Botany - University of North Bengal

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1

University of North Bengal

Department of North Bengal

Syllabus for M.Sc in Botany


Duration : 2 years (Four Semesters); Total Marks
-
1600


Semester I

Paper



Subject




Marks



L.P.


Theoretical


I



Taxonom
y of Angiosperms



60


70

II



Microbiology





60


70

III



Mycology and Plant Pathology


60


70


Practical


IV



Taxonomy of Angiosperms



40


100

V



Microbiology





40


100

VI



Mycology and Plant Pathology


40


100


Continuing Evaluation


VII



Cla
ss Tests





75 12

VIII



Comprehensive Viva




25



12







Total Marks….. 400

Semester II


Theoretical


IX



Plant Biochemistry




60


70

X



Cytology & Genetics




60


70

XI



Plant Physiology & Pharmacognosy


60


70


Practi
cal


XII



Plant Biochemistry




40


100

XIII



Cytology & Genetics




40


100

XIV



Plant Physiology & Pharmacognosy


40


100


Continuing Evaluation


XV



Class Tests





75



12

XVI



Comprehensive Viva




25 12








Total Marks
….. 400



2

Semester III


Paper

Theoretical


XVII



Phycology, Bryology, Pteridology


60


70




Gymnology, Paleobotany


XVIII



Ecology and Biostatistics



60


70

XIX



Bioresource and its utilization


60


70


Practical


XX



Phycology, Bryology, Pterid
ology


60


150




Gymnology, Paleobotany


XXI



Ecology and Biostatistics



60


150


Continuing Evaluation


XXII



Class Tests





75


12

XXIII



Comprehensive Viva




25 12









Total Marks….. 400

Semest
er IV


Theoretical





XXIV



Special Paper





80



80

XXV



Special Paper





80



80


Practical


XXVI



Special Paper





100


120

XXVII



Dissertation






40



270


Continuing Evaluation


XXVIII

Seminar





100



12






Total Marks

….. 400





Grand Total Marks …………… 1600


Special Papers :

1.

Cytogenetics

2.

Microbiology

3.

Molecular Plant Pathology and Fungal Biotechnology

4.

Plant Biochemistry

5.

Taxonomy of Angiosperms and Biosystematics


3

Semester
-
I


Paper

I
-

Taxonomy of Angiosperms ( Theory)
Marks:60

























L.P.70

1.

Nomenclature
-

different methods. Sources of Names [4]

2.

International Co
de of Botanical Nomenclature
-

general principles. Major Rules:

(a) Type concept; (b) Principle of priority; (c) Valid publication; (d) Starting
points of Nomenclature, and (e) Limitations to the principle of priority [15]

3.

Character Concept

-

a generalized idea [3]

4.

Evolution of characters and differentiation of species [2]

5.

Taxonomic Data Sources: (a) Anatomy, (b) Cytology, (c) Em
bryology, (d)
Palynology, (e) Phytochemistry, (f) Genome Analysis, (g) Nucleic acid
hybridization









[8]

6.

The Species Concept







[2]

7.

Origin of closed carpel








[2]

8.

Taxonomic To
ols: Herbaria, Floras, Serological & Molecular Techniques,
Computer and Geographic Information System (GIS) [3]

9.

Botanic Gardens
-

importance, examples and acronyms. Processing of herbarium
specimens







[3]

10.

Plant classification
-

its need, philosophy and brief history [5]

11.


Taxonomic hierarchy









[1]

12.

Phenetic versus phylogenetic systems, cladistics; Curren
t systems of
Classifications









[5]

13.


Taxonomic literature and artificial keys [2]

14.


Taxonomy and phylogeny of: Ranales, Amentiflorae, Caryophyllales, Helobiae,
Scitaminae, Orchidales







[5]

15.

Biodiversity
-

importance and preservation; Conservation Hotspots, IUCN guide
lines; invasions & introductions, endemism




[5]

16.

Flora and vegetation of Eastern Himalaya






[2]

17.

Forest Resources of North Bengal [1]

18.


Ethnobotany: concept, need, methods of survey; sacred groves [2]


Paper II
-


Microbiology ( Theory)
Marks:60












L.P.70



1.

Diversity:

Classification and survey of microorganisms; Microbial phylogeny as
revealed by rRNA sequencing







[5
]

2.

Functional anatomy of cells:
Cell surfaces (glycocalyx, cell wall, flagella and
pili) and their role; Plasma membrane (bacterial and archaeal) and transport
across them; Storage and expression of genetic information (prokaryotic
chromosome, plasmid an
d ribosome); Survival through the production of spores
and cysts


[12]














4

3.

Metabolism:

Photosynthesis (anoxygenic and oxygenic); Chem
osynthesis;
Fermentation (alcoholic, Entner
-
Doudoroff pathway; lactic acid


homo and
hetero, propionic acid, mixed acid, butanediol and butanol; Stickland reaction);
Respiration (anaerobic and aerobic)



[14]

1.

Growth:
Measurements of growth; Growth cycle of populations; Generation
time; Continuous culture; Synchronized growth; Diauxy; Growth on solid media;
Environmental factors influencing growth



[4]

2.

Nutrition:
Organic growth factors; Inorganic requirements; Physical and ionic
requirements

[2]

3.

Genetics:

Replication of prokaryotic chromos
omes Molecular basis of mutation;
Isolation of mutants; Gene transfer mechanisms (transformation, transduction and
conjugation); Lactose and tryptophan operons





[10]

4.

Taxonomy:
Nomenclature; Species concept; Criteria for classification; Bergey’s
Ma
nual










[3]

5.

Virology:

Morphological classes of viruses; Structure of Adenovirus, Tobacco
mosaic virus and coliphage T
4
; Principles of viral taxonomy; Assay of viruses;
Lytic cycle; Lysogeny








[8]

6.

Food and industrial microbiology:

Commercial production of fermented dairy
products (curd and cheese), fermented beverages (beer and wine), fermented
vegetables (sauerkraut), pharmaceuticals (penicillin and cyanocobalamin), and
enzymes (amylase and protease)







[8]

7.

Biological
nitrogen fixation:

Biology and biochemistry; Enzymology of
nitrogenase; Rhizobial association with plant roots and root nodulation;
Commercial production of rhizobia








[4]


Paper III
-

Mycology and Plant Pathology ( Theory)





Marks
:60













L.P.70


1.

Ultrastructure of fungal cell; Cell wall composition, biogenesis and protoplast
technology. Translocation in mycelia.






[6]

2.

Somatic recombination in fungi (H
eterothallism; Heterokaryosis &
Parasexuality). Molecular genetic analysis of fungi. Extra chromosomal and
transposable genetic elements in fungi.


[6]

3.

Cell cycle control in yeast: Cell cy
cle organization; cell cycle genetics in yeast;
cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases; regulation of G1
-
S and G2
-
M control
points.












[5]

4.


Protein secretion in yeast: Secretion pathway; directed secretion; morphology of
secretary

pathway; processing, modification and folding of secretary proteins.


[4]


5.

Fungi in industry & medicine: Antibiotics
-

Penicillin, Organic acids
-

citric acid,
Plant growth regulator
-

Gibberellin, Alcohol and
Fungal enzymes(General
account)












[7
]

6.

Fungal toxins: Host non selective toxins
-

cercosporin (mode of action),Host
specific toxins: structure, mode of action and concept of Vb gene, Mycotoxins
-

Aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway with enz
ymatic and genetic informations


[6
]



5

7.


Human diseases by fungi [2]


8.

Penetration, infect
ion, invasion of host tissue, relationship between pathogen and

host factor(s), structural and biochemical defense mechanism in plant.



[5]

9.

Mycorrhizae: interaction; Specific recognition in mycorrhizal association;
Application as biofe
rtilizer and bioprotector in forestry and agriculture


[4]

10.

Structural and chemical decay of wood by decaying microorganisms


[3]


11.

Details studies of fungal diseases: Damping off, powdery mildew, downy mildew,
smut, bun
t, rust, wilt, root rot, leaf spots, leaf blight and gall of economically
important crops











[7]

12.

