Wisconsin Highway Research Program

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Wisconsin Highway
Research Program


Reduction of Minimum Required Weight
of Cementitious Materials in WisDOT
Concrete
Mixtures

-

Aggregate
Gradation Optimization




Wisconsin Highway Research Program

LIMITED USE DOCUMENT


This proposal is for use of the
recipient in selection of a research agency to conduct work under
the Wisconsin Highway Research Program. If the proposal is unsuccessful, it should be
destroyed. Proposals are regarded as fully privileged, and dissemination of the information
included t
herein must be approved by WHRP.


Michigan Technological University

May 7
, 2009
1


Project Title:

Reduction of Minimum Required Weight of Cementitious Mate
rials in WisDOT
Concrete
Mixtures

-

Aggregate Gradation Optimization


Proposing Agency:

Michigan Technological University

1400 Townsend Drive

Houghton, MI 49931
-
1295

Phone: 906
-
487
-
1885


Person Submitting the Proposal:

Lawrence Sutter



Proposal Written
By:

Karl Peterson


Proposal Date:

May 7
, 2009



Principal Investigator
:

Lawrence Sutter
, Ph.D., Professor

Michigan Technological University

1400 Townsend Drive

Houghton, MI 49931
-
1295

Phone: 906
-
487
-
2
268


Administrative Officer
:

Suzan Caron

Michigan Techn
ological University

1400 Townsend Drive

Houghton, MI 49931
-
222
5

Phone: 906
-
487
-
2423

Email:
sjcaron@mtu.edu


Proposed Contract Period:

12

months



Total Contract Amount:

$
71
,
138



Indirect Cost Portion at
56
%

2


Table of

Contents


Research Plan

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

3

A. Background

................................
................................
................................
............................

3

B. Research Appr
oach

................................
................................
................................
................

9

i. Work Plan/Experimental Design

................................
................................
.........................

9

Task 1, Raw Material Selection, Procurement, and Characterization

................................

9

Task 2, Production and Testing of Concrete Mixtures

................................
.....................

10

Task 3


Analysis of Laboratory Test Results.

................................
................................
.

11

Task 4, Preparation and Delivery of Final Report.

................................
...........................

11

ii. Expected Contribution from WisDOT Staff

................................
................................
.....

11

C. Anticipated Research Results and Implementation Plan
................................
......................

11

E. Time Requirement

................................
................................
................................
....................

11

F. Itemi
zed Budget

................................
................................
................................
....................

13

G. Qualifications of Research Team

................................
................................
.........................

15

H. Other Commitments of the Research Team

................................
................................
.........

17

I. Facilities and Information Services

................................
................................
.......................

17

i. Laboratory Equipment

................................
................................
................................
.......

17

ii. Certifications
................................
................................
................................
.....................

18

iii. Information Services
................................
................................
................................
........

18

3


Research Plan

A.
Background

The original scope of the project “
Reduction
of Minimum Required Weight of

Cementitious
Materials in WisDOT Concrete
Mixtures
” focused primarily on the reduction of cementitious
content (cement content) from 56
4

lbs/yd
3

to

either

470 lbs/yd
3

or
376 lbs/yd
3
,
with a
concomitant increase in the aggregat
e content; but without any effort to optimize the aggregate
gradation. Two coarse aggregate/fine aggregate pairs representative of northern and southern
Wisconsin sources were used for the project. The coarse aggregate sources were both sieved and
recombin
ed to meet the WisDOT gradation specification as shown in Figure 1. The fine
aggregate sources both satisfied the WisDOT gradation specification and were used as
-
received
as shown in Figure 2.



Figure 1: Coarse aggregate gradation and WisDOT limits.


T
he

results from t
est batches indicated that efforts to maintain a constant weight ratio of
coarse to fine aggregate across the spectrum of cement contents would result in unworkable

concrete

mixtures
at the two extremes. By varying the ratio of coarse to fin
e aggregate, more
workable
mixtures
were obtained, but
those
at the lower cement content (
376

lbs/yd
3
) remained
problematic. Coarse to fine ratios of 55/45, 60/40, and 65/35 were used for the
56
4

lbs/yd
3
,
470
lbs/yd
3

and
376 lbs/yd
3

mixtures,

respectively.

