GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS

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SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE, FOOD & WINE



GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS


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R
EFERENCE
D
OCUMENTS
:



Australian Standard


AS 2243.2 Safety in Laboratories: Chemical Aspects
;



Australian Standard


AS 1894: Code of Practice for the Safe Handling of Cryogenic Fluids;



The University of Adelaide


HSW Handbook
: Chemical Safety Management;

Health, Safety & Wellbeing | Chemical Safety Management



The University of Adelaide


HSW Handbook: Hazard Management;

Health, Safety & Wellbeing | Hazard Management



Air Liquide


Material Safety Data Sheet: Liquid Nitrogen;



BOC Gases


Safe Handling of Dry Ice;



BOC Gases


Care With Cryogenics;



BOC Gases


Guidance Notes: Movement of Cryogenic Vessels;


D
EFINITIONS


Asp
hyxia


the condition that ar
ises when the blood of the body is deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen.

Asphyxiant


any gas or vapour which has no toxic properties but which, when

present in sufficient
concentrations, excludes oxygen and leads to asphyx
ia. Death can be almost immediate if all oxygen
is excluded.

Combustible Materials


materials of a type and quantity sufficient to constitute a significant heat radiation
hazard in the event of a fire in those materials.

Class


the number assigned to da
ngerous goods that exhibit a common single or most significant risk and
listed in the Australian Dangerous Goods Code.

Cryogenic Fluid



a liquid having a normal boiling point below
-
90
o
C at atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa).

Cryogenic Vessel


an insulated

container designed to hold cryogenic liquids for experimental purposes.

Dewar


a portable, double walled container, which is normally open
-
necked, free venting and non
-
pressurised, and is used for storing liquefied gases at low temperatures.

Flammable


capable of being ignited and
of
burning.

FLE


acronym for an
F

size cryogenic storage vessel fitted with a
L
iquid
E
ductor tube

Full Gas Volume



the total volume,
which the gas in a normally full vessel will occupy when expanded at
15
o
C and 101.3 kPa.

Pre
ssure Vessel or Flask


a double walled, vacuum insulated
container for

the storage of liquefied gases of
at least 50 litres of water capacity and at least
50 kPa working pressure.


A
IM

Th
e purpose of this
document
is to
set out the requirements and recomm
endations for the storing and handling of
Class 2.2 cryogenic and refrigerant liquids in portable dewars and pressure vessels.

Its aim is to inform all
personnel who
may

handle cryogenic liquids of the hazards and inherent risks associated with
them

and t
he
precautions that must be taken to ensure they are handled safely.



S
COPE

These guidelines are applicable to the storage and use of cryogenic liquids in dewars and vessels of not more
than 50 litres capacity which are non
-
pressurised and free venting.


These guidelines apply to all staff
,

graduate students
, Contractors and Visitors

at the School of Agriculture, Food
& Wine, within the confines of the University of Adelaide
,

Waite and Roseworthy campuses

and any field site

at
which cryogenic liquids are
stored or used
.


This document does not replace the requirement for an individual to risk assess and/or prepare a safe operating
procedure for a process that incorporates the use of cryogenic fluids, moreover it should be used as a reference
for the prepar
ation of those documents.


GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS


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G
UIDELINES

Cryogenic liquids are defined as those that have a boiling point below
-
90
o
C at
standard
pressure

and
temperature
.

Various gases can be used as cryogenic liquids, the most common at the School of Agriculture,
Food &
Wine are Nitrogen, Argon and Helium.

Each of these gases is
tasteless,
colourless and odourless and
each
is classed as a simple asphyxiant.


The
most common hazards associated with these cryogenic liquids are contact with the skin and eyes, which may
caus
e frostbite and/or cold burns

and

have the potential to
displace oxygen from a work area that can create an
atmosphere

insufficient to support life.


1.

H
AZARDS
A
SSOCIATED WITH
C
RYOGENIC
L
IQUIDS


1.1.