Bacterial diseases: bacterial leaf blight of rice, bacterial wilt of potato, bacterial
canker of tomato, crown gall of rose


[3]

13.

Nematode disease: General features; Mechanism of nematode injury to plants;
Factors affecting survival and parasitism of nematodes; Molecular approach in the
management of virulence genes in potat
o cyst nematodes.




[3]

14.


Virus disease: Symptoms, carrier, transmission, interaction of virus and host; role
of nucleic acid in virus infection; establishment and development of virus
infection; control strategies


[4]


15.

Plant disease control: chemical control and biological control of phytopathogens,
insect pest and weeds. Application of avirulence genes in control of plant
pathogens










[5
]



Paper I
V
-

Taxonomy of Angiosperms ( Practical

) Marks:40





1.

Description and identification of some representative plants from l
ocally available
families.

2.

Locating the key
-
characters at generic and specific levels

3.

Temporary preparation of pollen slides and study of exine morphology in a few
simple palynomorphs

4.

Preparation of artificial keys

5.

Determination of similarity coefficients
of some randomly selected plants.

6.

Embryo structure of some common angiospermic plants

7.

Training in using Floras and Herbaria

8.

Field trip within and around the campus; compilation of field notes and
preparation of herbarium sheets of commonly available plants
.














Paper V
-

Microbiology ( Practical

) Marks:40





1.

Differential Staining (Gram and

endospore) and study of morphology of
prokaryotic cells

2.

Isolation of bacteria using streak
-
plate, pour
-
plate and spread
-
plate techniques

3.

Evaluation of disinfectants (phenol coefficient) as a measure of controlling
microbial growth

4.

Isolation and enumeratio
n of viable microorganisms from soil by serial dilution
-
agar plate method

5.

Isolation and study of rhizobia from root nodules


6

6.

Study of bacterial growth using turbidimetric method

7.

Measurement of wet weight and dry weight of bacterial cells during growth

8.

Deter
mination of quality of milk using Breed’s and methylene blue reduction
methods

9.

Antibiotics sensitivity test using paper disc method

10.

Determination of the influence of temperature, pH, osmotic pressure and aeration
on microbial growth


Paper VI
-

Mycology a
nd Plant Pathology ( Practical
)


Marks:40




1.

Study of representative members :
Pythium
, Rhizopus, Mucor, Pilobolus,
Yeasts,

Agaricus, Polyporus, Morchella, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Peziza, Ascobolus,
Pleurotus, Cyathus.

2.

Identification of fungal cultures :
Dreschlera, Curvularia, Fusarium,
Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Pestalotiopsis, Trichod
erma.

3.

Sterilization methods; Preparation of Media, Slants and Stabs; Isolation and
Subculture of fungi.

4.

Bioassay of Antibiotic from fungi by agar disc method, Bioassay of antifungal
compounds/fungicides by agar well method.

5.

Detection of ED
50

value of fung
icide(s) by spore germinating method.

6.

Extraction and estimation of soluble proteins from edible mushroom(s).

7.

Extraction and estimation of total carbohydrates from edible mushrooms.

8.

Thin layer chromatography and bioassay of antifungal compounds.

9.

Histopathol
ogical studies of fungal diseases of economically important crops.

10.

Artificial inoculation of plants with pathogen(s) and disease assessment.

11.

Comparison of soluble protein content between healthy and artificially inoculated
plants.

12.

Comparison of total and o
rthodihydroxy phenol content between healthy and
artificially inoculated plants.

13.

Extraction and assay of Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in plants following
infection.

14.

Extraction and assay of peroxida
se activity in plants following infection.


Semeste
r
-
I
I









Paper IX
-

Plant Biochemistry ( Theory)








Marks:60













L.P.70


1.

Carbohydrates

: Structure and func
tion; Plant storage carbohydrates; Cell wall
-

structure & function; Glycoproteins & proteoglycans




[5]



2.

Lipids and membranes

: Structure and function; types and function of
membrane lipids










[4]





3.

Proteins

: Amino acid components and structural features; Primary, secondary,
tertiary, quarternary and supra
-
molecular structures; Non
-
covalent interactions in
relation to st
ructural conformation; Ramachandran plots; Amino acid sequencing
and purification strategies







[7]


7

4.

Nucleic acids
: Composition, three dimensional structures; T
m
values and CoT
curves










[3]

5.

Enzymology

: General catalytic
properties; Enzyme kinetics
-

Michaelis

Menton
and Lineweaver Burke plots; Negative and Positive co
-
operativity; Regulation of
enzymes; Allosteric enzymes; Isozymes; Role of coenzymes and cofactors

[7]

6.

Photochemistry and photosynthesis
: General concep
ts; photosynthetic pigments
and light harvesting complexes; photo
-
oxidation of water; mechanisms of electron
and proton transport; Benson
-
Calvin cycle; CO
2

concentrating mechanisms


[7]



7.

Respiration

: Overview of plant respiration; Glycolysis; T
CA cycle, Electron
Transport systems and ATP synthesis; Alternative oxidase system


[7]






8.

Lipid metabolism
: Fatty acid biosynthesis and breakdown; Synthesis of storage
and membrane lipids







[6
]

9.

Protein synthesis
: Transcription, translation and post
-
translational modifications;
protein degradation









[7]

10.

Amino acid biosynthesis
:

Ketoglutarate and Oxaloacetate families

[4]


11.

Nucleic acid biosynthesis

: Synthesis of nucleotides; DNA replication


[6]



12.

Membrane Transport

: Membrane transport proteins; Primary and secondary
active transport; Ki
netic analysis of transport mechanisms; Membrane H
+

and
Na
+
-
K
+

ATPase









[7]


Paper X
-

Cytology and Genetics ( Theory)






Marks:60












L.P. 70


1.

Chromosome str
ucture and packaging of DNA; Eukaryotic organelles and their
evolution; Euchromatin and heterochromatin; Karyotype analysis and evolution;

specialized type of chromosomes; Molecular basis of chromosome pairing


[8]

2.

Mitosis and meiosis; Breeding beh
avior of deficiency, duplication, inversion, ion
heterozygotes; Types, genome construction and analysis of polyploidy;
Evolution of major crop plants







[9]


3.

An overview of genetics; Mendel's laws of, inheritance; Quantitative
inheritance;Multi
ple alleles; Linkage and crossing over in diploid organisms












[7]

4.

Sexuality and recombination in bacteria and viruses; Molecular mechanism of

recombination; Plasmids, IS elements; Transposons and retro
-
elements; Sex
-
linked, sex
-
limi
ted and sex
-
influenced traits; Sex determination; Sex
differentiation; Dosage compensation and genetic imprinting; Maternal effects
and cytoplasmic inheritance


[10]







5.

Mutation at morphological, biochemical and molecular level; Nucleic acid and
their structure; Synthesis, modification and repair of DNA; Repetitive and
unique DNA sequences; Split genes, overlap
ping genes and pseudo
-
genes


[8]

6.

The genetic code and its evolution; Protein and protein synthesis apparatus;
Evolution of protein synthesis; Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes;
RNA processing; Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Ope
ron circuits;
Circuits of lytic cycle and lysogeny


[10]









8

7.

Alien gene transfer through the transfer of whole genome; transfer of individual
chromosomes and chromosome segments; Methods f
or detecting alien
chromatin










[5]


8.

Nuclear DNA content and its organization; recombinant DNA and PCR; DNA
fingerprinting; Restriction maps, genetic, cytogenetics and physical maps using
molecular markers; Isolation, sequencing and synthesis
of genes; Gene transfer


methods and transgenic organisms; Multi gene families in eukaryotes


[8]

9.

Population genetics; Inbreeding depression and speciation




[5]













Paper XI
-

Plant Physiology and Pharmacognosy ( Theory)




Marks:60














L.P.70











1.

Transport and translocation of water and solutes

Properties and movement of
water molecules; Water balance of the plant;
Water transport through xylem;
Mechanism of loading and unloading of photoassimilates and translocation in the
phloem; Assimil
ate allocation and partitioning





[
0
8]

2.