4



Figure 2: Fine aggregate gradations and WisDOT limits.


Changing the
weight
ratio of coarse to fine

aggregate

is one approach to manipulate the final
gradation of the blended aggregate. However, more sophisticated methods for the analysis of
aggregate g
radation and the optimization of aggregate gradation are frequently employed; the
most popular being the Shilstone method

[
1
]
. The Shilstone method visualizes the gradation of
the blended coarse and fine aggregates using two charts. The first chart, shown
in Figures 3 and
4, plots the weight percent retained on each sieve. The objective for an optimized gradation is to
achieve a smooth line that plots within the upper and lower boundaries at eight and eighteen
percent. As illustrated in Figures 3 and 4, non
e of the aggregate blends used in the study
achieved this ideal situation. The second type of chart, shown in Figure 5, plots the Workability
Factor against the

Coarseness Factor.


The Workability Factor is simply the weight percent passing the no. 8 sieve
, but with a
correction for the cement content, as shown in Equation 1.
























[




]

Equation 1
.


Where:



= Workability Factor.



= Cementit
i
ous content (in units of lbs/yd
3
).



5



Figure 3: Northern source blended gradation plotted on Shilstone
“8
-
18”

chart.



Figure 4: Southern source blended gradation plotted on Shilstone
“8
-
18”

chart.



6



The Coarseness Factor is the ratio between the cumulative weight percent retained on the
3/8
” sieve and the cumulative weight percent retained on the no. 8 sieve, as shown in Equation 2.













































Equation 2
.

Where:



= Coarseness Factor.


The

coarseness and workability factors are related through use of a chart as shown in
Figure 5. The

chart is
separated in to five zones. Zone I represents difficult to work gap
-
graded
mixtures

susceptible to segregation.

Zone II represents ideal conditions for most concrete
mixtures
. Zone III represents ideal conditions for concrete
mixtures

with a lower top size coarse
aggregate. Zone IV represents over
-
sanded
mixtures
, and Zone V represents rocky
mixtures
. The
region ab
ove Zone V is a transitional zone exhibiting generally good conditions for concrete
mixtures
. As shown in Figure 5, the aggregate blends used to date for the
470
and
564 lbs/yd
3

mixtures
plot within or near Zone II, but the aggregate blends for the
376 lbs
/yd
3

mixtures
plot
considerably below Zone II.



Figure 5: Blended gradations for northern and southern
mixtures
plotted on Shilstone
Coarseness/Workability chart.


There are several approaches to modify the gradation of the current aggregate blends in or
der
to satisfy the Shilstone criteria:


7


1.

Change the gradation of the fine aggregate through sieving and recombination.

2.

Change the gradation of the coarse aggregate through sieving and recombination.

3.

Blend with additional aggregate sources.

4.

Change the ratio
of the coarse to fine aggregate blend.

5.

Any combination of the above.


From Figures 3 and 4, it can be seen that both fine aggregate sources are somewhat deficient in
the coarser sand fractions. In the case of the northern source the deficiency is in the ma
terial
retained on the nos. 30 and 16 sieves. In the case of the southern source the deficiency is in the
material retained on the no. 16 sieve. It is not practical to sieve and recombine a fine aggregate,
and furthermore, sources of coarse sand for blendi
ng purposes are not always available.
Therefore the most reasonable course of action would be to take the fine aggregate sources as
t
hey are, in spite of their unfavorable

characteristics in terms of their plotted locations on the
“8
-
18”

Shilstone chart. A
lso from Figures 3 and 4, it can be seen that there is an excess of material
retained on the no. 4 and 1/2” sieves, and a deficiency of material on the 3/8” sieve. Although
arduous, these problems co
uld be addressed through sieving and recombination
, or
al
ternatively,
blending with an additional coarse aggregate source. The less
-
than
-
ideal locations of the
376
lbs/yd
3

mixtures

plotted on the Shilstone Workability/Coarseness ch
art in Figure 5 could be
addressed by changing the ratios of the coarse to fine ag
gregate blends.


Figures 6 and 7 explore the combined effect of changing the coarse aggregate gradations
through sieving and recombination, and changing the coarse to fine ratios for all of the
mixtures

in order to satisfy the Shilstone

criteria. Figure 8 illustrates the changes in gradation necessary
for the coarse aggregate to meet the Shilstone
“8
-
18”

criteria, but it should be noted that the
result would no longer meet WisDOT specifications.