Extreme Cold

B
eing

extremely cold
, c
ryogenic liquids and their
vapours can rapidly freeze human tissue

and

while
brief exposure may not have a serious effect on skin, face or hands

it can rapidly

damage delicate
tissue
,

such as the eyes. Prolonged exposure
of the skin may lead to frostbite or cold burns and while
the
re is no initial pain there will be intense pain as the frozen tissue thaws.

D
estruction of tissue may not
be immediately obvious since
all
pain is absent in the frozen state

however the tissue will appear waxy
with a possible yellow colour that will beco
me swollen, painful and prone to infection when thawed.


Care should be taken
at all times
not to contact frozen surfaces
as
apart
from any tissue damage,
bare skin may become stuck to

the surface

and
when it is pulled away

the flesh may be torn or damage
d
.


B
reathing of cryogenic vapours should
also
be avoided at all times as
prolonged exposure to the extremely cold air may damage the lungs
while short exposure may provoke
an asthma attack in susceptible
people.


Prolonged exposure to low air temperatures

caused by cryogenic liquids and their vapours should be
avoided as it can lead to hypothermia and the slowing down of physical and mental responses.


1.2.

Asphyxiation

Cryogenic liquids
produce large volumes of gas when they are liberated, for example, one li
tre of liquid
nitrogen will produce 697 litres of nitrogen gas, at standard temperature and pressure. Air is normally
21% oxygen by volume and when reduced to 16% symptoms of asphyxia will develop, while at 12% a
person will lose consciousness without war
ning. Cryogenic gases
are
normally lighter than air
, however
they
will form a vapour

and fog cloud
that
may be

heavier than air in the first instance
,

th
is cloud
will

accumulate on the floor and resist easy dispersal. Any person breathing this oxygen dep
leted
environment will lose consciousness immediately and d
eath
may

follow

very
shortly
.


Gases evaporating from cryogenic liquids are generally colourless, odourless and tasteless and warm
gases will not produce a fog or cloud therefore detection may be d
ifficult.
Any person displaying signs of
asphyxiation

such as

giddiness, mental confusion, loss of judgment, weakness and fainting should be
immediately removed to fresh air.


Cryogenic liquid should only be
stored and
used in well
ventilated areas. Leg
islation requires that the oxygen content
of any work area should not be allowed to drop
below
1
8.0
%
.

All storage areas should be assessed to ensure that if there
were a major spill it would not reduce the oxygen content in the
room
to
below 1
8.0
%.


Any p
erson filling a dewar or dispensing a cryogenic liquid from
a dewar should ensure that they stay well clear of the
fog
cloud
that is produced
. A
s

the l
iquid contacts the warm surface

of
the container

a fog cloud is produced however as the fog cloud
warms

an

invisible v
apour cloud
is also produced that
may

extend well past the
visible
fog cloud
,

GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS


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present
ing

an oxygen deficient
hazard that an operator may not be aware of



Remember most
cryogenic gases are colourless, odourless and tasteless
.



1.3.

Oxygen Enriche
d Air

C
ryogenic
liquids
may

condense and liquefy the
surrounding
atmosphere, either within a container or
around delivery pipe

work
. The boiling points of nitrogen and helium are significantly lower than the
boiling point of oxygen and
when exposed
to the

atmosphere, oxygen will condense into the liquid. If
allowed to continue over time, the oxygen content can become appreciable and as the
liquid
evaporate
s
it will
leav
e

an oxygen enriched liquid behind.
If oxygen enriched liquids are allowed to develop t
hey
must be treated with the same precautions as those for liquid oxygen
, i
gnition sources and combustible

materials must be removed from
the immediate area.


Liquid argon is not cold enough to condense air from the atmosphere.


1.4.

Carbon Dioxide Enriched Air

A carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere
s

are

especially hazardous as carbon dioxide has toxic properties
at high concentrations, even when there is
adequate

oxygen
content
to support life.


1.5.

Explosion Due to Rapid Expansion

Cryogenic liquids cannot be
indefin
itely

maintained

in a liquid state and if they are allowed to
boil off

in a
sealed container they can build up enormous pressures that could rupture the container in which they
are stored.


Cryogenic containers must be fitted with some form of pressure r
elease
, f
or standard dewars this
pressure release is achieved by using a loose fitting lid

which allows any build
-
up of pressure to
dissipate to the atmosphere.


