Modern architecture

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Modern architecture



IBM Plaza , Chicago, Illinois,USA


Torre Futura,El Salvador.



The

Salk Institute

complex in La Jolla,
California, by architect

Louis Kahn



Modern
architecture

is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the
building. It is a term applied to an overarching

m
ovement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely.
[1]

In a broader sense, early
modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural d
esign with rapid
technologica
l advancement and the

modernization

of society. It would take the form of numerous movements, schools of design, and
architectural styles, some in tension with one another, and o
ften equally defying such classification.
[1]

The concept of

modernism

would be a central theme
in these efforts. Gaining popularity after the

Second World War
, architectural
modernism was adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators, and continu
es as a dominant architectural style for
institutional and corporate buildings into the 21st century. Modernism eventually generated reactions, most

notably

Postmodernism

which
sought to preserve pre
-
modern elements, while Neomodernism emerged as a reaction to Postmodernism.

International Style

In 1932 (prior to World War II), the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture was held at the
Museum of
Modern Art

in New York City.

Philip Johnson

and collaborator

Henry
-
Russell Hitchcock
drew together many distinct
threads and trends in architecture, identified them as stylistically similar and having a common purpose, and
consolidated

them into the

International style
. This was a turning point. However, for the remainder of the

Interwar
period
, the Moderne styles would overshadow this movement.

With the labeling of modernist art and architecture in Germany as

degenerate
, followed by

World War II
, important
figures of the

Bauhaus

and

New Objectivity

fled to the United States:

Marcel Breuer

and

Walter Gropius

went to
the

Harvard Graduate School of Design

(the former becoming part of a group known as the "
Harvard Five
"),

Ludwig
Mies
van der Rohe

to Chicago
, with others going to

Black Mountain College
. Still others would flee to British
Palestine, contributing to the design of the

White City of Tel Aviv
.

While high
-
style modernist architectural design never became dominant in single
-
dwelling residential buildings in the
United States, in institutional and commercial architecture Modernism became the pre
-
eminent, and in the schools
(for leaders of the architectural pr
ofession) the only acceptable, design solution from about 1932 to about
1984.
[
citation needed
]

Architects who worked in the International style wanted to
break with architectural tradition and design simple,
unornamented buildings. The most commonly used materials are glass for the facade (usually a

curtain wall
), steel
for exterior

support, and concrete for the floors and interior supports; floor plans were functional and logical. The
style became most evident in the design of skyscrapers. Perhaps its most famous manifestations include the

United
Nations headquarters
(Le Corbusier,

Oscar Niemeyer
, Sir Howard Rob
ertson), the

Seagram Building

and the

Toronto
-
Dominion Centre

(Ludwig Mies

van der Rohe), and

Lever House

(
Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill
).

Seagram Building in New York,1958.


The Bahai lotus temple,New Delhi

.


The Bauhaus
,

Shool of Design,Germany




Urban design and mass housing.


The Congrès Internationaux
d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM) would be a force in the shaping Modernist

urban
planning
, and consequently the design of cities and the structures within, from 1928 to 1959. Its
1933 meeting
resulted in the basis of what would become, via

Le Corbusier
, the
Athens Charter
, which
would drive urban
planning practice for much of the mid
-
20th century. Following its principles, in the late 1950s the entirely
-
new
city of

Brasília

was built as a new capital for

Brazil
, designed by

Lucio Costa
, with prominent works for it
designed by

Oscar Niemeyer
. Le Corbusier himself would help design the city of

Chandigarh

in India.

The devastation that WWII wrought in Europe, Asia, and the
Pacific and subsequent post
-
war housing
shortages would result in a vast building and rebuilding of cities, with a variety of techniques employed for the
creation of mass
-
housing. One attempt to solve this was by using the

Tower block
. In the Eastern Bloc, mass
housing would take the form of prefabricated

panel buildings
, such as the

Plattenbau

of East
Germany,

Khrushchyovka

of Russia and the

Panelák

of Czechoslovakia.


Urban planning designs settlements, from the smallest towns to the
largest cities. Shown here is

Hong Kong

from
Western District
overlooking

Kowloon
, which are separated by the

Victoria Harbour

Urban planning

(urban, c
ity, and town planning) is a
technical and political process concerned with the
control of the use of land and design of the urban
environment, including transportation networks, to guide
and ensure the orderly development of

settlements

and
communities. It concerns itself with research and
analysis, strategic thinking,

urban design
,

public
consultation
, policy recommendations, implementation
and management.
[1]

Later modern architecture.
Mid
-
Century reactions


Saint John's Abbey

Church, Collegeville, Minnesota, United States, by

Marcel Breuer
, 1958
-
1961

TWA Terminal
, John F. Kennedy Airport, New York, 1962, by

Eero Saarinen

Central Library

of

UNAM
, in
Mexico City, 1950
-
1956, showing the detailed artwork of plastic integration

As the International Style took hold, others architects reacted to or strayed from its the purely functionalist forms, while
at the
same time retaining highly modernist characteris
tics.