Figure 6: Optimized northern source ble
nded gradation plotted on Shilstone
“8
-
18”

chart.

8




Figure 7: Optimized southern source blended gradation plotted on Shilstone
“8
-
18”

chart.



Figure 8: Optimized blended gradations for northern and southern
mixtures

plotted on Shilstone
Coarseness/Worka
bility chart.


9



Figure 9: Optimized and current coarse aggregate gradation with WisDOT limits.

B
.

Research

Approach

i.

Work

Plan/Experimental Design

The research effort will be divided into
three

tasks

as described below
.


Task 1, Raw Material Selection,
Procurement, and Characterization

One of the coarse/fine aggregate source pairs from the initial project, either northern or southern,
will be selected for use as the aggregate material in the experimental matrix of
nine
concrete
mixtures

as shown in Table

1
. One source of cement and one source of fly ash will be selected
from the same pool of cementitious materials
as
used in the initial pro
ject
.

In addition, the
experimental matrix will
also
include
mixtures

with the same source of ground granulated blast

furnace slag
as
used in the initial project.

The same

source
s

of
v
insol resin
air entra
iner and
water
reducer
as used in the in the initial project
will
again
be used for all
mixtures
.

After the selected
aggregates have been received at the laboratory, te
sts for specific gravity, absorption, and
gradation wi
ll be performed
.
T
ests for specific gravity will
also
be performed

on the
cementitious materials
.
The coarse aggregate source will be sieved and separated for
recombination into an optimized gradation

a
s described in the previous section
.
A report
summarizing the data collected from the aggregates and
the
cementitious materials will be
produced.




10


Table 1:

Experimental matrix for
optimized gradation concrete
mixtures
.



Cementitious content


565
lbs/yd
3

470
lbs/yd
3

376
lbs/yd
3

Straight portland cement

+

+

+

30 wt. % substitution fly ash

+

+

+

50 wt. % substitution slag

+

+

+

*
A “+” sign
楮摩cates

瑨t琠t桥 硴畲x⁷楬 ⁢ ⁰牯 畣e搠d猠灡牴r⁴桥⁥x灥物浥湴m氠la瑲楸.


Task 2, Production and Testing of Concrete
Mixtures

T
he following material
tests

will be
performed
for each concrete mix
according to the listed
standard procedures:




Slump,
ASTM C143
.



Air content,
ASTM C173, ASTM C231
.



Unit weight,
ASTM C138.



Modulus of e
lasticity and Poisson’s ratio

at 28 days
, ASTM C469.



Splitting tensile strength

at 3, 7, 28, and 90 days
,
ASTM C496
.



Compressive strength

at 3, 7, 28, and 90 days
,
ASTM C39
.



Freeze/thaw durability

after 28 day moist cure and 28 days air cure
,
ASTM C666
Procedure B
.



Shrinkage,

ASTM C157
.



Sorptivity
,
ASTM C 1585
.



Rapid chloride permeability,
ASTM C1202
.


Shrinkage beam data up to
16

weeks will be collected for inclusion in the final report. The data
points at
32 and
64 weeks will be collected, but extend b
eyond the duration of the project.
A
lthough not included in the original proposal for the initial project, the following tests have
also
been performed on
fresh concrete
mixtures

from the initial project and will be included as part of
the proposed fresh c
oncrete testing

for this project
:




Semi
-
adiabatic calorimetry, Grace Adiacal™.



Air void parameters of fresh concrete, Germann Instruments AVA
-
3000.


Upon completion of fresh concrete mixing, a report summarizing
the fresh concrete test results,
gradations,

and mix designs
will be produced. Upon completion of the hardened concrete testing,
a report summarizing the hardened concrete test results will be produced.




11


Task 3


Analysis of Laboratory Test Results
.

The data collected in
T
ask
2

will be thoroughly analyzed to establish trends and determine gaps
that remain in the knowledge regarding minimizing cementitious materials content in paving
concrete. Based on this analysis, recommendations will be made for revision to WisDOT’s
minimum
cementitious materials specifications and for further work to help clarify any
unresolved issues.