Domestic g
lass thermos flasks or any other container that is not designed for cryogenic liquid
s should
not be used as
the container may not be vented and there is the potential for

liquid
to

escape to the
space between the flask and outer container

where it will
rapidly expand and rupture the flask or
container.


1.6.

Helium Precautions

The most critica
l safety

issue when dealing with liquid helium is its temperature
, i
t is so low that it will
freeze all gases including H
2
O, nitrogen and oxygen

all of which can freeze within the dewar or delivery
line forming an “ice” plug
that can

create a potential bom
b.


Procedures should be in place to prevent air or other gases from entering a liquid delivery line at any
time.


Liquid helium requires specially designed dewars
t
h
at

must be handled with extreme care. Liquid helium
dewars should never be filled with o
ther cryogenic liquids
as their

specific gravity may result in the failure
of the suspension system

within the dewar
.


Liquid helium dewars should be pre cooled with liquid nitrogen and must be purged with pure helium gas
prior to being filled with liquid
helium.


1.7.

Embrittlement

To reduce the likelihood of
being exposed to or coming in contact with
cryogenic liquid
s

when
undertaking
any tasks involving their use it is always advisable to use equipment such as tongs,
tweezers or spatulas to maintain a separat
ion from the liquid. It should be noted however, that a
t
cryogenic temperatures many materials, such as rubber, plastic and carbon steel can become so brittle
that the application of very little stress can break the material.


Brittle fracture must be t
aken into account when selecting any equipment for use with cryogenic fluids
,
metal, plastic and wooden tongs for example may be used while working with cryogenic liquids however,
they should not
be used
to
perform
any task

that
requires them to be immerse
d

for
extended periods
,
immersion should be as short as possible and the equipment allowed to warm before being re
-
immersed.

GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS


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2.

P
ERSONAL SAFETY


2.1.

Personal Protective Equipment

Personal protective equipment is only designed to protect an operator from incident
al contact with a
cryogenic liquid and is not designed to provide adequate protection for long term exposure that may
result in hypothermia or frostbite.

Under no circumstances should personal protective equipment be
considered adequate enough to allow di
rect contact with or immersion in a cryogenic liquid.


Personal Protective equipment should always be correctly stored to avoid
any
contamination
, safety
glasses, respirators and ear protection should always be stored in sealed containers when not in use.



2.1.1.

Eye & Face Protection

Eyes are the most sensitive part of the body with respect to
the
extreme
ly low temperatures of cryogenic liquids and their
vapours.

To protect this valuable asset all person/s exposed to
potential
cryogenic liquid

s
plashes

should

wear both safety
glasses and a full face shield.


2.1.2.

Hand & Arm Protection

To protect an operator’s hands from cold burns or exposure to the
extremely cold vapour of cryogenic liquids or splashes, loose fitting
thermally insulated or water resistant leather

gloves should be used.
Gloves should be loose fitting to allow for easy removal in the event any
liquid is spilled inside the glove. It is always advisable to ensure
that
the
sleeves of a laboratory coat
are pulled down over the gauntlet of the glove
to

prevent any liquid from entering the glove.



It is important to note that gloves are not designed to permit hands to
be immersed in a cryogenic liquid for any period of time; some gloves
will even absorb the cryogenic liquid if immersed and increase
exp
osure of the operator to cold burns and/or frostbite

as shown in
the ph
otograph to the left.



Certain tasks, such as the grinding of plant material
under

liquid
nitrogen for
RNA
extraction,
requires an increased level of dexterity
that is not offered by
standard cryogenic gloves
.

The use of alternate
gloves for these types of processes is acceptable however, an
increased level of vigilance will be required when assessing their use
and complete procedural documentation must be developed and in
place prior

to their use.


2.1.3.

Foot & Leg Protection

Any person working with or exposed to cryogenic liquids should
wear
overall
s
,

long sleeved laboratory coat or gown with trousers
underneath preferably without cuffs.

Operators should wear closed
shoes at all times wh
en handling cryogenic liquids and
if possible
ensure that the openings to their shoes are covered to prevent
any

liquid from entering.


