a. Persian Empire

middleweightscourgeΠολεοδομικά Έργα

29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

89 εμφανίσεις


a.

Persian Empire

i.

500BCE
-

empire stretched from Nile to Afghanistan

ii.

welcomed cultural diffusion

iii.

monarchy

1.

cult of kingship

a.

king can only be approached through elaborate
ritual

2.

Satraps

a.

Governors in different regions

3.

Imperial spy system

iv.

Respect for non
-
Persian cultures

v.

Standard coinage

vi.

Taxes

vii.

Strict Infrastructure

1.

canal

2.

Great Royal Road

a.

Facilitated communion and trade

b.

Postal service

viii.

Cyrus is first king and creates Empire

ix.

Darius expands empire and is known for administration

x.

Social

1.

Class

levels

2.

Slaves (laborers, domestic workers)

a.

POW

b.

Debtors


3.

Priest and priestesses

4.

Artisans

5.

Low ranking civil workers

6.

Textiles is big
-

work of woman

xi.

Religion

1.

Polytheistic

a.

Major deity with lesser gods

2.

Zoroastrianism has roots here

a.

Will later influence Christianity and Judaism

b.

Mauryan and Gupta Empire in India

i.

Mauryan

1.

321 bce

2.

Chandragupta Maurya founded it

3.

Ashoka Maurya
-

grandson

a.

Expands empire to greatest heights

b.

Gain power and wealth through trade

c.

Silk, cotton, elephants were tr
aded to
Mesopotamia and Roman Empire

d.

Powerful military

e.

After seeing great amounts of violence he
converts to Buddhism (preaches non
-
violence)

f.

Rock and Pillar Edicts

i.

Guidelines for good and righteous living

ii.

Beginning of great spread of Buddhism

g.

Empire dec
lines after his death

ii.

Gupta

1.

320
-
550 C.E.

2.

Chandra Gupta

a.

More decentralized

b.


Golden Age

i.

relative peace

ii.

advances in the arts

iii.

mathematicians
-

develop pi and zero

iv.

influenced later Arabic numerals

v.

Hinduism was prominent

vi.

Women were losing rights

1.

Totally
under control of men

c.

Qin and Han in China

i.

403 BCE
-

221 BCE

1.

Warring States

ii.

Qin

1.

State
-
building

2.

Legalism

a.

Idea that China’s problems can be solved by
China’s leaders and laws and punishment

b.

Promotes harsh unification under Shihuangdi

i.

Brutality of dynasty disc
redits legalism
but puts end to warring states

c.

Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty

221 bce the king of the Qin proclaimed himself
the first emperor and decreed that
descendants would follow him and reign.
Qin
Shihuangdi (221
-
210 bce)

d.

Established tra
dition of centralized imperial rule
and large scale political organization

e.

Shihuangdi ordered workers to link the existing
sections of a wall into a massive defense
barrier

the beginning of the
GREAT WALL
OF CHINA

i.

HATED Confucianism and had many
books bu
rned

ii.

Built the Terra
-
Cotta Army to protect his
tomb


3.

Confucianism

a.

Confucius

b.

Emerges at a time of political instability

c.

Goal
-

Solve China’s disorder

d.

Values education and family structure

e.

Works are complied in Analects

f.

Unequal relationships in family,
between
genders, and in society (Hierarchy and
Patriarchy)

i.

Hierarchies should create order

g.

Education is the key to moral betterment

h.

Personal reflection and willingness to perfect
moral character

i.

Arose in contrast to legalism

j.

Effort to restore past golden

age (focus on
history)

k.

Somewhat of a democratic notion as exams
can be opened up to all males

l.

Not centered around a spiritual life but on
family and this world

4.

Daoism


iii.

Han

1.

IMPORTANT: China REMAINED under
CENTRALIZED RULE!

2.

Adopt
ed

Confucianism and other ruler
n
ever looks at
legalism as a viable way of ruling

3.

The Han Dynasty consolidated the tradition of
centralized imperial rule that the Qin Dynasty had
pioneered

4.

Han Wudi

reason for the Han Dynasty’s success
-
“Martial Emperor” fift
y four year reign

a.

ADMINISTRATIVE CENTRALIZATION AND
IPERIAL EXPANSION
:

i.

Built roads and canals to
improve trade

ii.

Established the Confucian University
to educate men about government
service

Confucianism was
established as the OFFI
C
IAL imperial
ideology


civil service exam

iii.

Greatest foreign challenge was the
Xiongnu

nomads form the steppes
of central Asia who spoke a Turkish
language. Han Wudi attacked and
took over much of the Xiongnu
territory
-

creating a vast empire.

iv.

