CRYOGENIC MATERIALS - Staffcentral - University of Brighton

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UNIVERSITY

OF

BRIGHTON


Code of Practice Storage and Handling of Cryogenic Materials










2007
1

C
ODE OF
P
RACTICE
S
TORAGE AND
H
ANDLING OF
C
RYOGENIC
M
ATERIALS


C
ONTENTS

1 UNIVERSITY
COP

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

2

1.1

I
NTRODUCTI
ON

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................

2

1.2

P
OLICY IMPLEMENTATION

................................
................................
................................
................................
....

2

1.3

D
UTIES AND
R
ESPONSIBILITIES

................................
................................
................................
.............................

2

1.4

L
IABILITY

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............................

3

1.5

R
ELEVANT LEGISLATION

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

3

2

PROPERTIES OF CRYOGE
NIC MATERIALS

................................
................................
................................

4

3

BULK CRYOGENIC STORA
GE REGISTRATION WITH
IN THE UNIVERSITY

................................
.....

5

4

HAZARDS

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............................

6

4.1

C
OLD BURNS
,

FROSTBITE AND HYPOTH
ERMIA
................................
................................
................................
.......

6

4.2

O
XYGEN DEFICIENCY AND

ASPHYXIATION

................................
................................
................................
............

6

4.3

O
XYGEN ENRICHMENT

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

6

4.4

P
RESSURISATION AND EX
PLOSION

................................
................................
................................
........................

7

4.5

D
AMAGE TO EQUIPMENT

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

7

4.6

F
LAMMABLE GAS
-

H
YDROGEN

................................
................................
................................
.............................

7

5

SAFETY AND THE USE O
F CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS
-

GUIDANCE

................................
............................

8

5.1

P
ROTECTIVE CLOTHING
................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

8

5.2

T
RAINING

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............................

8

5.3

T
IPS ON HANDLING CRYO
GENIC LIQUIDS
-

D
O IT WITH CARE
!

................................
................................
...............

9

5.4

S
PILLAGE PROCEDURES A
ND NOTIFICATION

................................
................................
................................
..........

9

5.5

D
ISPOSAL

................................
................................
................................
................................
............................

10

5.6

F
IRST
A
ID

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........................

10

5.7

S
TORAGE

................................
................................
................................
................................
............................

10

5.8

T
RANSPORTATION

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............

12

A
PPENDIX
I

………………………………………………………………………………………14

A
PPENDIX
II……………………………………………………………………………………...15


2

1

U
NIVERSITY
P
OLICY

1.1

Introduction

Cryogenic materials are very

cold substances used in a wide variety of processes, from cooling
probes to preserving biological samples. There are certain hazards associated with the use of
cryogenic materials such as cold burns, explosion and asphyxiation. It is the aim of the Univ
ersity
to ensure that all persons handling cryogenic materials are fully trained in their use and not exposed
to danger in accordance with the relevant legislation and guidance in this policy.

1.2

Policy implementation

It is the responsibility of the Head of

Department/School for implementing this policy within their
Department/School. Simply issuing this policy to the concerned parties does not constitute
implementation. Compliance will only be achieved though the dissemination of information to the
releva
nt persons including supervisors, the
Schoo
l Safety
Adviser

(
SSA
), staff and students,
incorporation of the policy into the local departmental/school rules, and following the guidelines as
set out in this document. This must be backed up by suitable train
ing, maintenance and self
inspection records.

This policy does not apply to liquid nitrogen production plants.

1.3

Duties and Responsibilities

The Head of Department/School shall ensure that:



There is a training programme on the use and handling of cryogenics



The necessary equipment and personal protective equipment (PPE) is provided



Safe storage facilities for cryogenic materials are provided and maintained



A self inspection programme covering the use and storage of cryogenic materials is
implemented



Estates F
acilities Management
are informed of any changes needing to be carried out
that fall under their jurisdiction



There are written procedures for the use and handling of cryogenic materials



There are written emergency protocols



Bulk storage and dispensing ar
eas are registered with the Health & Safety
Department

and Estates
Facilities Management




Sufficient resources are allocated to cover the above areas.