Sensory Photobiology
:
Structure, funct
ion and mechanisms of action of
phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins;

Photophysiology of light induced
responses;
Stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks
;
Molecular
mechanism of actions of photomorphogenic receptors, signaling and
gene
expression











[08]

3.

Plant growth regulators and elicitors:

P
hysiological effects, mechanism of
action and signal transduction of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and
abscisic acid; Biological action of Brassinosteroids and peptide hormones




[12]

4.

Physiology of plant development and flowering:

Embryogenesis
-

apical
-
basal
& radial patterning
; Developmental control of root and shoot apical meristem;
leaf development and
;

Endogenous clock and its regulation; Concept of Florigen;
Genetic and molecular analysis of floral induction and development.





[08]

5.

Stress Physiology:

Concept of tolerance and acclimation; Plant responses to
water deficit, salinity, metal toxicity, freezing and heat stress; Mechanism of
oxidative stress a
nd abiotic stress tolerance

[06]

6.


Pharmacognosy:

Ethnic and modern concepts
; Interdisciplinary spectrum of
Pharmacognosy; Herbalism and Phytotherapy; Drugs and technical products;
Pharmacopeias; Pre
paration of herbal drugs for commercial market.

[3]

7.


Quality control of drugs:

Drug Evaluation


Organoleptic, Microscopic,
Biological, Chemical and Physical; Guidelines for the assessment of herbal
medicines; Drug adulteration


[3]

8.
Methods of plant analysis:

Extraction and purification of natural products;
Chromatographic study of drugs; Spectroscopic techniques; Methods of
identification and analysis of

results; Applicat
ions of phytochemical analysis [7]

9.

Secondary metabolites:

Characteristic features of secondary metabolites of plant

origin; Basic metabolic pathways and origin of secondary metabolites;

9

Classification, biosynthesis and biological
significance of terpenes, phenolics and
nitrogen
-
containing compounds







[8]

10.
Chemistry and pharmacology of herbal drugs:

Classification of active plant
c
onstituents with source and phytotherapeutic properties; Routes of drug
administration; Absorption, metabolism and fate of drugs; Mechanism
of drug
action;Drug tolerance

[7]






Paper XII
-

Plant Biochemistry ( Practical
)



Marks:40




1.

Preparation of buffers, solutions and dilutions

2.

Extraction of proteins from plant mat
erials a
nd estimation by Lowry’s method
using BSA standard curve

3.

Extraction of carbohydrates from plant materials and estimation of reducing sugars
by Somogyi
-
Nelson method

4.

Determination of acid value of fat

5.

Extraction of plant phenolics and estimation of
total phenols and O
-
dihydroxy
phenols

6.

Extraction of chloroplast pigments and quantitative estimation


7.

Determination of cholorophyll a/b ratio in C
3
and C
4

plants

8.

Separation of amino acid mixture by thin layer chromatography

9.

SDS
-
PAGE analysis of proteins

10.

En
zyme kinetics


effect of substrate concentration & temperature on enzyme
activity


Paper XIII
-

Cytology and Genetics ( Practical
)


Marks:40


1.

Orcein and Feulgen staining of metaphase plates; Preparation of kar
yotype and



idiogram

2.

Linear differentiation of chromosomes through G
-
banding, C
-
banding and Q
-
banding

3.

Induction of polyploidy using colchicine; different methods of application of
colchicine

4.

Study of Meiosis

5.

Isolation of genomic and plasmid DNA

6.

Restrictio
n digestion and electrophoresis

7.

Probability and chi
-
square test for genetic analyses

8.

Human genetics study of simple human traits

9.

Tissue culture
-

basic techniques and regeneration of plantlets

10.

Multiple alleles
-

ABO blood group in man



Paper XIV
-

Plant
Physiology and Pharmacognosy ( Practical)
Marks:40




1.

Determination of a
mylase activity of monocot seeds in different stages of
germination.


10

2.


Assay of c
atalase of seedlings growing in differ
ent environment.

3.


Study of mobilization of starch during seed germination by amylases.

4
.


Determination of total acidity of cell sap.

5
.


Effect of kinetin on cotyledon enlargement.

6
.


Effect of different solutes and temperature on membrane permeabil
ity.

7
.


Effect of solutes on the response of membranes to different chemicals.


8.


Study of powdered drugs


p
hysical, chemical and microscopic examinations.

9
.


Determination of total phenol content from powdered drugs.

1
0
.


Determination of free radic
al scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of
powdered drugs.

1
1
.


Quantitative estimation of total flavanols content of drugs.

1
2
.


Detection of adulterants of tea leaves.

1
3
.


Quantita
tive microscopy of leaf drug


s
tomatal frequency, stomatal index,
palisade ratio, vein islet number and vein
-
termination number.

1
4
.


Detection of alkaloids and steroids in drug plants.









Semester
-

III


Paper XVII
-

Phycology, Bryology, Pteridology, Gymnology, Paleobotany


( Theory)


Mar
ks:60






L.P.70

Phycology


1.

Algae in diversified habitats: Terrestrial, fresh water and marine



[2]

2.

Thallus organization







[2]

3.

Cell ultrastructure







[2]

4.

Reproductio
n









[4]

5.

Criteria for classification: Pigments, Reserve foods and flagella



[2]

6.

Salient features of major groups: Cyanophyta, Prochlorophyta, Chlorophyta

Bacillariophyta, Pahaeophyta and Rhodophyta




[6]

7.

Economic
importance : Algal blooms, Algal biofertilizers, Algae as food,

feed and uses in industry








[3]






Bryology



1.

Salient features of major groups





2.

Spore germination in l
iverworts and mosses






[3]

3.

Alternative pathways in life cycles of bryophytes [2]

4.

Bryophytes as indicators of pollution [1]

5.

Usef
ul chemical constituents [1]

6.

Fossil bryophytes as indicators of past environment and past plant

communities

[2]





11

Pteridology


1.


Basic adaptation on land








[2]

2.


Salient features of major group
s






[3]


3.

Origi
n and evolution of pteridophyta




[4]

4.

S
telar evolution in pteridophyta







[3]

5.

Telome

theory and origin of megaphyll






[3]

6.

Eusporang
iate and leptosporangiate ferns




[3]

7.


Useful chemical constituents








[2]

8.


Economic importance









[1]


Gymnology

1.

Classification and salient features of major taxa




[2]

2.

Origin and evolution of gymnosperms





[3]

3.

Distribution through different era








[2]

4.

Distribution in India: Fossil and li
ving [5]


Palaeobotany

1.

Processes of fossilization








[2]

2.

Reconstruction









[2]

3.

Dating of fossils









[2]

4.

Form taxa










[2]

5.

Palaeoecolo
gy







[2]


Paper

XV
III

-

Ecology and Biostatistics

( Theory)


Marks:60















L.P.70


1.

Origin of life (i
ncluding aspects of prebiotic environment and molecular
evolution),Concepts of evolution, Theories of organic evolution, Mechanisms of
speciation and extinctions;, Hardy
-
weinberg genetic equilibrium, genetic
polymorphism and selection; Origin and evoluti
on of economically important
microbes, plants and animals





[10]

2.

Concept and dynamics or ecosystem, components, food chain and energy flow,
productivity and biogeochemical cycles; Types of ecosystems (grassland and
Savannas, shrubland and deserts, Tundra and taiga, Temparate forests, Tropical
forests, Lakes and ponds, freshwater wetlands, Streams and rivers,

Oceans,
Estuarine and mangrove

[10]


3.

Population ecology

(Basic characteristics with examples, life table, survivorship
curves, growth curves ) and biological control; Community structure and
organization; Environmental pollution; Sustainable development; Economic
importance
of mi
crobes, plants and animals



[8]

4.

Interactions between environment and biota; Concept of habitat and ecological
niches; Limiting factor; Energy flow, food chain, food web and trophic levels;
Ecological pyramids and r
ecycling, biotic community
-
concept, structure,
dominance, fluctuation, successio
n, N,P,C and S cycles in nature [8]


12

5.

