14.

Perform an immunodiffusion test

15.15.

Perform
a bacterial agglutination test


7

Evaluation Criteria:


Students will demonstrate proficiency on all measurable performance objectives at least
to the 75% level in
both

lecture and lab to successfully complete the course. Grades
will be computed using the f
ollowing grading scale:




A = 92
-
100


B = 83
-
91


C = 75
-
82


R = below 75


The final grade will be based on the following:



Tests:


75%


Labs:


25%


Due to the nature of the materials used and the time involved, no laboratory may be
made up. The organisms

used in this course are live organisms. When the lab starts,
the door is closed and students should not leave until the laboratory is completed. If a
student must leave prior to the completion of the laboratory exercise, proper procedure,
as outlined in t
he laboratory manual, must be followed.


Students should refer to the
Student Handbook
for further information regarding grading
policies, student policies, academic dishonesty policies, and student support services
available.