Supervisors/Principal Investigators shall ensure that



Suitable and sufficient risk assessment of the use

of cryogenic materials are conducted



There is provision of appropriate PPE



There is adequate training and, where necessary, supervision



Training records are maintained for each individual


3

Individual Users (All Staff and Students
) shall

ensure that:



They
take reasonable care of themselves and others affected by their actions



Risk assessments are conducted where appropriate



They wear the PPE provided when handling cryogenic materials



They follow instructions on handling cryogenic materials as described duri
ng training

1.4

Liability

Non
-
compliance with any of the University local rules or Regulations relating to this policy could
result in disciplinary measures and exposes each individual as well as the University to criminal
and civil prosecution.

1.5

Relevant legis
lation














Each set of regulations is complemented by an Approved Code of Practice, which states how to
implement the regulations. Further information can be found in the following leaflets or
publications. Many of the sources listed here and in
sections 2
-
4 are available from the Technical
Indexes website at
http://www.tionestop.com/scripts/tilogon.dll

or the Safety
Department

and
further titles are available from the BCGA website
http://www.bcga.co.uk/first.htm
.



Code of practice for safe operation of small
-

scale storage facilities for cryogenic
liquids

BS 5429, BSI 1976, ISBN 0
-
5800
-
9109
-
0



Cryogenic vessels
-

Cleanliness for cryogenic servi
ce
BS EN 12300, BSI 1999, ISBN 0
-
5803
-
0386
-
1



Storage of Packaged Dangerous Substances
HS(G)71, HSE 1992, ISBN 0
-
1188
-
5989
-
7



“Safety of pressure systems”


Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000 and Approved
Code of Practice
L122 HSE 2000, ISBN 0
-
7176
-
176
7
-
X



Approved Vehicle Requirements (Second Edition)
-

Carriage of Dangerous Goods by
Road Regulations 1996
L 89, HSC 1999, ISBN 0
-
7176
-
1680
-
0



Manual Handling
-

Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
-
Guidance on
Regulations
L 23, HSE 1998, ISBN 0
-
7176
-
2415
-
3



Safe Work in Confined Spaces
-
Approved Code of Practice, Regulations and Guidance
-
Confined Spaces Regulations 1997
L 101 HSC 1997, ISBN 0
-
7176
-
1405
-
0

The following legislation applies to the handling, storage and use of cryogenic materials.



the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations (2000)



the Manual Handling Operation Regulations (199
8
)



the Control of Substances H
azardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations (
2002
)



the Confined Spaces Regulations (1997)



the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Regulations (1992)



the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (199
9
)



the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road Regulatio
ns (1996)



the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (1998)

4

2

P
ROPERTIES OF CRYOGEN
IC MATERIALS

Cryogenic liquids are liquids that exist between

66
o
C and

266
o
C
. The most common cryogens
used in the laboratory are liquid nitrogen, liquid helium, and solid carbon dioxide (dry ice),
although there are others including liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen and liquid argon. This leaflet
sets out the University of
Brighto
n

policy on cryogenic materials and informs persons of the
hazards associated with their use and basic safety precautions that must be adopted.



Property

Oxygen
(O
2
)

Nitrogen
(N
2
)

Argon
(Ar)

Helium
(He)

Hydrogen
(H
2
)

Carbon
dioxide (CO
2
)

Molecular
weight

32

28

40

4

2

44

Colour of gas

None

None

None

None

None

None

Colour of
liquid

Light blue

None

None

None

None

None

BP at
atmospheric
pressure
o
C

-
183

-
196

-
186

-
269

-
253

-
78.5
(sublimes)

Ratio of
volume gas to
liquid @ 15
o
C
101.3kPa

842

682

822

738

851

8
45
(solid)

Explosive/fire
danger

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

Toxic

No

No

No

No

No

Mildly



Due to the great expansion ratio of cryogenic gases, a spillage can result in fatal oxygen depletion
within the room.