Ecosystem dynamics and management; Stability and complexity of ecosystems;
Environmental Impact assessment, Principles o
f conservation; conservation
strategies; cryopreservation, Sustainable development



[6]

6.

Sampling and sample designs
: Classification and tabulation of data;
Diagramma
tic and graphic presentation

[4]

7.

Measures of dispersion: Variance, Mea
n Deviation, Standard Deviation [4]

8.

Correlation and regression analysis

[8]

9.

Bi
nomial and poisson distribution

[3]

10.

Tests of hypothesis [4]

11.

Analysis of variance (A
nova)
-

Bivariate & multivariate

[5]



Paper

XIX



Bioresource and its utilization ( Theory)




Marks:60













L.P.70

1.

Traditional knowledge on the use of Bioreesources:
-

Utilization, need, s
urvey,
evaluation and conservation. Non
-
Timber Forest Producers

[12]

2.

Microbial Resources:
-

Biofertilizers, Biopesticides, Mycorrhizae, Edible
Mushroom (
Agaricus, Pleurotus and Volvariella
)
-

cultivation and m
anagement














[12]

3.

Plants and Civilization:
-

Centres of origin and gene diversity ; Botany, utilization
, cultivation and improvement of food plants , drug, fibre and industrial values;
Unexploited plants of potential economic value; Plants as a source of rene
wable
energy; Genetic resources and their conservation, cryopreservation

[12]

4.

Principles of Plant breeding; important conventional methods of breeding self and
cross
-
pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops; Non conventional methods;
Po
lyploidy; Genetic variability, Nur
sery techniques and propagation [08]

5.

Cell and Tissue culture in plants: Callus culture, suspension culture, single cell
clones. Organogenesis; Somatic embryogenesis; Transfer and establishment of
whole plants

in soil; Soma
tic embryo and artificial seeds [10]

6.

Shoot
-
tip culture: Production of virus free plants and micro propagation

[08]

7.

Embryo cult
ure and Rescue; Haploid Culture

[08]


Paper XX
-

Phycology, Bryology, Pteridology, Gymnology, Paleobotany


(Practical)


Marks:60





1.

Morphological study of representative members of Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae,
Phaeophyceae, Bacillariophyceae
, Rhodophyceae


2. Study of reproductive members of different groups of Bryophytes


3. Study of reproductive structures of different groups of Pteridophyta.


4.

Detection and bioassay of allelopathic substances of fern.


5. Comparative study

of vegetative and reproductive structures of representatives of


different groups of Gymnosperms

6.

Study of important fossil Gymnosperms from prepared slides and specimens




13

Paper

X
XI

-

Ecology ,
Biostatistics

and Bioresource ( Practical)
Marks

: 60





1.

Estimation of dissolved oxygen content.

2.

Estimation of dissolved carbonate & bicarbonate content
.

3.

Deter
mination of s
oil pH.

4.

Determination of soil quality : i)organic matter or ii) Exchangeable calcium and
magnesium.

5.

To calculate mean, variance, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of
variance and to use t
-
test for comparing two means


6.

To

determine

the relationship between variables using corr
elation and regression
analysis

7.

Meristem tip culture

8.

Somatic embryogenesis







Semester
-

IV



XXIV
-

Special Paper (Theory)







Marks: 80









Cytogenetics












L.P.80


1.

Cell cyc
le and apoptosis: A conceptual overview, mechanism of programmed cell
death (PCD). Stem Cell Technology and Tissue engineering


[
07
]

2.

Gene structure: Genetic fine structure,
cis
-
trans
test, complementation test,
overview of promote
r structures and 5' capping, 3' polyadenylation in eukaryotic
gene transcription, RNA transport, splicing
-
editing


[11
]



3.

Genome organization and Analysis: An overview with nucleosome packaging,
DNA structure, 'A', 'B' & 'Z' forms, Chromosome sorting by FACS, PFGE and
microdessection, High
-
throughput DNA sequencing, genome probing using
DNA microarray

(DNA chip), DNA d
atabases and accessing genetic information
via
Bioinformatics algorithms



[12
]

4.

Genetic Technologies: Gene cloning principles; Tools
-
techniques, construction
of genomic and cDNA libraries and sc
reening
-
expression, choice of vectors and
their structural features,
In vitro
mutagenesis and application. Antisense,
ribozyme and RNAi technology and importance

[12
]


5.

Genome function: Characterization of gene transcripts
-
transcriptomics
via
SAGE,
Differential display, RNase protection assay, Northern blotting, nuclear run
-
on
assay and genetic information passed on to protein
-
pr
oteomics , and protein
-
protein interaction
via
pull
-
down and yeast two
-
hybrid assay, FRET; DNA
-
protein interactions: EMSA, DNase I footprinting, ChiP


[12
]



6.

Population genetics and Molecular phylogenetics: Conceptual overview of
evolutionary history and importance of

rDNA sequence and mitochondrial DNA
sequence in evolutionary genetics and genetic polymorphism. phylogenetic tree
construction base
d on similarity matrices from genetic markers using
POPGENEIPHYLIP software

[12
]


14

7.

Genetics of Transgenic crops: Strategies to develop transgenic crops through
Agrobacterium
mediated

or physical mediated gene transfer methods. Control and
silencing of trans gene expression.GM crops for disease/drought

/insect/
herbicide
tolerance and terminator technology. Advantages of Transplastomics and its
development. Gene targeting through gene
-
knock
-
out using Cre
-
LoxP system and
gene tagging in plants. Ecological risk and ethical issues of GM crops

[14
]










Microbiology












L.P.80


1.

General account:
Mycoplasmas; Gliding bacteria; Actinomycetes

[08
]

2.

Growth and growth control:

Counting viable but non
-
culturable prokaryotes;
Quorum sensing; Growth control by physical exclusion, heat;

radiation and
chemicals







[14
]



3.

Genetics:
Genetic code
-

its nature and deciphering; Transcription; Post
-
transcriptional RNA processing; Translation; Plasmid biology (Types; Detection
and purification; R
eplication); Genetic engineering (Splicing of DNA; Insertion
of DNA into vector; Detection of recombinant molecules; Polymerase chain
reaction and its applications; Expression of cloned genes)


[20
]



4.

Immunology:

Cells and organs of the immune system; Immunoglobulin classes;
Formation and structure of Immunoglobulin G; Polyclonal and monoclonal
antibodies; Antibody
-
antigen reactions; Immunodiagnostics; Immune diseases
(Hyperse
nsitivity; Autoimmune diseases)





[
18
]


5.

Chemotherapy:
General principles; classification of antibiotics; Chemistry,
mode of actions and antimicrobial spectra of antibacterial and antifungal
antibiotics; Mechanism of antibiotic resistance i
n prokaryotes

[20]


Molecular Plant Pathology and Fungal Biotechnology












L.P.80

1.

Mycorrhizae


Molecular tools for identification and detection; PCR cloning of
genes from AM fungi; RAPD a
nd ITS analysis of Orchid mycorrhizal fungi;
Analysis of gene expression in AM fungi; Genomic fingerpr
inting of
ectomycorrhizal fungi









[14]

2.

Molecular diagnostics: Early detection of plant pathogens in soil, water and plant

tissues using immunote
chniques [12]










3.

Plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress: Mechanism of biotic and abiotic stress
tolerance; Hypersensitive response (HR) and Sys
temic Acquired Resistance
(SA
R) [14]

4.

Defense related enzymes: Occurrence, properties, isolation, purification,
biochemical and immunological characterization
, induction, pos
sible functions



[12]


15

5.

Isoflavonoid and terpenoid phytoalexins: Biosynthesis; Role in disease defense
mechanism; Det
oxification mechanisms; Elicitors of phytoalexins; Manipulation
of
phytoalexin synthesis in plants [10]

6.


Genetic manipulation of industrially important fungi: Strain improvem
ent,
recombinant DNA technology, choice of vectors for cloning, stabilization of
transformants, application in genetic improvement of edible mushroom and
biocontrol fungi.