Eero Saarinen
,

Alvar Aalto

and

Oscar Niemeyer

were three of the most
prolific architects and designers in this movement, which has influenced contemporary modernism.

Le Corbusier once described buildings as "m
achines for living", but people are not machines and it was suggested that they do
not want to live in machines.
[
citation needed
]

During the middle of the

century, some architects began experimenting in organic forms
that they felt were more human and accessible.

Mid
-
century modernism
, or organic modernism, was very popu
lar, due to its
democratic and playful nature. Expressionist exploration of form was revived, such as in the

Sydney Opera House

in Australia
by

Jørn Utzon
. Eero Saarinen would invoke suggestions of flight in his designs for the terminal at
Dulles International
Airport

outside of Washington, D.C, or the

TWA Terminal

in New York, both finished in 1962.
[15]

The

Mission 66

project of the
United States National Park Service would also be buil
t during this time.

Another stylistic reaction was
"New Formalism" (or "Neo
-
Formalism",

sometimes shortened to "Formalism").
[15]
[16]

Like
the pre
-
war "Stripped Classicism", "New Formalism" would blend elements of

classicism

(at their most abstracted levels) wi
th
modernist designs.
[17]
Characteristics drawing on classicism include rigid symmetry, use of columns and colonnades or arcades,
and use of high
-
end materials
(such as marble or granite), yet works in this vein also characteristically use the flat roofs common
with the International Style.
[15]
[17]
Architects working in this mode included

Edward Durrell Stone
,

Minoru Yamasaki
, and some of
the middle
-
period work of

Philip Johnson
, with examples in the United States including the

Kennedy Center
(1971) and
the

National Museum of American

History

(1964) in Washington, D.C., and the

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts

(mid
-
1960s) in New York.
[15]
[17]


Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
, New York City, illustrating an example of "New Formalism"

Arising shortly after the end of

World War II, a particular set of stylistic tendencies in the United States during this time is known
as

Googie
(or "populuxe"), derived from futuristic visions inspired by the imagery of the

Atomic Age

and

Space Age
, with motifs
such as

atomic orbital patterns

and "flying saucers", respectively, such as in the

Space Needle

in Seattle. Though the style was
unique to the United States,

similar iconography can be seen in the

Atomium

in Brussels.

A distinctly Mexican take on modernism, "plastic integration", was a syncretization of Mexican artistic traditions (such
as

muralism
) with International Style forms,
[18]

and can be seen in the later works of

Luis Barragán

and

Juan O'Gorman
,
epitomized by the

Ciudad Universitaria
of

UNAM

in Mexico City.
[19]

Preservation

Several works or collections of modern architecture have been designated by

UNESCO

as

World Heritage

Sites
. In addition to
the early experiments associated with Art Nouveau, these include a number of the structures mentioned above in this article:
the

Riet
veld Schröder House

in Utrecht, the

Bauhaus

structures in Weimar and Dessau, the

Berlin Modernism Housing Estates
,
the

White City of Tel Aviv
, the city of

Brasilia
,
the

Ciudad Universitaria

of

UNAM

in Mexico City and the
University City of
Caracas

in Venezuela, and the

Sydney Opera House
.

Private organizations such as

Docomomo International
, the

World Monuments Fund
, and the Recent Past Preservation

Network
are working to safeguard and document imperiled Modern architecture. In 2006, the World Monuments Fund
launched

Modernism at Risk
,
an advocacy and conservation program.

Following the destruction caused by

Hurricane Katrina
, Modern structures in

New Orleans

have been increasingly slated for
demolition. Currently
[
when?
]

plans are underway to demolish many of the city's Modern public schools, as well as large portions of
the city's Civic Plaza.

FEMA

funds will contribute to razing the State Office Building and

State Supreme Court Building, both
designed by the collaborating architectural firms of August Perez and Associates; Goldstein, Parham and Labouisse; and Favrot
,
Reed, Mathes and Bergman. The New Orleans Recovery School District has proposed demolitions o
f schools designed by
Charles R. Colbert, Curtis and Davis, and Ricciuti Associates. The 1959 Lawrence and Saunders building for the New Orleans
International Longshoremen's Association Local 1419 is currently threatened with demolition although the union
supports its
conservation.

In 2007, the

Sydney Opera House

by Jørn Utzon was listed as a

World Heritage Site
.

x



Joya de Ceren
, declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 1993,
know Domestic Architecture of the Maya, as well as beautiful
examples of ceramics, this park has a wide Archaeological
Museum, guides and trails. Located 36 km from San Salvador.

Teacher
-
mgo
nzalez

englishgoes.worpress.com