The resulting oxygen concentration following a spill

can be determined using the equation





Where V
o

is 0.209(V
r


V
g
) (for cryogenic liquids other than oxygen)




V
r

is the volume of the room, and




V
g

is the maximum gas release upon the expansion of the cryogenic liquid


Thus in a room 5m


10m


3m, a

spill of 50litres of nitrogen would result in oxygen depletion
such that the resulting oxygen concentration within the room was 16.2%.


A

REDUCTION IN ATMOSPH
ERIC OXYGEN RESULTS
IN LOSS OF MENTAL AL
ERTNESS AND
DISTORTION OF JUDGEM
ENT AND PERFORMANCE
.

T
HI
S OCCURS IN A RELATI
VELY
SHORT TIME PERIOD AN
D WITHOUT THE PERSON

BEING AWARE IT IS HA
PPENING
!

100


V
o

V
r

5

3

B
ULK
C
RYOGENIC
S
TORAGE
R
EGISTRATION WITHIN T
HE
U
NIVERSITY

Due to the possibility of oxygen deficiency following a spill of cryogenic liquid,


ALL BULK STORAGE A
ND DISPENSING AREAS MUST BE REGISTERED WITH THE
HEALTH and
SAFETY
DEPARTMNET

AND ESTATES
FACILITIES MANAGEMENT
.


A registration form for bulk cryogenic storage areas and dispensing areas (see Appendix II, form
CRYO
-
RBSDA) must be completed
for each area

b
y the
SSA
. This should be completed in
conjunction with the checklist provided (CRYO
-
CSC). A copy of CRYO
-
RBSDA should be sent
to
Estates Facilities Management
, copies of both forms sent to the Safety
Department

and copies of
each form retained by the
SS
A
.


If there are any questions concerning the completion of CRYO
-
CSC, they should be directed to the
Safety
Department

(ext.
3144
). If any of the answers are ticked no, an action plan to remedy the
situation must be drawn up.

A safety checklist for small
volume users is also provided in Appendix II.

LIQUID CRYOGENICS

Bulk Storage

and Dispensing

Area

SSA

to complete

registration form

CRYO
-
RBSA

Complete c
hecklist

CRYO
-
CSC

If any answers NO

ACTION REQUIRED

Small volumes

User to complete

risk assessment

Complete checklist

CRYO
-
SVUC

PVIVs

and large

Dewars

Laboratories

6

4

H
AZARDS

4.1

Cold burns, frostbite and hypothermia



Contact of the skin with cryogenic liquids (or even cold gas) can cause severe cryogenic
burns; the tissue damage that results is similar to that caused by frost bi
te or thermal burns.
While the cold itself can reduce the feeling of pain, the subsequent thawing of tissue can
cause intense pain.



Contact with non
-
insulated parts or equipment or vessels containing cryogenic liquids can
produce similar damage. Unprotec
ted parts of the skin may stick to low
-
temperature
surfaces and flesh may be torn upon removal.



Inhalation of cold vapour can cause damage to the lungs and may trigger an asthma attack
in susceptible individuals.



Hypothermia is risk due to the low temperat
ures arising from the proximity of cryogenic
liquids. Risk is dependent upon the length of exposure, the atmospheric temperature and
the individual; those exposed for prolonged periods should be warmly clothed.

See section 5.6 for First Aid

4.2

Oxygen deficie
ncy and asphyxiation

Whilst not toxic themselves (excepting CO
2

which is mildly toxic), the cryogenic gases are capable
of causing asphyxiation by displacing the air necessary to support life.

An oxygen shift as low as 3% is potentially dangerous and atm
ospheres containing less than
10% oxygen can be fatal.

Upon evaporation, the volume of cryogenic liquid expands approximately 700
-

900 times its
volume in the gaseous form. If this occurs in a room that is inadequately ventilated, atmospheric
oxygen will

be displaced (unless it is liquid oxygen, which entails other dangers
-

see section
4.6
).
This will result in the oxygen content of the air being reduced to such an extent that it will not
sustain life


two b
reaths in an oxygen
-
less room and you are dead.