[10]

7.

Commercialization of biocontr
ol and entomopathogenic fungi [08]






Plant Biochemistry












L.P.80


1.

Signal perception and transduction : Overview; Receptors; G
-
proteins and
phospholipid signaling; Cyclic nu
cleotides; Ca
-
signal
ing; Role of protein kinases












[14
]

2.

Cytosolic carbon metabolism: Biosynthesis of storage and structural
carbohydrates and their regulation; hexose monophosphate ‘junction and sink
sourc
e’ relations in the cytoplasm






[12
]


3.

Protein sorting and vesicle traffic: Machinery of protein sorting; Targeting to
mitochondria, plas
tids, peroxisomes, ER, vacuole; Protein modification in Golgi
apparatus










[12
]

4.

Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrate and Nitrite uptake

and reduction; N
2

fixation
-


enzymology and genetics; regulation of nitrogen metabolism

[
11
]


5.

Sulfate metabolism: Sulfur chemistry and function; Uptake and transport;
reductive sulfate assimila
tion pathway; synthesis and function of glutathione and
its derivatives

[11
]


4.

Regulation of Gene Expression in plants: plant gene structure and expression;
Regulatory mechanisms
-

control of transcription; post
-
transcriptional control of
gene expression; other regulatory mechanisms


[14
]

5.

Instrumentation
; Paper, Thin layer and Column chromatography; Molecular
exclusion,Ion exchange,Partition, Adsorption and Affinity chromatography;
HPLC and GLC; Elec
trophoresis : PAGE, SDS
-
PAGE, Isoelectric focusing and
2
-
D; Radioisotope techniques








[14
]




Taxonomy of Angiosperms and Biosystematics












L.P.80

1.

History

of studies in Taxonomic Botany in India



[06]

2.

Survey of Taxonomic Literature: Dictionaries, Indices, Monographs, Manuals,
Floras, Journals, and taxonomic websites


[08]

3.

The Species Concept [08]

4.

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature: Principles, articles,
recommendations and special provisions; application of code wi
th problems;
nomenclature of cultivated and hybrid plants; taxonomic hierarchy.


[ 20 ]

5.

Biocode and Phylocode


[ 08 ]

6.

Use of Herbaria; role of Botanic Gardens in the 2
1
st

Century.


[ 08]

7.

Biosystematics: definition, importance and categories. Major areas of
biosystematic studies:


[18]


16

(A)

Palynology
: morphology, chemistry of ex
ine, bearing on phylogeny,
reconstruction of vegetation structure

(B)

Embryology
: Diversity in structures of gametophytes, endosperm
formation, developing embryo; ovule morphology

(C)

Cytology, genetics
and

breeding

(D)

Phytochemistry

(including serology, pigments
& secondary metabolites)

(E)

Molecular Biology
: Definition, determination of relationship through
Protein & Nucleic Acid studies; uses of electrophoresis, PCR & HPLC.

(F)

Remote sensing & GIS
.

8.

Analysis of data; commonly available software, construction of de
ndrograms [ 4 ]





XXV
-

Special Paper (Theory)







Marks: 80









Cytogenetics












L.P.80


1.

Mendelian and Non
-
Mendel
ian genetics: Conceptual and experimental
explanation in each case. Genome structure of mitochondria and plastid and its
evolution [12]

2.


Genetic

and physical mapping of a genome: Recombination and genetic marker
viz.
microsatellite/
minisatellite markers, RFLP, RAPD, SNPs, FISH &
Chromosome painting, clone countig, physical mapping, sequencing and
annotation. CpG islands, isochore and gene densit
ies [l5]

3.

Gene amplification and PCR: Basic principles and methodologies of PCR, design
of PCR primers, RT
-
PCR and Real
-
Time PCR and their utility [15]

4.

Fundamentals of Bioinformatics, bio
logical sequence analysis, sequence
alignment and applications, methods for phylogeny analysis, compositional
analysis of protein sequence, hydrophobicity profiles, moment analysis.
Databases and management system, Web technologies, common gateway
interfac
e [14]

5.

Bioinformatics algorithms and machine learning: HMM, Genetic algorithms,
Neutral networks, decision trees







[8]

6.

Structure

based drug designing, Homology modelling, molecular dynamics and
Monte Carlo simulations








[8]

7.

Structure and diversity of some important genes like beta
-
globin, nif etc. [8]







Microbiology












L.P.60


1.

Viral interference
:
Characteristics of interferons; Induction and regulation of
interferon production; Mechanism of interferon action; Protective role and
app
lications in interference [14
]



2.

Microbial diseases:

Pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of
tuberculosis and influenza (respiratory), syphilis and acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (sexually tr
ansmitted), malaria (insect transmitted), staphylococcal food

17

poisoning (foodborne), cholera (waterborne), and candidosis (respiratory and
contact); Emerging and resurgent infectious diseases

[1
6
]



3.

Environmental microbiology:

Biofilms; Microbial competition and cooperation;
Biogeochemical cycles (nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and iron); Microbial
leaching of ores; Wastewater treatments; Biodegradation of petroleum and
xenobiotics; Bacterial
plastics

[16
]



4.

Water microbiology:
Waterborne diseases; Microbial contamination o
f water;
Examination of potability of wa
ter; Purification of water [14
]


5.


Food and Industrial Microbiology:

Role of microorganisms in the production of
fermented dairy products (acidophil
us milk), meat and fishery products (dry
sausages and fish sauces), plant products (cocoa beans, coffee beans, soy sauce,
tempeh and idli), breads, beverages (vinegar and palm wines); Spoilage of fruits
and vegetables, fresh and processed meats and poultry
; Factors (intrinsic and
extrinsic) affecting growth and survival of microorganisms in foods; Probiotics




[20
]



Molecular Plant Pat
hology and Fungal Biotechnology












L.P.80

1.

Fungal protoplast: Isolation, fusion and cult
ure, regeneration and reversion [10]

2.

Fungal stress protein: Heat shock proteins in fungi, isolation, characterization,
induction, development of thermoto
lerance in fungi b
y heat
-
shock and other
stresses [12]

3.

Production of industrially important enzymes:

-
amylase, cellulose, laccase,
pectinase and

protease from filamentous fungi [12]

4.

Resitance genes: Gene
-
for
-
gene concept in plant
-
microbe interaction: Signal
exchange and transduction mechanism for activation of plant defenses against
microbial attack
. Signall
ing in plant disease resistance [14]

5.

Genetic engineering of plants for disease resistance: Organization of genes
controlling disease resistance,

methods of gene transfer, strategies

for
development of transgenic
s [14]


6.

Genomics for fungi. Characterization, cloning and expression of heterologous
genes in industria
lly important filamentous fungi [10]

7.

Development of virus free plants by meristem tip culture. Cross

protections of
viral diseases.

[8]






Plant Biochemistry


L.P.80


1.


Regulation and control of secondary metabolism: Regulation of enzymes;
Compartmentaion; Integration of secondary metabolism in programs of
different
iation and development; Sequential gene expression and cell
specialization; Evolution of secondary metabolism
[18
]

2.

Alkaloids: Classification, occurrence and biological properties; Biosynthesis;
Biotechnologica
l applications

[16]




18

3.


Phenols: Classification; Biosynthesis; Metabolic regulation and fate; Health
b
enefits of polyphenols; Phenolic antioxidants; Properties of flavonoids;
Ecological significance

[16
]

4.

Analytical Biochemistry:
Principles

and applications of UV,

IR,

NMR

and Mass
Spectroscopy;



[14
]

5.

Proteomic analysis through computational tools: Classes of protein structure;
Protein databases; Alignment of protein sequenc
e and structures; Prediction of
coiled
-

coil, Leucine zipper and PEST region; Secondary structure prediction by
Neural Network Models; Comparative three dimensional protein structure
modeling


[16]




Taxonomy of Angiosperms and Biosystematics












L.P.80


1.

Philosophy of classification. Recent trends in classification.



[16]
2
.