Task
4
, Preparation and Delivery of Final Report.

The materials presented in previous
t
ask reports will be synthesized into the final report, with
special emp
hasis on providing a useful
guide for
the production of

reduced cementititous content
concrete
mixtures

utilizing optimized aggregate gradations
. The draft final report will be
delivered by
August 24
th
,

20
10
, and a close
-
out presentation will be given by t
he Principal
Investigator. 36 copies of the final report will be delivered to the Wisconsin Highway Research
Program by
November

30
th
, 2010
.

ii. Expected Contribution from WisDOT Staff

It is expected that the research team will consult with WisDOT
staff re
garding

the
selection of
materials
,
the optimize
d

gradations,
and
the
experimental matrix concrete mix designs.

C
. Anticipated Research Results and Implementation Plan

The results of this research will be presented in a form that can be readily integrated into practice
by WisDOT. I
n the end, after evaluating
key performance
measures
, this research will serve as a
sound basis to begin developing a new PCC specification f
or paving applications. Additional
research work may have to be carried out to fully implement a new specification for PCC, and
this research project will clearly identify the areas requiring additional study.


D.
References
:


1)

Richardson, D. N., “Aggreg
ate Gradation Optimization


Literature Search, Final
Report
,
” Missouri Department of Transportation, Research Development and Technology
RDT 05
-
001, 113 p., 2005.

E.
Time Requirement

The

project will cover
12

months, from
1
1
/
30
/2009

to
11
/3
0
/20
10
, as
shown

in Figure
10
.

A
three

month period is included between the submission of the draft final report
for

review by the

Technical Oversight Committee, and will include a presentation by the researchers.
The
hours by
task,
by each member of the research tea
m
,

is provided in Table
2
.

Table 3 consists of an
itemized budget that
divides

the work effort according to Task. Table 4 lists the contract
summary
by fiscal year.


12



Tasks

Start Date

End Date

Task 1, Raw Material Selection, Procurement, and
Characterization

1
1
/
30
/2009

12
/
3
1
/2010

Task 2, Production and Testing of Concrete
Mixtures

1/1
/20
09

7/13
/20
10

Task 3, Analysis of Laboratory Test Results

7/13
/201
0

8/3
/201
0

Task 4, Preparation and Delivery of Final Report

8/3
/201
0

11/30
/201
0


Milestones

Date

Milestone

1,
Report on

Raw Material

Properties

12/29
/20
09

Milestone
2
,
Report on Fresh Concrete

Testing
, Mix Designs, and Gradations

3/9
/2010

Milestone
3
,
Report on Hardened Concrete

Testing

7/13
/201
0

Milestone
4
,
Report on Analysis of
Laboratory Test Results

8/3
/201
0

Milestone
5
, Submittal of
Draft
Final Report

8/24
/201
0

Milestone
6
, Submittal of Final Report

11/30
/201
0

Figure
10
:

Project
t
imeline, important dates, and milestones.

13


Table
2
:

Summary of research team hours.

INDIVIDUALS

TASKS

TOTAL
HOURS



1

2

3

4

Principal Investigator,
Lawrence Sutter, Ph.D., Professor

20

20



40

Co
-
Principal Investigator,
Karl Peterson, Ph.D., Assistant
Research Professor


60

20

20

100

Senior St
aff,
Michael Yokie,
Research Associate

120

263




383

Senior Staff, Matthew King, Research Associate

14

327



341

Hourly Graduate Student

86

251





337

Hourly Undergraduate Student


105





105

Technical Writing Staff, Elizabeth Hoy, Assistant Director,
UTC
-
MiSTI






40

40

TOTALS

220

1006

20

100

1346



F.
Itemized Budget

Table
3
:

Work effort by task.

INDIVIDUALS

TASKS

TOTAL

Fringes

Total Direct
Wages



1

2

3

4







Lawrence Sutter

$1,225

$1,225

$0

$0

$2,451

$1,108

$3,558

Karl Peterson

$0

$2,943

$981

$981

$4,906

$1,727

$6,632

Michael Yokie

$1,920

$4,208

$0

$0

$6,128

$2,770

$8,898

Matthew King

$311

$7,255

$0

$0

$7,566

$3,420

$10,985

Hourly Student

$1,032

$3,012

$0

$0

$4,044

$0

$4,044

Hourly Student

$0

$1,050

$0

$0

$1,050

$0

$1,050

Elizabeth Hoy

$0

$0

$0

$925

$925

$418

$1,343

TOTALS

$4,488

$19,694

$981

$1,906

$27,069

$9,442

$36,511


14


Table
4
:

Total
c
ontract
s
ummary by
f
ederal
f
iscal
y
ear
.