The onset of oxygen deficiency
problems is often not apparent to the individual involved as there are few warning signs. In going
to assist unconscious colleagues, rescuers themselves are often overcome by t
he lack of oxygen,
resulting in further fatalities.
Upon finding someone unconscious and suspecting asphyxiation, the
alarm should be raised but you should not enter the room yourself
.

Emergency action and rescue
should be well planned in advance. Rescu
e should only be attempted by those trained in the use
and of wearing breathing apparatus and familiar with confined space entry procedures


see HSE
Guidance Note GS5 “Entry into Confined Spaces”. At the University of
Brighton

the
Emergency
Rescue Servic
es

must be contacted if such as rescue if required.

The oxygen concentration in a room following spillage of a cryogenic liquid can be calculated
using the equation given in Appendix 1.

4.3

Oxygen enrichment

Although itself not flammable
,

oxygen, when present
in higher concentrations, can significantly
increase the chance of fire or an explosion.

The boiling point of oxygen is above those of nitrogen and helium. In closed systems (such as cold
traps cooled with liquid nitrogen) these liquids can cause oxygen

to condense on their surface
(resulting in a bluish liquid on the surface). This can lead to the ignition of normally non
-
7

combustible materials and the flammability limits of flammable gases and vapours are widened.
Oil and grease may spontaneously igni
te and as such should not be use where oxygen enrichment
may occur.

4.4

Pressurisation and explosion

Cryogenic liquids vaporise with a volume change ratio of 700
-
900 and can thus cause violent
changes in pressure, particularly if this occurs in a confined spac
e. This in turn can result in an
explosion. Vent systems must be in place to allow gas to escape from confined spaces.
Pressurisation can occur due to the following:



Ice forming on the venting tube, plugging it and preventing gas release;



Damaged equipm
ent resulting in cryogenic fluids leaking into small areas. Upon
vaporisation the cryogenic liquid vaporises and causes pressure build up;



Loss of vacuum inside a cryostat or Dewar;



If a liquid helium
-
cooled superconducting magnet “quenches” (changes spon
taneously from
a superconducting state to a normal state);



Liquid nitrogen having permeated through sealed cryotubes containing samples which then
return to room temperature; and



Direct contact of the cryogenic liquid with water in a tube results in rapid
vaporisation of
the cryogenic liquid and can cause the tube to explode.

4.5

Damage to equipment

The very cold temperatures of cryogenic liquids can damage equipment and materials, which can
result in danger.



Spilled liquid nitrogen can crack tiles and damage

flooring such as vinyl.



Rubber tubing may become brittle and crack during use.



Condensation of water around electrical cables may result in an electrical shock hazard.

4.6

Flammable gas
-

Hydrogen

Hydrogen is extremely flammable and should be treated with ext
reme caution. Areas of use should
be restricted, clearly marked and well ventilated. No naked flames, electrical ignition sources or
potentially combustible materials should be allowed within the restricted area as any of these could
result in an explosi
on if gas has escaped.

Liquid hydrogen can condense and solidify air resulting in an explosion hazard. For this reason
closed hydrogen systems should be used to prevent backflow of air.


8

5

S
AFETY AND THE USE OF

CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS
-

G
UIDANCE

5.1

Protective clothi
ng

Personal protective equipment (PPE)
must

be worn when handling cryogenics. However, it is only
there to prevent against accidental spillage, splashes, contact with cold surfaces and explosion risks.
Further guidance on the selection, use and care of P
PE is given in the University policy on PPE
.


PPE

IS NOT DESIGNED TO W
ITHSTAND IMMERSION I
N OR PROLONGED
CONTACT WITH CRYOGEN
IC LIQUIDS
!


The following equipment
must

be worn when handling cryogenic materials:

Face shield

protect the users face and eyes ag
ainst and splashes

Gloves

must conform to BS EN 511 (Cold Protection). The gloves should either
have been specifically designed for cryogenic handling with ribbed cuffs to
prevent splashing into the glove or be loose fitting gauntlets that can easily
be r
emoved. The material should be rough to give good grip while
handling and not increase the chance of spillage.