Indian flora. Endemism
-

in Indian perspective




[ 8]

3.


Migration, dispersal and discontinuous distribution of plants [8]



4.

Management of Herbarium: Methods of collection, identification and
documentation







[8]


5.

Biodiversity Conservation: IUCN categories, Effects of Rio de Genero world
summit, Hotspots, India as a megadiver
sity country; Ramsar sites


[8]



6.

Methods of
in situ

and
ex situ

conservation. Biodiversity protected areas in India


[8]


7.

Concise accounts of the phylogeny and economic importance of the following
taxa:





A. SUBCLASSES:



(i) Magnoliidae, (ii) Dilleniidae, (iii) Caryophyllidae, (iv) Alismatidae,




(v) Commelinidae.


B. ORDERS:



(i) Nymphaeales, (ii) Fagales, (iii) Gentiales, (iv) Dips
acales,

(v) Liliales/Zingeberales, (vi) Orchidales.


[16]

8. Traditional knowledge: Ethnobotanical resources in India; documentation and
utilization of ethnic knowledge. Traditional methods of conservation; sa
cred
groves











[ 8 ]


Paper XX
VI

-

Special


(Practical)

Marks :100









Cytogenetics


1.

Plant DNA isolation and its quantification by UV
-
Spectrophotometer

2.

Pre
paration of "Cot
-
curve" from isolated DNA

3.

Restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA and its separation on 1% agarose
gel electrophoresis and visualization on UV
-
transillumination after staining by
Ethidium bromide

4.

Southern and Northern blotting

experiment using standard Kit

5.

rDNA construction: Isolation of plasmid DNA and cut with restriction enzyme

19

and ligation

into known Vector

6.

Transformation of
E. coli
host using constructed chimera plasmid

7.

PCR and multiple arbitrary amplicon profi
ling

8.

Agrobacterium
-

mediated gene transfer in common plants

9.

Sequence analysis softwares and accessing biological data

10.


Nucleic acid and protein sequence analysis

11.

Phylogenetic analysis

12.

Basic techniques of molecular modeling








M
icrobiology


1.

Quantifying the thermal death (D
-
values) of microorganisms

2.

Study of physiological and biochemical activities of bacteria (hydrolysis of starch,
lipid, protein and urea; degradation of cellulose and pectin; catalase;

-
galactosidase; nitr
ate reduction; Voges
-
Proskauer reaction; indole production;
liquefaction of gelatin; citrate utilization; fermentation/oxidation of sugars)

3.

Study of bacterial growth and determination of generation time

4.

Assay of antibiotics using tube dilution, well dif
fusion and agar dilution methods

5.

Blood group determination using slide agglutination method

6.

Bacteriological examination of water using multiple
-
tube method

7.

Detection of coliforms using membrane filter method to determine water purity

8.

Enrichment and isolati
on of anoxygenic prototrophic, endospore
-
forming and
diazotrophic bacteria

9.

Induction of mutation, and selection of mutants using replica plating technique

10.

Isolation of antibiotic
-
resistant mutants

11.

Isolation and enumeration of coliphage from sewage

12.

Detectio
n and enumeration of indicator and index organisms for foodborne
pathogenesis (total Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, faecal coliforms,
Escherichia coli,
and aerobic sporeformers)

13.

Detection and enumeration of pathogenic organisms (
Salmonella; Shigella;

Clostridium perfringens; Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus cereus
) in different
food samples (cereal
-
based, meat
-
based, and milk products)


Molecular Plant Pathology and Fungal Biotechnology


1.

Isolation of fungal/plant DNA and its quantification by spectr
ophotometric
method.

2.

Separation of DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis.

3.

Restriction endonuclease digestion of fungal / plant DNA.

4.

DNA blot hybridization.

5.

Isolation of fungal protoplast.

6.

Transformation of filamentous fungi.

7.

Polymerase chain

reaction.

8.
Extraction and bioassay of phytoalexin(s) from plant tissue induced by biotic and
abiotic stresses.


20

9.


Partial purification of antifungal compounds by TLC methods and UV
spectrophotometric analysis.

10.

Extraction and SDS
-
PAGE analysis o
f defense protein in artificially inoculated
plants/induced by abiotic elicitor(s).

11.

Separation of proteins/polyphenols by column chromatography.

12.


Extraction and assay of defense enzyme(s).

13.


I
mmunological characterization of defense enzyme(s).

1
4.


Preparation and purification of plant and fungal antigens.

15.

Production of polyclonal antibody and purification of IgG.

16.

Evaluation of antigens in raising antibodies using immunodiffusion and immuno
-
electrophoretic test.

17.

Optimization of antige
n and antisera dilution by ELISA.

18.

Detection of pathogen in artificially inoculated plant using DAC
-
ELISA formats.

19.

Detection of pathogen in soil by dot blot and western blot method.

20.

Detection of pathogen in host tissue by indirect immunofluoresc
ence test.


Plant Biochemistry



1.

Protein extraction, precipitation by salting out, desalting by dialysis/ Sephadex G
25 column

2.

Fractionation of proteins by molecular exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G
100

3.

SDS
-
PAGE analysis of the proteins and determin
ation of molecular weights

4.

Enzyme extraction/assay of activity and isozyme analysis by PAGE

5.

Isolation of chloroplast and determination of Hill activity

6.

Separation of pigments by TLC and their identification

7.

Extraction and estimation of carotenoid pigments

8.

Determination of pKa values of amino acids

9.

Genomic DNA extraction from plants and quantification

10.

Immunological techniques
-

ELISA and Western Blotting

11.

Separation and detection of secondary metabolites through TLC

12.

Determination of antioxidant fingerprint on

TLC

13.

Extraction and isolation of volatile oil

14.

Isolation of caffeine from tea and UV spectral analysis for determination of purity
of components

15.

Isolation, purification and identification of alkaloids by application of column
chromatography

16.

Development of 3
-
D protein model from known sequence by MODELLER
software



Taxonomy of Angiosperms and Biosystematics


1.

Seasonal collection of local flora, processing, Herbarium management.

2.

Phenology of some common weeds.

3.

Seed, endosperm, embryo and see
dling morphology.

4.

Identification of plants by matching.


21

5.


Working out of different angiospermic plants (fresh and dry), their identifications
using literature and preparation of artificial keys.

6.

Phytosociological studies; Biological Spectru
m; Determination of Diversity
Indices (Shannon
-
Wiener, Species Richness & β
-
diversity).

7.


Use of GPS and demonstration on the use of at least one remote
-
sensing software

8.


Familiarity with Taxonomic Literature (e.g. Index Kewensis, Wall
-
Cat., Icone
s,
Bibliographies, Dictionaries, Keys, Floras, etc.).

9.

Preparation of temporary and permanent pollen slides, description of common
palynomorphs, preparation of identification keys.

10.

Variation of characters
-

influence of ecological factors.

11.

E
thnobotanical survey in a forest village/ village market.

12.

Use of Electrophoresis, PCR, HPLC and other instruments useful in molecular
taxonomy.

13.


Basic techniques of micropropagation.

14.


Identification of secondary metabolites and pigments



Sugg
ested Reading


Bio
-
resource utilization


1.

Advances in Mushroom Biotechnology
-

M.C. Nair, Ed.

2.

A text book of Biotechnology
-
R.C. Dubey (S. Chand & Co.)

3.

Food and Natural Resources
-

D.Pimentel and C.W.Hall, Academic Press

4.

Plant Genetic Resources Conservation an
d Management
-

R.S.Paroda and
R.K.Arora, IPGRI

5.

Sustainable Management of Non
-
Wood Forest Products
-

M.N.B.Nair

6.

The Useful Plants of India
-

CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate


Biostatistics


1.


Fundamentals of Biometry


L.N.Balaam

2.


Fundamental
s of Biostatistics


I.A>Khan and A.Khanum,Ukaaz Publications

3.


Principles of Biometry
-

C.M.Woolf

4.


Statistical Methods


G.W.Snedecor and W.G.Cochran


Bryology


1.