Task 1

Task 2

Task 3

Task 4

Fiscal Year 1

Fiscal Year 2

TOTALS

Total Salaries and Wages (From Table 1)

$6,050

$26,465

$1,326

$2,669

$36,511



$36,511

















Other Direct Costs (lab fees)

$5,690





$5,690



$5,690

Materials & Supplies

$2,000











$2,000

Printing







$200

$200



$200

Communications (CDs, Reports, Website)



$200

$200



$200

Travel







$1,000





$1,000

Sub
-
Contracting (Database & communication development)

























TOTAL DIRECT COSTS

$8,050

$32,155

$1,326

$4,069

$45,601



$45,601

















Indirect Costs













$0

Overhead

$4,508

$18,007

$743

$2,279

$25,537



$25,537

















TOTAL INDIRECT COSTS

$4,508

$18,007

$743

$2,279

$25,537



$25,537

















TOTAL CONTRACT COST

$12,558

$50,162

$2,069

$6,348

$71,138



$71,138


15


G.
Qualifications of Research Team

Lawrence L. Sutter, Ph.D.

Dr. Sutter is a Professor
and Director of

the Michigan Tech Transportation Institute
, (MTTI) the
Director of the
University Transportation Center for Materials in Sustainable Transportation
Infrastructure
, (UTC
-
MiSTI) and
Chair o
f the UTC
-
MiSTI Research Task Group
. He has an
extensive background in materials characterization and conducts research on the characterization
of construction materials including aggregates, concrete and asphalt. He is currently involved in
a number of pr
ojects investigating concrete pavement durability and performance. Past and
current clients include
MDOT
,
NCHRP
, SDDOT,
and NSF
.
Past and current projects with
WisDOT include “
Reduction of Minimum Required Weight of

Cementitious Materials in
WisDOT Concret
e
Mixtures
” and “
Evaluation of Methods for Characterizing Air
-
Void Systems
in Wisconsin Paving Concrete
.”
Dr. Sutter completed his Ph.D. in Civil Engineering at Michigan
Tech. His dissertation focused on the identification of materials related distress in
portland
cement concrete pavements. Dr. Sutter is a member of ASTM Committees C01 (Cement) and
C09 (Concrete) and serves as Chairman of Committee 9.24 (Supplementary Cementitious
Materials) Task Group 2 on Coal Fly Ash, responsible for ASTM C 618. He is th
e Chair of the
Committee 9.60 (Fresh Concrete Tests) Task Group on adoption of AASHTO T 318 Standard
Method of Test for Water Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete Using Microwave Oven Drying.
He is the Chair of C01/09 Joint Committee 1.99/9.99 on Research and

is also a member of the
C01 and C09 Executive Committees. Additionally he serves as a member of numerous other
ASTM committees. Dr. Sutter is a member of the ACI and serves as an ACI Concrete Field

Testing Technician Examiner. Dr. Sutter is an Officer of
the International Cement Microscopy
A
ssociation, Proceedings Editor.


Karl Peterson, Ph.D.

Dr. Peterson is an Assistant Research Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental
Engineering at Michigan Technological University. His primary field of r
esearch is concrete
petrography, and factors contributing to the deterioration of cement
-
based materials.
He received
his B.S.
in Geology from the
University

of Minnesota, and
both
his M.S.
and
Ph.D. in

Civil
Engineering from Michigan
Technological University.
He is currently involved in a number of
projects
investigating concrete durability
. Past and current clients include the Michigan
Department of Transportation (MDOT), the National Cooperative Highway Research Program
(NCHRP), the
South Dakota Depart
ment of Transportation (SDDOT)
,
the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA),
Innovative Pavement Research Foundation,

(
IPRF
)
.
and the National
Science Foundation (NSF).