Apron/Overalls

Avoid woven materials if possible, if they are used it is essential to ensure
they do not become saturated with cold liquid. Fas
tenings should be at the
side or back and there should be no pockets that liquid could get trapped in.

Shoes

should be top
-
sealed.
Never

wear
Wellington

boots due to the chance of
spillage inside the boots or open sandals, which offer no protection in the

event of spillage.

General

Sleeves and trousers should be worn outside gloves and boots. All metallic
jewellery should be removed to prevent liquid becoming trapped under
them.


5.2

Training

Training should be given in all aspects of the use and handling of

cryogenic materials. A
combination of on the job skills, instructions and information covering the following areas provides
a minimum standard to which all users must be trained.












Understanding of the Material Hazard Data Sheet (MHDS), the risks involved and
where to obtain information



Carrying out a risk assessment (including COSHH)



Use of PPE



Handli
ng cryogenic materials



Moving containers of cryogenic materials (>1 litre)



Emergency procedures



Spillage procedures


9





Much of the training will be carried out as on the job train
ing. This should be done by a competent
person (specified by the local departmental rules) and an individual training record must be kept for
each person handling cryogenic substances.




For a model record sheet (CRYO
-
PTR) and safety checklist (CRYO
-
SVUC
) see AppendixII.

5.3

Tips on handling cryogenic liquids
-

D
O IT WITH CARE
!



Ensure the vessel is dry and pour cryogenic liquids slowly into the receiving vessel to
minimise splashing, spillage and thermal shock to the vessel



Use tongs when placing objects into

or removing them from cryogenic liquids



Avoid use of wide
-
necked, shallow vessels to prevent excessive evaporation and the
possibility of oxygen enrichment



Whenever removing cryogenic liquids from pressurised vacuum insulated vessels
(PVIVs), carry out a
safety check.
A checklist should be situated next to the PVIV for
use by trained personnel.



Use a garden cane for checking the level of the cryogenic liquid in a Dewar



When removing cell
-
line cages from storage use a hook to locate the handle and raise th
e
cage



Never overfill
Dewar’s

5.4

Spillage procedures and notification














And if necessary



Manual handling of larger storage vessels



Dispensing bulk quantities (> 1 litre)



Vehicular transportation and delivery o
f cryogenic materials

Minor spillage
(< 1 litre)



Allow liquid to evaporate, ensuring adequate ventilation.



Following return to room temperature, inspect area where spillage has occurred.



If there is any damage to the floors, benches or walls, report it to

Estates & Buildings.



If any equipment has been damaged following the spillage, inform the relevant person.

Always notify the DSO and complete a University incident report form

Major spillage
(> 1 litre)



Shut off all sources of ignition



Evacuate area of a
ll personnel



Inform named person (in departmental local rules)



DO NOT

return to the area until it has been declared safe by the Safety Office

Notify the Safety
Department
immediately

Tel

ext:
3144

or security (out of hours). Tel ext:

10

5.5

Disposal

Care needs to be taken when disposing of cryogenic liquids.

DO NOT
pour cryogenic liquids down the sink


they will crack waste pipes causing potentially
dangerous l
eaks

DO NOT
store cryogenic substances or allow them to vaporise in enclosed areas, including:



Fridges, Cold Rooms, Sealed Rooms and Basements

DO

ensure that the area in which the cryogenic liquid is left to vaporise is well ventilated.

5.6

First Aid

Burns



R
emove any restrictive clothing


but not any that is frozen to the tissue



Flush area with tepid water (not above 40
o
C) to return tissue to normal body temperature



DO NOT

apply any direct heat or rub affected area



Cover with a loose, sterile dressing and
keep patient warm



Obtain medical assistance from the departmental First Aider or Ambulance service


Anoxia

DO NOT

attempt to rescue anyone from a confined space if they were working with cryogenic
materials and have lost consciousness


call the Tayside Fi
re Brigade and Ambulance service.