3.

G
ENERAL SAFE
P
RACTICES


3.1.

Cleanliness

Cleanliness beyond normal standards is essential for areas in which cryogenic liquid
s are stored and
used. Under normal conditions, liquid helium, nitrogen and argon do not react with oil,
grease or
combustible materials

however
,

liquid nitrogen and helium
have the potential for

oxygen enrichment
which can be hazardous when oil, grease a
nd combustible materials are present.


GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS


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3.2.

Ventilation

Areas

where cryogenic liquids

are
stored or
us
ed
shall be adequately ventilated to prevent an
accumulation of gas or vapour within the work area.


The location of all storage vessels shall be adequately v
entilated so as to disperse any gas or vapour
evaporating from natural venting or any liquid spill without reducing the oxygen content in the
surrounding air to below 18%.


An estimation of the remaining concentration of oxygen in a work area should the
contents of a vessel
be released may be made using the following formula;




Resulting % Oxygen

=

21 (V
r



V
g
)









V
r




Where:

V
r

= Volume of Room,

V
g

= Volume of Cryogenic Liquid


3.3.

Handling

The insertion of
warm
open ended

pipes or
tubes

int
o cryogenic liquids should be avoided as it will
cause a stream of liquid to issue from the open end.


Care must be taken when inserting any warm objects into cryogenic liquids as boiling and splashing will
occur, these operations should always be performe
d slowly to minimise the effects and should not be
performed directly by hand, instead tongs or tweezers should be used.


Work that requires a person to work

with cryogenic liquids while they are alone
should be authorisation
by their work area supervisor
and if it requires working outside normal working hours campus security
should be informed so that the persons safety can be monitored
.


4.

D
EWARS AND
C
RYOGENIC
S
TORAGE
V
ESSELS









Cryogenic
vessels

are specifically designed to withstand the extreme temperatures of cryogenic
liquids.
They are made of materials configured to withstand the rapid changes in temperature experienced
during
use and when being filled, this internal design however does make them susceptible to damage. Cryogenic
vessels should always be handled with
care and never be used if they have suffered damage or impact.



Cryogenic vessels are generally designed to operate with little or no internal pressure therefore any
malfunction, such as an ice plug, that prevents the vessel from venting may build up an
internal pressure that
may damage or burst the vessel.


Care of Dewars and Storage vessels
;


a.

Dewars and storage vessels should always be inspected
for damage
prior to use.

b.

Entrance openings of vessels should never be covered or plugged.

c.

Non standard stop
pers should
never
be used with any vessel.

d.

All cryogenic vessels shall be adequately labelled

e.

Do not ‘walk’, roll or drag a cryogenic vessel across the floor.

f.

Do not drop or allow any vessel to fall over.

g.

Do not subject the vessel to sharp impact or severe

vibration.

h.

Under no circumstances should any non standard fitting, connection or adaptor be used.


GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS


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5.

T
RANSPORT
ING
C
RYOGENIC
L
IQUIDS


All
open neck
cryogenic vessels

will vent gas due to normal heat leak through the containment vessel and
the

degree of vent
ing will depend upon the age of the vessel and the type of
vessel
construction. A greater
degree of venting can

also
be reasonably expected in a warm vessel.
This boil
-
off or venting is especially
hazardous in confined spaces such as lifts, small rooms a
nd containment facilities.


5.1.

Cryogenic vessels in Lifts

A standard lift having a total air space of six cubic metres requires a spill of only 0.75 litres of liquid
nitrogen to reduce the breathable air to less than 18% by volume and any person within the li
ft at the
time
may

be rendered unconscious and given sufficient time of exposure
may

die.


For these reasons the transport of cryogenic liquids within lifts should be avoided where possible,
however if there is no alternative the following sh
all

apply;


a.

No person/s sh
all

accompany a container of cryogenic liquid when it is
travelling

within a lift.

b.

Precautions sh
all

be in place to prevent any other person from entering the lift while
a dewar or
storage vessel

is en
-
route to its destination floor.

c.

Adequate

placarding sh
all

be in place to warn all persons of the hazards present should the lift
stop at intervening floors.

d.