Past and current projects with WisDOT include “
Reduction of
Minimum R
equired Weight of

Cementitious Materials in WisDOT Concrete
Mixtures
” and

Evaluation of Methods for Characterizing Air
-
Void Systems in Wisconsin Paving Concrete
.”





16


Michael Yokie

Mr.
Yokie

is a
Research Associate in the Department of Civil and Environme
ntal Engineering at
Michigan Technological University. His research interests include the materials science of
construction materials, primarily wood and concrete. He is a veteran of Operation Desert Storm
with the 82
nd

Airborne Division, He received his A
ssociate of Applied Science in Civil
Engineering Technology, and his B.S. in Engineering Technology


Construction Management,
both from Michigan Technological University
.


Matthew King

Mr. King is a Research Associate in the Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering at
Michigan Technological University. His research interests include the materials science of
construction materials, primarily steel and concrete. Mr. King received his B.S. in

Metallurgical
Engineering
at
Michigan Technological
University
.

He is currently involved in a number of
projects
investigating concrete durability
.
Past

and current
projects
include the MDOT,
and
NCHRP. Past and current projects with WisDOT include “
Reduction of Minimum Required
Weight of

Cementitious Mater
ials in WisDOT Concrete
Mixtures
” and “
Evaluation of Methods
for Characterizing Air
-
Void Systems in Wisconsin Paving Concrete
.”


Elizabeth Hoy

Ms. Hoy is

the
Coordinator

of the

University
T
ransportation Center for Materials in Sustainable
Transportation In
frastructure (UTC
-
MiSTI)
. She has worked in the fields of project management
and marketing consultation. She received her B.S. in

Technical Writing

at
Michigan
Technological University
.


17


H.
Other C
ommitments of the Research Team

Research Team Commitments

Percentage of Time

Team Member

Role

Committed

Available

Lawrence Sutter, Ph.D.

PI

90

10

Karl Peterson

Co
-
PI

50

50

Michael Yokie

Senior Staff

50

5
0

Matthew King

Senior Staff

50

50

Graduate Student

Junior Staff

TBD

TBD

Undergraduate Student

Junior
Staff

TBD

TBD

Elizabeth Hoy

Technical Writing

90

10


I.
Facilities and Information Services

i
. Laboratory Equipment

The re
search team has available
a wide array of equipment and facilities for
concrete research
.
The equipment listed below is predominantly situated
in laboratories in Dillman Hall

and in
Benedict Laboratory.
The

Benedict Laboratory offers 15,000 square feet of space dedicated to
concrete research
.

A 5
-
ton overhead crane services the 80
ft
x

60ft s
tructural high
-
bay testing
area. Equipment for mechanical testing is available for compression, tension, bending, and
fatigue testing of many engineering materials. Data acquisition is available to collect information
from component testing
. Available equ
ipment required to complete testing described i
n this
proposal are listed here:




MTS 55 kip servo
-
hydraulic stiff
-
frame system with Test
-
Star II digital contro
l
.



Modulus
of
elasticity/
Poisson
’s

ratio apparatus
.



Baldwin 300CT


300k
h
ydraulic compression
machine
.



Concrete mixer, Imer workman
-

2
-
250 drum mixer (
9

ft
3

capacity
)
.



Concrete
m
ixer
,

Crok
er RP100 CUMFLOW XD p
an
m
ixer (
4

ft
3


capacity)
.



20 in square vibrating
table, HM
-
140
Gilson
.



Lime water baths with temperature control.




Ohaus 500lb scale
.



Ohaus

adventure pro 2100 scale AV
-
2102
.

18




Ohaus
T
rooper
15kg TR
-
15RS
.



Ohaus
T
rooper
30kg TR
-
30RS
.



Lab Line Instruments Oven


3605
.



Germann Instruments AVA
-
3000
.



Grace Adiacal™
.

ii
. Certifications

The research facilities are accredited by the AASHTO Materials
Reference Laboratory, and
inspected by the Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL)
.

iii
. Information Services

The J. Robert Van Pelt Library on the Michigan Tech campus provides the research team with
book and periodical collections, microfilms and

microfiche of older scholarly material, society
and governmental publications, and many current scientific and technical reports.

The library
also offers a wide range of computer
-
based information services affording the research team with
access to world
-
wide cutting edge research, particularly that which will benefit the proposed
research directly.