If someone becomes dizzy or loses consciousness while you are there move them and
yourself to a well
-
ventilated area
immediately



If breathing stops apply artificial respiration



Seek medical help from the departmental First

Aider or Ambulance service



Keep them warm and at rest


Explosions



If a tube or Dewar explodes injuring someone, seek immediate medical attention

5.7

Storage

Installation

For typical lab usage follow requirements set out in British Compressed Gases Association

(BCGA) Code of Practice 4. This covers systems carrying oxygen, argon, nitrogen, helium, carbon
dioxide, hydrogen, methane, LPG and mixtures of these gases.

Storage Vessels

Vessels for storage must be chosen carefully as the properties of many things cha
nge at very low
temperatures. While most metals become stronger, other materials such as carbon steel, plastics
and rubber become brittle or even stress fracture at such low temperatures. The vessel must be able
to withstand both the temperatures and pre
ssures that it will be exposed to.

11

Equipment and systems must be kept scrupulously clean to avoid contamination with materials that
could be combustible should oxygen enrichment occur.

Dewars


purpose designed, non
-
pressurised vacuum flasks used to store
smaller quantities
(ca.1

50 litres) of cryogenic liquids. They have loose fitting stoppers to allow
boil
-
off. If any part of a Dewar is glass, it should be taped to prevent shattering
should an explosion occur. While smaller
Dewar’s

may be hand
-
carried,

larger
ones are moved by purpose designed trolleys.

Pressurised vacuum
-
insulated vessels (PVIVs)


liquid storage vessels. In most cases
these are the property of the supplier. Each is individually marked on the
shoulder to identify it and its test hist
ory. They vary in size, material
composition, mass, stability etc.




The PVIV must be identified with a statutory label.



A maintenance record should be kept for each PVIV. Maintenance checks should be
carried out on a regular basis by the owner of the PVI
V in accordance with BCGA Code of
Practice 4.



Be aware of the safe working life for each item


they will need to be replaced at set
intervals.



Whenever a cylinder is delivered, carefully check all aspects (regulator, inlet, outlet, any
gauges) for contami
nation, BSEN numbers and/or CE marks, damage and leaks. If unhappy
or uncertain about anything,
REJECT IT
. Ensure it is adequately labelled to prevent
anyone using it and ask the supplier to come and remove it.



Cylinders should be chained to an anchor p
oint to prevent them falling over.


Bulk storage and dispensing areas

These must:



display hazard
-
warning signs to alert people to the presence of

cryogenic liquids;



be restricted to the relevant personnel only;



be no
-
smoking and no naked flame areas;



b
e well ventilated, including make
-
up air;



have an atmospheric oxygen monitor to detect for

and warn about oxygen enrichment or deficiency;



have a safe escape route and/or a means of rescue using breathing apparatus by suitably
trained staff;



be designed s
pecifically for use (bulk storage areas); and



be registered with both the Health & Safety
Department

and Estates
Facilities
Management

(see registration sheet (CRYO
-
RBSA) in Appendix II).

Further information on the storage of cylinders is provided in the B
CGA Code of Practice 28.



Cryogenic

liquid st
ore

12

Ventilation and Alarm requirements for Bulk Storage and Dispensing Areas

In any room where cryogenic liquids are going to be stored, the equation given in Appendix 1 must
be used to asses whether maximum spillage of the cryogenic

liquid would result in a dangerous
decrease in atmospheric oxygen. Where it is established that oxygen deficiency could occur, the
following measures must be implemented.



Inform Estates
Facilities Management

and the Safety
Department

using the appropriat
e
registration form (CRYO
-
RBSDA) given in Appendix II.



Obtain advice from Estates
Facilities Management

Engineers on design and location on the
room.

5.8

Transportation

When transporting
Dewar’s

the following aspects should be taken into consideration:



The cor
rect personal protective equipment to be worn;



Is the destination ready to accept it?



Does the route take you through populated work areas?



Are there any slip or trip hazards (including stairs) which could results in spillage?



If transported on a trolley,
is the route passable (steps, kerbs)? and



Is the Dewar going to be transported in a lift?


NEVER travel in a lift with a dewar

The transportation of liquid nitrogen in
Dewar’s

is covered in the BCGA Code of Practice 30.