Personnel should be assigned to send and receive the container of cryogenic liquid so that it
will never be left unattended, except for the

period it is in transit.

e.

All containers used to transport cryogenic liquids shall be of an approved design and in good
condition.


5.2.

Transporting Cryogenic Vessels by
vehicle

For the same reasons as
lifts,
cryogenic vessels shall not be transported in the i
nternal cabin of a
vehicle. Dewars and vessels must always be transported in the open tray of a vehicle such as a utility
to prevent
a

build up of gas within the cabin of the vehicle and to eliminate the exposure to a spill
should a vehicular incident occ
ur. Under no circumstances is travelling with the vehicle windows down
considered adequate enough to allow a vessel to be transported within a vehicle cabin.


T
ransporting vessels by vehicle;


a.

Dewars and vessels shall not be transported in the enclosed
cabin of a vehicle.

b.

Dewars and vessels shall always be transported in an upright position.

c.

Dewars and vessels shall be firmly secured during transport.

d.

All dewars and vessels should be adequately labelled.

e.

Any vehicle carrying cryogenic liquids should be
provided with appropriate personal protective
equipment.

f.

Person/s transporting cryogenic vessels should be adequately trained in the safe use and
transport of cryogenic liquids and the procedures to be undertaken in the event of an incident or
emergency.


5.3.

Transporting Cryogenic Vessels by
hand


While transporting cryogenic liquids by hand
care should always be given to avoid
spills or splashing that could cause an injury.
Additional to the hazards of low
temperatures are the potential manual handling inju
ries when transporting larger
dewars and storage vessels.


Reduction of physical hazards and ergonomic stress;


a.

Where possible use storage vessels with wheels,

b.

Take care to avoid crush injuries around door frames and wall when moving containers,

c.

Use two pe
ople when moving large storage vessels,

d.

Ensure there is a clear and unobstructed path of travel prior to moving a container,

e.

Use the smallest possible container suitable for the task at hand,

f.

Only use the handles provided with a vessel when transporting it
,

GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS


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6.

D
ISPENSING AND
D
ECANTING



When decanting cryogenic liquids

operators should wear
approved
personal protective equipment including
overalls or similar type clothing
,

preferably without pockets or cuffs where liquid could accumulate.

Trousers should be

worn outside of boots. Watches and jewellery should
be
removed

before

decanting
cryogenic
liquids.




Dispensing or
Decanting Cryogenic Liquids;


a.

Dispensing or decanting cryogenic liquids shall only be carried out by a trained and competent
person.

b.

Corr
ect personal protective equipment should always be worn during any decanting process.

c.

During a dispensing or decanting process, precautions shall be taken to minimize any spills or
splashing.

d.

Do not overfill containers.

e.

Warning signs should always be displ
ayed when cryogenic liquids are being dispensed.

f.

Dewars or vessels into which cryogenic liquids are to be transferred shall be suitable for the
purpose and under no circumstances shall
thermos flasks, double
walled containers or any vessel that has not be
en specifically
designed for cryogenic service

be used
.

g.

Prior to decanting, vessels should be checked to ensure they are free
from
water,
greases,


waxes or other impurities that could react with
the liquefied gas.

h.

Vessels should be filled slowly to reduce

the vapour cloud that is
formed around the neck of the vessel, due to burn
-
off that will obscure
the view of the filling procedure

as shown
in photograph
to the left
.

i.

Stand well clear when filling warm vessels as boiling and splashing will
occur.


7.

LABELLI
NG
&

P
LACARDING


7.1.

Labelling

It is a
legislative
requirement

that all vessels containing hazardous substances are appropriately labelled
so as to indicate the nature of the substance that is contained within it. The very nature of cryogenic
liquids and
the
speed with which
the
y can inflict harm makes this requirement doubly important.


As a minimum all vessels containing
more than 500ml of
cryogenic liquid should display the following;


a.

signal word(s) and/or dangerous goods Class;

b.

identification information;



chemical name,



United Nations (UN) Number
;



risk phrase(s);



safety phrase(s);



first aid procedures;



emergency procedures;



reference to the MSDS.


GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS


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Authority Initial

Authorised by: AFW Head of School

Date of Last Review


N/A

Date of Next Review
-

25 March 2016

Version


1.
0

Page
8

of
9


An example of a compliant label can be se
en below


it should be noted that even though the signal
word shown

on the label is
NONHAZARDOUS

it is still listed as a
DANGEROUS

good class 2.2.


Further information on container labelling can be obtained from;

http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/search/google_search.jsp?q=cryogenic+labels


7.2.

Placarding

The transportation of any dangerous goods are required to be placarded however in most cases this
requirement will not apply as the quantity of dangerous goo
ds being handled is well below the limit
requir
ing

placarding.
A placard load is described as

dangerous goods in a load that consists of

one of
the following
;


a.

dangerous goods in a single

receptacle with a
capacity
of 500 litres or

more

b.

500 kilograms or
more of dangerous goods in

a single
receptacle

c.

an aggregate quantity of dangerous goods of

1000
L/kg or more

d.

an aggregate quantity of dangerous goods of

250 L/kg
or more, which includes any of

Divisions 2.1, 2.3, or
any Packing Group
I
of

any Class or Divi
sion.


Placarding of Loads
-

When a placard load of dangerous
goods is being

transported, the vehicle must display
Class/Division

diamonds and, where applicable, emergency

information panels (EIPs) in accordance with the

ADG code
,
Chapter 5.3 of the ADG Co
de specifies placarding

requirements.


8.

T
RAINING


All person/s who work with
cryogenic liquids or liquefied gas systems should be provided with adequate
training regarding the risks of asphyxiation, fire hazards, cold burns, frostbite and hypothermia. Spec
ial
attention should be given to the nature of the risks

due to the
speed with which the
effects
can take place
and that operators may be completely unaware that a hazardous situation may be developing.


Practical training should be given in the methods by

which each of the risks above can be minimised and the
actions to be taken in an emergency.


All staff and students working with cryogenic liquids must ensure that adequate precautions have been taken
so as not to create any hazards that may affect any ot
her person working nearby.

GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF NON FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS


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Authority Initial

Authorised by: AFW Head of School

Date of Last Review


N/A

Date of Next Review
-

25 March 2016

Version


1.
0

Page
9

of
9



9.

D
ISPOSAL OF
C
RYOGENIC
L
IQUID
W
ASTE


Under no circumstances should any cryogenic liquid ever be disposed of down any sink or drain. The rapid
expansion of the cryogenic liquid as it contacts the containment pipe work and trapped

water will cause the
cryogenic liquid to be forced back out of the drain under considerable pressure and may result in extensive
injuries or death.


Never dispose of waste cryogenic liquids in a confined space and always ventilate a room if in doubt of it
s
oxygen content.


If the c
ryogenic liquid

is uncontaminated

either
by the dewar
used
or the process it may
be decanted back
into the original storage dewar
otherwise it should be
placed into a fume cupboard and allowed to evaporated
naturally. Any contai
ner of cryogenic liquid placed in a fume
cup
board must be appropriately
labeled

to warn
of its contents.


10.

E
MERGENCY
P
ROCEDURES


The likelihood of an incident

occurring in an area used for the storage and handling of cryogenic liquids can
be minimised by go
od operating practices and proper instruction and training of all persons
who
access and
perform duties in the area.


Cryogenic liquids in use at Agriculture, Food & Wine are simple
asphyxiants
and if possible should be
removed from a laboratory in the eve
nt of a fire or as a minimum any emergency service personnel should
be informed of its existence.


Each area storing or using cryogenic liquids should develop an on
-
site emergency plan that sets out the
procedures to be followed during an emergency and sho
uld include;


a.

Action to be taken in the event of a fire, spill, explosion or leak
,

b.

Activation of area/building alarm systems and evacuation procedures,

c.

Shutdown procedures for large items of equipment,

d.

A list of contact numbers for emergency services,

e.

Loca
tion of an emergency evacuation area.







Endorsed By



Head of School


School OHS&W Committee




Name



Chair




Signature



Signature




Date



Date