Bryophyta
-

N.S.Parihar , Central Book Depot, Allahabad

2.

Bryophye Ecology


A.J.E.Smi
th (Ed)

3.

Bryophytes


P.Puri, Atma Ram & Sons Publishers, N.Delhi

4.

Cryptogamic Botany, Vol.II


G.M.Smith

5.

Liverworts of the Western Himalayas and Punjab Plain


S.R.Kashyap





22

Cytology and Genetics


1.

Genetics : PJ Russell. Benjamin Cummings Pub.
Inc. USA.

2.


Principles of Genetics: Snustad and Simmons, John Wiley and Sons, USA

3.


Concepts of Genetics: Klug and Cummings, Pearson Education, USA

4.

Genome 3: T.A. Brown, Pearson Education, USA

5.

Principles of Gene Manipulation and Genomics: Primr
ose and Twyman,
Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

6.

Plant chromosome: Analysis; Manipulation and Engineering: Sharma & Sharma,
Harwort Academic Pub. Australia

7.

The Science of Genetics: Sauders College Publishing, Fort Worth, USA

8.

Genetics: Principles
and Analysis, Hartl and Jones, EW Jones & Bartlettt Pub,
USA.

9.

Gene IX: Lewin, B. Oxford University Press, USA.

10.

Essential Genes, Lewin, B. Pearson Education.

11.

Functional Genomics: A practical Approach. Hunt And Rick, Oxford University
Press.

12
.

Genetic Engineering: An Introduction to Gene Analysis and Exploitation in
Eukaryotes: Kingsman &Kingsman, Blackwell Scientific .Pub. Oxford.

13.

Molecular Biotechnology: Glick & Pasternock, Indian Edition.

14.


Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, S
ambrook & Russel, CSHL press,
N.York.

15.

DNA Cloning: A Practical Approach, Glover & Hames, IRL press, Oxford.

16.

Methods in Enzymology, Guide to molecular Technique, Vol. 152. Berger &
Kimmel, Academic Press, San Diego.

17.

DNA Science: A first cours
e in recombinant Technology, Mickloss & Freger,
CSHL Press, NY.

18.

Recombinant DNA Technology: Watson, Academic Press.


Ecology


1.

Basic Ecology

E.P. Odum ,
Saunders

Publication

2.

Fundamentals of Ecology
-
E.P. Odum
,

Saunders

Publication

3.

Elements of Ecology



R.L. Smith & T.M. Smith
,
Benjamin/ Cummings

Publishers

4.

Air polluti
on and Plant Life

M.T. reshow , Willy Interscience

5.

Con
cepts of ecology
-

E.J. Kormondy, Prentice
-
Hall of India

6.

Fund
amentals of Ecology
-

M.C. Dash , Tata McGraw Hill

7.

Environmental Science
-
S.C. Santra

,
New Central Book agency(P) Ltd. Kolkata.

8.

Biology of Fr
esh water pollution
-
C.F. Mason , Longman Publishers


Gymnology


1.

An Introduction to Gymnosperms


S.C.Dutta

2.

Comparative Morphology of Vascular Plants


A.S.Foster and G.M.Gifford


23

3.

The Morphology of Vascular Plants


D.W.Bierhorst



Microbiology


1.


Bacterial Metabolism

-

G. Gottschalk, Springer

2.

Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 4 vols,
-

N.R. Krieg & J.G. Holt,
eds, Springer

3.

Brock Biology of Microorganisms

-

M.T. Ma
digan, J.M. Martinko & J. Parker,
Prentice
-
Hall

4.


Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 4
vols
-


J. Lederberg, ed, Academic Press

5.


Food Microbiology

-

M.R. Adams & M.O. Moss, RSC

6.

Food Microbiology
-

Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3
rd

edition, M.P. Doyle & L.R
.
Beuchat, ASM Press

7.


Foundations in Microbiology

-

K.P. Talaro & A. Talaro, WCB/McGraw
-
Hill

8.


Fundamentals of Microbiology

-

Alcamo, Benjamin/Cummings

9.

Fundamentals of Microbiology and Immunology

-

A.K. Banerjee & N. Banerjee,
Central

10.


General
Microbiology

-

H.G. Schlegel, Cambridge University Press

11.


General Microbiology

-

R.Y. Stanier, E.A. Adelberg & J.L. Ingraham, McMillan

12.


Genes VIII

-

B. Lewin, Oxford University Press

13.


Immunology

-


J. Kuby, Freeman

14.

Introduction to Modern Vi
rology

-

N.J. Dimmock & S.B. Primrose, Blackwell
Science

15.


Microbial Energetics

-

E. A. Dawes, Blackie

16.


Microbial Physiology

-

A.G. Moat & J.W. Foster, John Wiley & Sons

17.


Microbiology

-

B.D. Davis
et al
., Harpeer & Row

18.


Microbiology

-

L.M. P
rescott, J.P. Harley & D.A. Klein, McGraw
-
Hill

19.


Microbiology

-

M.J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan & N.R. Krieg, McGraw
-
Hill

20.

Microbiology


An Introduction

-


G.J. Tortora, B.R. Funke & C.L. Case,
Addison Wesley, Longman

21.


Microorganisms in Our World

-

R.
M. Atlas, Mosby


Molecular Plant Pathology and Fungal Biotechnology


1.

Molecular Plant Pathology
-

M. Dicinson. Bios Scientific Publishers, Taylor and Francis
group , London and New York

2.

Fungal genetics :Principles and practice
-

Cees J. Bos , ed. Marcel D
ekker, Inc.

3.

The Mycota : Vol. I
-
XII : Ed. K. Esser :Springer Verlag, Berlin

4.

Gene VI
-
Gene IX: Benjamin Lewin , Oxford University press.

5.


Molecular and cellular biology of filamentous fungi
-
Nick Talbot , Oxford University
Press.

6.

Plant Pathology
-

4
th

Edn.
-
G. N.

Agrios, Elsevier Publications.

7.

An Introduction to mycology
-

R. S. Mehrotra and K. R. Aneja., New age Interntional
publishers, New Delhi.

8.

Topics in Mycology and Plant Pathology
-

L.N. Nair, New Central Book agency(P) Ltd.
Kolkata.


24

9.

Plant Pathology
-
c
oncepts and laboratory Exercises
-

Robert N. Trigiano, Mark T.
Windham and Alan S. Windham eds., CRC Press.

10.

A text book of Plant Pathology
-

A.V.S.S. Sambamurty

11.

Plant Pathology
-

Mehrotra and Agarwal, Tata McGrow Hill

12.

Applications of PCR in Mycology


P.D.

Bridge, D. K. Arora, C. A. Reddy and R. P.
Elander Eds. , CAB International.

13.

Molecular Plant Pathology: A practical approach, Vol. I & II
-

S.J. Gurr, M. J. Mc

Phersson and D. J. Bowles, Eds.
,
Oxford University Press
.

14.

Introduction to plant viruses
-

C.L.
Mandahar , S. Chand & Co.

15.

A text book of Biotechnology
-
R.C. Dubey , S. Chand & Co.


Paleobotany

1.

An Introduction to Paleobotany


C.A.Arnold

2.

An Introduction to the study of fossil plants


J.Walton

3.

Paleobotany and evolution of plants
-

W.N.Stewart

and G.W.Rathwell, Cambridge
University Press

4.

Studies in Paleobotany


H.N.Andrews


Phycology



1.

Algae and Water Pollution


C.M.Palmer

2.

An Introduction to Algae


I.Morris, Cambridge University Press

3.

Phycology


R.e.Lee

4.

Structure and Reproduc
tion of Algae


F.E.Fritsch

5.

The Algae


V.J.Chapman and D.J.Chapman

6.

The Ecology of Algae


F.E.Round, Cambridge University Press


Plant Biochemistry


1.

Biochemistry
-

A.L.Lehninger, D.L.Nelson and M.M.Cox, CBS Publishers &
Distributors, New Delhi

2.

Bioche
mistry
-

J.M.Berg, J.L.Tymoczko and L.Stryer, Freeman Publishers

3.