Transportation of liquid helium req
uires special attention, as the containers in which it is
transported are specialised and relatively fragile


Transportation by Lift



D
O NOT

travel in the lift with the Dewar



One person place the Dewar in the lift while another waits to receive the Dewar fr
om the lift
once the journey is complete



Use key controlled lifts whenever possible



Make sure that there is a clearly visible sign on the Dewar warning others not to enter the
lift with the Dewar.

A lift is a confined space and should leakage of the cryoge
nic substance occur, anoxia or
asphyxiation are potential dangers.


Handling cylinders



Should only be carried out be trained personnel



Specially designed trolleys should be used



Use the appropriate personal protective equipment



Use the Material Safety Dat
a Sheet to establish the substance being handled



Plan and check the route to be taken


13

NEVER:



Turn your back on a free
-
standing cylinder



Attempt to catch a falling cylinder


get out of the way!



Roll cylinders along the floor on their sides



Handle cylinder
s alone



Travel in a lift with a cylinder



Transport more than 1 litre of cryogenic liquid by yourself

Handling cylinders comes under the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992. The
application of these in regard to cylinders is covered in the BCGA pub
lication GN 3
: The

applications of the Manual Handling Operations Regulations to cylinder handling.


Vehicular Transportation of Cryogenic Materials

Transportation of cryogenic substances is covered by the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
(CDG

Road) Reg
ulations 1996. These regulations cover specific volumes/mass of dangerous
goods that may be transported, duties of responsibility, correct packaging and labelling of goods,
vehicle usage and driver training.

The following exceptions will apply to transpor
tation around the University of
Brighton



The carriage of dangerous goods is not on public roads



The goods are being moved between adjacent premises (not more than 400m apart)


If this is the case the following local University rules
must

be followed:




A r
isk assessment has been conducted



The container of the cryogenic material is labelled with what it contains and a danger
hazard warning sign (available from the Safety
Department
)



The vehicle is clearly labelled as transporting dangerous goods



The driver h
as been fully informed as to what is being carried and the associated hazards



The appropriate PPE and spillage kit has been provided



There is second person who is also fully briefed



A information sheet is carried within the vehicle to inform the emergency

services of what
they are dealing with in the event of a crash


The
CDG Road

Regulations come into force if the cryogenic substances are transported on public
roads,
for however brief a period
.

Cryogenic materials fall in transport group 1.



If transported

in individual packages of 1 litre of less (regardless how many), the
CDG
Road

Regulations do not apply



If transported in packages grater than 1 litre, up to 20 litres may be transported before
the
CDG Road

Regulations apply

14

If these quantities are exceede
d and the vehicle is travelling on public roads contact the Safety
Department

for advice and refer to the following documents in order to comply with the
CDG Road

Regulations. These are also available from the Technical Indexes website.



The Carriage of Da
ngerous Goods Explained
-

Part 1 Guidance for consignors of
Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail (Classification, Packaging, Labelling and
Provision of Information)
HS(G)160, HSE 1996, ISBN 0
-
7176
-
1255
-
4



The Carriage of Dangerous Goods Explained
-

Part 2: Guid
ance for Road Vehicle
Operators and Others Involved in the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
HS(G)161, HSE 1996, ISBN 0
-
7176
-
1253
-
8



Carriage of Dangerous Goods Explained Part 4
-

Guidance for Operators, Drivers and
Others Involved in the Carriage of Expl
osives by Road
HSG 162, HSE 1999, ISBN 0
-
7176
-
1675
-
4


15

Appendix I


Calculation to establish percentage of oxygen in a room following the spillage of a
cryogenic liquid.