Qin and Han


social order

CONTINU
ITY from Zhou era.
Patriarchal households

v.

CONTINUITY: as in the Shang and Zhou

still China was
very much dependent on an agricultural economy

vi.

Iron metallurgy


the ready availability of iron had
important military implications. Craftsmen designed suits of

iron armory to protect soldiers

strength and sharpness of
Han swords, spear
`
s, and arrowheads helped to explain the
success of Chinese armies vs. Xiongnu.
Also, aided in
increased trade with the production of more agricultural
products (better farm equipm
ent)

1.

Change:
Han craftsmen invented paper.

2.

Textile production

silk

became an important
industry.

vii.

Silk Roads
:
begin to develop and foster long distance trade


Downfall:



In spite of general prosperity, China became to experience economic and social
dif
ficulties



Military adventures and central Asian policy of Han Wudi caused economic
strain. Expeditions against the Xiongnu and the establishment of agricultural
colonies in central Asia were extremely expensive undertakings.



High taxes



Social Tensions:
distinctions between rich and poor hardened


silk was worn by
wealthy. Poor classes used rough hemp clothing


material items in other words.



HIGH TAXES:
people couldn’t afford the land they had once owned

had to
sell, even sell family members into slave
ry. Landowners became a minority
elite. People started to get rebellious.



Yellow Turban Uprising:

growing banditry and rebellion with restive and large
peasant class.

o

Yellow Turban Uprising refers to the rebel group who revolted during the
Han dynasty an
d tested the resilience of the Han state


Weakened the
state



Rivalry within the empire/government saw internal unrest



Following the Han Dynasty China was divided for 4 centuries into 4 regional
kingdoms

GOODBYE CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT..until

we meet again
during the Sui Dynasty










CLASSICAL GREECE



In contrast to the Persians

Greece was made up of small, competing City
-
States
not a monarchy that governed a broad, and far reaching empire



Much smaller than Persia



Geography was important to its development



Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and others…



Greece

popular participation in government



Sparta

known for extreme militarism



Athens

the area of the Greek political experiment



Solon

a reforming leader.
594 BCE

broke the

aristocratic
families who previously held all the power.
After the great
reformer, Salon, debt slavery was abolished, access to public office
was opened to a wider group of men, and all citizens were allowed
to take part in the Assembly.

The Greeks

DEPEN
DEND ON TRADE BECAUSE LACKED RESOURCES

Mediterranean
Trade





City
-
States vs. centralized government



Small and competing



750 b.c.e.



Often collided with the Persians


In contrast with Persia
:



Much smaller in size: Greece was 2 million/Persia more like 35
million



Geographically much different

Persia vast, long stretching land vs. Greece
which was a peninsula with many divisions



Greece: small settlements within each city state



City
-
states were fiercely independent



Olympics briefly unified the city
-
states ev
ery 4 years



The Greeks settled in distant places, they didn’t conquer like the Persians



GREATEST DIFFERENCE: Greek popular participation in government

o

“citizenship” of free people running the affairs of state, of equality for all
citizens before the law

o

Persia: rigid hierarchies, inequalities and absolute monarchies

o

What is Greek Participation:



Direct democracy, not representative.


Limited as well
-

women,
slaves, foreigners, were not included.



Early on


only the wealthy and wellborn had the rights to f
ull
citizenship, such as speaking and voting in the assembly, holding
public office, and fighting in the army.



Gradually middle class and lower class men, farmers, also obtained
these rights.



Direct Democracy



Women, foreigners and slaves were excluded form the
population of citizens and politically excluded. They
were 50% of the population


Greco
-
Persian Wars:



Athens had led a coalition of more than thirty Greek city
-
states on the basis of its
naval power, bu
t Athenian leadership in the struggle against Persian aggression
had spawned an imperialism of its own. After the war, Athenian efforts to solidify
its dominant position among the allies led to bitter resentment.



Followed by the
Golden Age of Greece
-

Peri
cles

(greatness of democracy
-
Pericles Funeral Oration)

o

Pantheon was built

o

Theater thrived

o

Sophocles, Euripides



Peloponnesian War

o

Athens was defeated by Sparta and led the way for a new, stronger group
to dominate

the Macedonians

Alexander
:

around 330
b.c.e.



Defeated the Persian empire



Chief significance

widespread dissemination of Greek culture during the
Hellenistic era.