Biochemistry
-

L.Stryer, Freeman Publishers

4.

Biochemistry
-

F.B.Armstrong, Oxford University Press

5.

Biochemistry
-

J.H.Weil, New Age International Publishers

6.

Biochemistry
-

G.Zubay, W.C.Brown Pub
lishers

7.

Biochemistry
-

D.Das, Academic Publishers

8.

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants
-

B.B.Buchanan, W.Gruissen and
R.L.Jones, I.K.International Publishers

9.

Introduction to Plant Biochemistry
-
Goodwin and Mercer, CBS Publishers &
Distributors

10.

Outline
s of Biochemistry
-

E.Conn, P.K.Stumpf, G.Bruening and R.H.Doi, John
Wiley & Sons

11.

Outlines of Biochemistry
-

P.W.Kuchel and G.B.Ralston, Tata McGraw Hill
Publishers

12.

Photosynthesis
-

D.O.Hall and K.K.Rao, Cambridge University Press


25

13.

Photosynthesis
-

D.W.Lawlor,
Viva Books Pvt. Ltd.

14.

Plant Biochemistry


Eds. P.M.Dey and J.B.Harborne, Hacourt Asia Pvt.Ltd and
Academic Press

15.

Plant Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
-

P.J.Lea and R.C.Leegood, John Wiley
& Sons

16.

Plant Metabolism
-
D.Richter, George Thieme Publishers

17.

Plant M
etabolism
-

D.t.Dennis, D.H.Tupin, D.D.Lefebure and D.B.Layzell eds.,
Longman Publishers

18.

Principles of Biochemistry
-

H.R.Horton, L.A.Moran, R.S.Ochs, J.D.Rawn and
K.G.Saimgeour, Prentice Hall Publishers, USA

19.

Analytical Biochemistry
-

D.J.Holme and H.Peck, Lo
ngman Publishers

20.

Basic Separation Techniques in Biochemistry
-

R.O.Okotore, New Age
International

21.

Biochemical Methods
-

S.Sadasivam and A.Manickam,, New Age International

22.

Class Experimets in Plant Physiology
-

H.Meidner, George Allen & Unwin

23.

Experimental Bio
chemistry: Theory and exercise in Fundamental methods
-

R.Switzer and L.Garrity, Freeman Publishers

24.

Molecular Cloning:A Laboratory Manual
-

J.Sambrook, E.F.Fritsch, T.Maniatis,
eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

25.

Phytochemical Methods
-

J.B.Harborne, Ch
apman & Hall Publishers

26.

Practical Biochemistry
-

K.Wilson and J.Walker, eds. Cambridge University Press


Plant Physiology

and Pharmacognosy

1.

Basic biophys
ics for Biologists


M. Daniel, Agro Botanica Publishers

2.

Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Hormones



T.C Moore, Springer
-
Verlag,
New York, USA

3.

Class experiments in

Plant Physiology


H. Meidner, George Allen and Unwin

4.

Concepts of Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis


G.S

Singhal, G Renger, S.K Sopo
ry, K.D Irrgang and Govindjee,
Naro
sa Publ
ishing
House, New Delhi

5.

Cultivation and Utilization of Medicinal Plants


C.K Atal and B.N Kanpur, Eds.,
Regional Research

Laboratory, CSIR, Jammu Tawai

6.

Encyclopaedia of Plant Physiology, Volume III: Secondary plant Product
s


E.A
Bell and B.V Charlwood ,S
pringer
-
Verlag


7.

Experiments in Plant Physiology: A Labo
ratory Manual


D Bajracharya,
Narosa
Publishing Hou
se, New Delhi

8.

Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins: A P
ractical Approach


B.D Hames,
PAS,
Oxford
University Press, Oxford, U.K.

9.

The Embryology of Angiosp
erms

S.S

Bhojwani and S.P Bhatnagar,
Vik
as
Publishing House, New
Introduction to

Plant Physiology
-

E.G Hopkins,
John
Wil
ey & Sons, Inc., New York, USA

10.

Medical Botany, Plants affecting Man’s Health


W.
H Lewis and M.P.F Elvin
-
Lewis,
W
iley International Publ
ication

11.

Metabolism and Regulation of Secondary Plant Products


V.C Runneckles and
E.F Conn.


26

12.

Molecular Embryology of
Flowering Plants


V Raghavan,
Cambridge University
Press, Ca
mbridge

13.

Patterns of Plant Development



T.A Steeves and I.M Sussex,
Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge).

14.

Pharmacogn
osy


G.E Trease and W.C Evans , Bailliere Tindall Publishers

15.

Pharmacognos
y


S.B Gokhale and C.K Kokate, Pragati Prakashan


16.

Pharmacognosy


V.E. T
yler, L. Brady and J.E Robbers ,Varghese

17.

Plant Anatomy


A Fahn, Perg
amon Press, Oxford

18.

Plant Growth and Development: A Molecular Approach
-

D.E Fosket
,
Academic
Press, San Diego


19.

Plant Physiology



F.B Salisbury and C.W Ross,
Wadsworth Pu
blishing Co.,
California, USA

20.

Plant Physiology
-

L

Taiz and E Zeiger,
Sinauer Associate
s, Inc.,
Publishers,
Massachusetts, USA

21.

Polarity in Plants; Annual Plant reviews,

Volume 12


Keith Lindsey Ed.
Blac
kwell publishing and CRC Press

22.

Practical Biochemistry: Principles and tech
niques


K Wilson and J Walker,
Cambridge U
niversity Press, Cambri
dge, UK

23.

Practi
cal Pharmacognosy


C.K Kokate, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi)


24.

Pract
ical Pharmacognosy


P.K. Lala, Lina, MG Road, Kolkata

25.

Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern techniques of

Plant analysis


T.C
Harborne ,Chapman and Hall, London

26.

Research Exp
eriences in Plant Physiology:
A Laboratory Manual


T.C Moore,
S
pringer
-
Verlag, New York, USA

27.

Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination
-

J.D

Bewley and M Black.
Plenum Press, New York

28.

Stress Physiology


D.P Singh ,
New Aga International (P)
Limite
d, Publishers,
New Delhi

29.

The Embryology of Angiosperms

S.S

Bhojwani and S.P Bhatnagar,
Vik
as
Publishing House, New Delhi

30.

Techniques and Practice of

Chromatography


R.P.W Scott, Marcel Dekker, Inc.,
New York



Pteridology


1.

Comparative Anatomy of Vegetat
ive Organs of the Pteridophytes


Y.Ogura

2.

Morphology of Vascular Plants (Lower Groups)


A.J.Eames

3.

The Ferns


F.O.Bower

4.

The Morphology of Pteridophytes


K.K.SPorne, B.I.Publishing

5
.

The Pteridophyte Flora of the Upper Gangetic Plain


N.P.Chowdhury


Taxonomy of Angiosperms

1.

Flora of India
(all vols.)
-

Botanical Survey of India


27

2.

Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
-

G.H. Lawrence

3.

The Identification of Flowering Plant Families
-

P.H. Davi
s & J. Cullen

4.

Botanical Latin
-

W
.
T
.

Stearn

5.

A Dictionary of Flowering Plants
-

J.C. Willis

6.

An Integrated System System of Classification of Flowering Plants
-

A.
Cronquist

7.

The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants
-

A. Cronquist

8.

The Familie
s of Monocotyledons
-

R.M.T. Dahlgren, H.T. Clifford & P.F. Yeo

9.

Flowering Plants of the World
-

V.H. Heywood

10.

The Families of Flowering Plants (3
rd

Edn.)
-

J. Hutchinson

11.

Plant Systematics
-


S.B. Jones & L.E. Luchsinger

12.

A Handbook of Systematic Botany
-

S.C. Datta

13.

Biodiversity


Principles and Conservation
-


U. Kumar & M.J. Asija

14.

Advances in Ethnobotany
-


A.P. Das & A.K. Pandey

15.

Plant Systematics
-

Gurucharan Singh

16.

Text Book of Plant Taxonomy
-

V.N. Naik