Resulting Oxygen concentration % =




Where for argon and nitrogen V
o

= 0.2095 (V
r
-
V
g
)


And for oxygen


V
o

= 0.2095(V
r
-
V
g
) + V
g

V
g

= maximum gas release which is the liquid volume
capacity of the vessel V


gas expansion

V
r

= room volume


Gas expansion for

Nitrogen

682.7




Oxygen

842.1




Argon


823.8










100


V
o

V
r

16

Appendix II

CRYO
-
PTR


Uni
versity of Brighton Cryogenic Materials Personal Training Record

NAME:

SCHOOL:



Liquid Nitrogen

Other


Signature
Trainer

Signature
Trainee

Date

Signature
Trainer

Signature
Trainee

Date

Risk
Assessment







Emergency
Protocol







Standard
Operati
ng
Procedure







PPE







Handling







Moving
Dewer’s


>1 litre







Moving
Cylinders







Delivery







Vehicle
















17

This checklist should be completed by the
School

Safety
Adviser

for each location where bulk
quantities of cry
ogenic materials are stored. Upon completion, a copy must be forwarded to the
Safety
Department
. Should the answer to any of the questions be NO, an action plan is required. If
in doubt what to do
,

contact the Safety
Department

on ext.
3144
.


Departmen
t__________________________


Store Location_______________________



Cryogenic Material______________________


1.

Does the room have mandatory safety warning signs on the door?……………

2.

Is suitable PPE provided?……………………………………………………….

3.

Are there maintenance
records for the:

a)

storage equipment (cylinders, regulators)……………………...

b)

ventilation equipment?…………………………………………

c)

PPE? ……………………………………………………………

4.

Is there adequate ventilation? …………………………………………………...

State ventilation:________________________________________
_____________

e.g. Mechanical, natural etc.

Number of air changes per hour

a)

normal cycle_________________/hr

b)

emergency cycle______________/hr

5.

Is there a warning device in case of

a)

oxygen enrichment/deficiency…………………………………

b)

failure of ventilation…………………………
…………………

6.

Is there a written emergency protocol?………………………………………….

7.

Are there written standard operating procedures in place for

handling cryogenic materials?…………………………………………………..

8.

Is the room restricted to trained users?…………………………………………..

9.

Have all users
been given copies of the standard operating procedures

and emergency procedures?……………………………………………………...

10.

Has the atmospheric oxygen shift following maximum spillage

been determined?…………………………………………………………………

11.

Has a Registration of Bulk Cryogenic Storage a
nd Dispensing Areas form

been completed and returned?……………………………………………………

12.

Is there a designated contact person in the case of emergencies?…………………


Signed:_________________________________


Date:________________

Print Name:_____________________________


Position:_____________

CRYO
-
CSC

C
RYOGENIC
S
TORAGE
C
HECKLIST

YES NO

18




This form should be completed by the
School

Safety
Adviser

and copies sent to the Safety
Department

and Estates
Facilities Managment
. A copy should also be retained for your own
records.

























Signed_______
__________________________________


Date_______________

Print Name_____________________________________

Position________________________________________


Department _____________________________________

Room Location __________________________________

Room Siz
e ______________________________________

Material Stored __________________________________

Storage Quantities________________________________

e.g. 2

50litres, 3

20litres

Hazards___________________________________________

__________________________________
_________________

___________________________________________________

Contact Name_______________________________________

Contact Number (work)_______________________________

Contact Number (home)______________________________

R
EGISTRATION OF
B
ULK
S
TORAGE AND
D
ISPENSING
A
REAS

L (m)


W(m)


H(m)


vol (m
3
)

Please return to the

Health

and Safety Department, Mithras House





CRYO
-
RBSDA

19



Material_______________________



Volume________________________

Has a risk assessment conducted?

PPE to be worn:



Gloves…………………………………



Face visor………………………………



Lab coat/Overall……………………….



Covered shoes………………………….


Between the collection point and destination are there any of the following?



Stairs



A lift



Procedure following accidental sp
illage_______________________________________________


Make sure that the cryogenic material is not allowed to evaporate in an enclosed area. This
includes:

fridges



Cold rooms



Sealed rooms



Basements


Areas where cryogenic liquids are kept MUST be w
ell ventilated.

R
EMEMBER


N
EVER TRAVEL IN A LIF
T WITH A DEWAR

CRYO
-
SVUC

S
MALL
V
OLUME
U
SERS
C
HECKLIST