Greek cities

theaters, sculptures, monuments, councils, assemblies,



Defeated Darius III



Encouraged intermarriage of Greeks and co
nquered



MAJOR SPREAD OF CULTURE



6. Hellenistic cities were much more culturally diverse than original Greek city
-
states a. were not independent, but part of conquest

states b. Macedonians and Greeks formed the elite c. cultural interaction and
blending
were still

possible



ROME




In 509 bce Rome became a Republic



Republic includes 2 consuls who were elected by an assembly which was
dominated b the wealthy

patricians



The Senate made up of patricians advised the consuls



Tenesions

between the patricians and the common people
-
the plebeians.



When a civil or military crisis occurred, a dictator was appointed for six months



Rome had strong adversaries

Carthage in North Africa



Punic Wars took place between 264 and 146.



Rome sacked the

city of Carthage solidifying its domination of the Mediterranean



Rome expanded east into the former empire of Alexander



Rome became an EMPIRE



Wealth led to the unequal distribution of the land and class tension.



Wealthy had large plantations and slave
labor



Julius
Caesar led the Roman army in its conquest of Gaul in 46 bce and made
himself dictator for life.



He centralized military and political functions and initiated large scale building
projects.



Senators feared Caesar was becoming a tyrant and ass
assinated him.



His nephew, Octavian, took over, and in 27 bce was given the title Augustus.



During his 45 year rule, Rome was a monarchy disguised as a republic.



He centralized political and military rule but preserved the traditions of the
republic.



C
ontinued expansion of the empire

growing economy



Pax Romana

Roman Peace



Rome’s law in 450 bce was the
Twelve Tables.




Key to Roman success was its roads



The 60,000 miles of roads linked the empires 100 million people



Made merchants very rich



Uniform curr
ency was used



Rome was patriarchal



1/3 of the population was salves



Roman culture was inspired by the Greeks



Polytheistic like the Greeks and believed that the gods intervened directly in their
lives



Christians, originally a Jewish sect, were seen as a threat to Roman rule and were
often persecuted. However, the number of Christians continued to grow
throughout the empire.
By 313 ce
Emperor Constantine

issued the Edict of
Milan which legalized Xty in t
he Empire



By 380 Emperor Theodosius proclaimed Xty to be the empire’s official religion



Greek architecture, columns and arches



Improvements in engineering



Invention of concrete



Public baths, temples, aqueducts and a system of roads.





The Fall of Cla
ssical Empires:



CHART

1.

Economic Reasons

2.

Political Reasons

3.

Social Reasons

4.

Role of Nomads




1.
What is the impact of interaction among major societies at this time? (Trade,
systems of exchange, war, diplomacy)

d.

Long distance trade expanded greatly during the classical period,
allowing for the movement of goods and ideas.

e.

There’re

were a few factors: The

Han
Empire

secured the trade
routes through Central As
ia, the M
auryan Empire had declined in
India
, but region
al states were able to provide the necessary
stability and
security
, and the Romans kept the Mediterranean Sea
safe for trade and travel
. This stability and security allowed for long
distance trade to thrive.

f.

Silk Road:

i.

Began during the Han Dynasty

ii.

Centr
al Asia brought horses

iii.

Silk

iv.

New inventions such as saddles, horse stirrups, helped Silk
Road merchants move heavier loads across longer
distances.

v.

Buddhism, Christianity, and Hinduism also were transformed
as they moved along the Silk Roads

g.

Indian Ocean

i.

R
eferred to as the sea lanes of the silk Roads

ii.

From southern China through the south China Sea into the
Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf

iii.

Religion and culture spread across the seas

iv.

Some merchants spread Buddhism to Southeast Asia

v.

Others promoted the Hindu r
eligion

h.

Roman Lake

Mediterranean Sea

i.

The Roman Empire surrounded the Sea

ii.

Romans kept their lake safe and free from pirates which
allowed the trade to thrive and grow and transport goods
form one part of the empire to the other

i.

Spread of Disease

during the

2
nd

and third centuries CE both the
Han and Roman Empires suffered large scale outbreaks of
epidemic disease.

i.

From the trade and interaction that had taken place, the
incidence of disease increased.

ii.

Smallpox, measles, and bubonic plague

iii.

2
nd

century of the Roman Empire population dropped by
25% and it was even worse in cities

j.

Bantu Migrations: began around 2000 bce and by 1000 ce the
Bantu occupied most of sub Saharan Africa.

i.

Resources were stretched to their limits as the population
increas
ed

ii.

Around 1000 bce the Bantus began to produce iron and iron
tools which enabled them to clear more land and expand
agriculture. This led to an increase in population and more
migration.

iii.

500

ce cultivation of bananas

k.

War

Greeks and Persians, Romans and N
orth Africa/Barbarians,
China and nomads

l.

Alexander the Great

absorbing other cultures


Macedonians
didn’t want to destroy Athens they wanted to become
Athenian…become Greek

m.

You can see much Greek in Roman architecture

n.

The Spread of Religions…



2.

Describe

the relationships of change and continuity across the world
in this period.

Most remained

Most saw the growth of major world religions

Most were strongly impacted by world trade

Similar falls



Changes

Continuities

India



Centralized
government



Social hierarchy
became entrenched in
Hinduism


Social hierarchy

Europe
-

Rome

Changed politically


Changing attitudes towards
religion


Expansion

Importance of religion

e癥渠
瑨潵t栠牥汩g楯渠捨ange搠晲潭o
灯py瑨敩獭⁴漠 潮潴桥楳o
睩瑨⁸ty⸠

b
摩捴d⁍楬


癥ry
業灯牴p湴n

C桩湡

䡩e桬y⁣e湴牡汩zed


By⁈ 渠a摯灴敤d
C潮晵o楡湩獭潴ega汩s洠


䕸灡湳楯n⁡湤⁤n晥a琠潦t
塩潮u湵n

ma瑲楡牣桡氠

䅧A楣畬瑵牡氠扡獥搠ec潮omy

䵥獯s浥m楣a



䅦物ra

䝲ea瑥爠灯r畬慴楯湳u

C潮瑩湵n搠浩g牡瑩潮猠

Europe
-

Greece

Changed
from centered
around Athens to the rise of
Macedonia


Underwent political changes
and government changes

became increasingly more
democratic in terms of who
was allowed to participate in
government



City states remained
competitive


3.

What is the impact
of technology and demography on people and the
environment for this period? (Population growth, decline, disease,
manufacturing, migration, agriculture, weaponry)


Technology:

Greece
: Architecture and temple building, pillars and columns


sculptures



Rome
:
Heavily

influenced by the Greeks in terms of art and architecture Roman
architecture took its inspiration from Greece

columns and arches were more ornate.
Improvements in engineering, including the invention of concrete, allowed the Romans to
build s
tadiums, public baths, temples, aqueducts and systems of roads (via)



China
:
Great time of invention and innovation. Agriculture was aided by wheelbarrow,
while watermills were created to grind grain. Compass aided sea travel.
PAPER

invention, increased a
vailability o written word

important to education as valued by
Confucius.


4.

Describe the systems of social structure and gender structure
(Comparing major features within and among societies, assessing
change)


Rome
:
Patriarchal with the eldest male, pater

familias, ruled as father of the
family. Roman law gave the pater familias authority to arrange marriage for the
children and the right to sell them into slavery…women’s roles were in
supervising domestic affairs, laws put
strict limits on their inheritan
ces. Slaves
were 1/3 of the population.


Greece
: Patriarchal society with fairly strict social divisions. Women under the
authority of fathers, husbands, and sons. Most women owned no land and wore
veils. Could be a priestess


India:
Patriarchal

strict social structure; Women were forbidden from reading
the sacred prayers (the Vedas) under Hindu law they were legally minors and
subject to the supervision of their fathers, husbands, and sons.

Caste distinctions became more prominent d
uring the Gupta with the Hindu
Caste System.


China:
Patriarchal,

with a set social structure.
A woman’s most important role
was to make a proper marri
age that would
strengthen the family’s alliances.
Socially the highest class was that of the
scholar
-
gen
try
.
Confucian ideals
advocated filial piety.




5.

Describe culture and intellectual developments and interactions
among and within societies.


Greece
:
Homer and the
Iliad and the Odyssey

Culturally the Greeks stressed importance on human life and a growing
appreciation
of human beauty. Polytheistic,
--
believed Gods were personification of nature. Each
city
-

state had its own patron god or goddess for whom rituals were performed.
(Athens


Athena)


Socrates: “The unexamined life is not worth living”


Plato w
rote
The Republic.
Plato’s student Aristotle wrote on biology, physics, astronomy, politics and ethics.
Aristotle the father of logic


deductive reasoning


India
:
After the battle of Kalinga (260 BCE) Buddhism in
India
. Encouraged the spread
of the reli
gion by building monasteries and stupas.

Ashoka built missionaries who
facilitated the spread of Buddhism to Central Asia. Hinduism gradually eclipsed the
influence of Buddhism. The Guptas gave land grants to Brahmins, supported education
that promoted Hi
ndu values, and built great temples in urban centers. Unlike Greek art,
Indian art during this time stressed symbolism rather than accurate representation. Math
and science flourished. Pi was calculated. Developed zero and a number system

became
the Arabi
c numbers that we use today.


Rome:
Polytheistic,
like the Greeks, believed the gods intervened directly in their lives.


China: Daoism

close to nature had a lasting impact on China. Reverence for nature
became a central value of the Han people. Importan
ce of family.