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21 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Biotechnology Scotland Project

5


14 Biotechnology

Trial Materials

Improving Science Education 5
-
14

Planning framework
-

Unit 32


Biotechnology


respiration


give the main distinguishing features of microorganisms


describe the harmful and beneficial role of
microorganisms


explain the role of chromosomes and genes in
inheritance


outline the principles of modern biotechnology and
explain its significance now and for the future

Main distinguishing features


of micro
-
organisms


Size


very small, use microscope



Reproduction


can be very rapid given
appropriate conditions



Ubiquitous


found everywhere

Looking at Micro
-
organisms

Types & Size
-

Microscopy

Hanging drop preparation


Algae




Protozoa

Wet preparation


Yeast

Prepared slides/photographs


Bacteria


Viruses

Working with Micro
-
organisms

Health & Safety Considerations

COSHH Regulations


Safety


Code of Practice

Microbiology Techniques


Microbiology techniques Cards


Micro Safety and Techniques CD
-
Rom
from SSERC

Training


required to level 3


Contact SSERC in 1
st

instance

Growing Micro
-
organisms


-

effect of temperature

Inoculate plates
with yeast

refrigerator

room

oven

room

room

room

Growing Micro
-
organisms


-

where are they found?

control

test

inoculate

control

test

Seal plates

Incubate room Temp

Do not re
-
open

Autoclave

Harmful & Helpful Effects of Micro
-
organisms

‘Baddies and Buddies’

Harmful Effects


Food spoilage


bread moulds


Food poisoning
-

hygiene


Other diseases
-

antifungals

Helpful Effects


Food manufacture


dough race


Decomposition


compost column

Harmful Micro
-
organisms


-

bread mould investigation

Use different types of bread


White


Brown


Organic


Non
-
organic


Long
-
life

Use double self
-
seal
plastic bags

Leave at room
temperature

Observe appearance
and progression of
mould growth

Do not open

Autoclave on completion of investigation

Harmful Micro
-
organisms


-

effect of cleaning

unwashed

water

disinfectant

unwashed

water

disinfectant

Harmful Micro
-
organisms


-

antifungals

control

anti
-
fungal

Tape plates closed, do not re
-
open

Autoclave on completion

Helpful Micro
-
organisms


-

dough race

1

Flour

Water

2

Flour

Yeast

3

Flour

Yeast

Sugar

Greater respiration in 3 causes greater CO
2

production and dough to rise further

Role of chromosomes & genes


in Inheritance

Extraction of DNA


Fruit Full of DNA

Electrophoresis


Wizard genes

Role of chromosomes & genes


-

fruit Full of DNA


Keep materials cool where indicated


Squash fruit in plastic bag to mechanically break up
cells


Add washing up liquid, salt and heat to 60

C for
15 min to disrupt cellular membranes


Filter to remove cell debris


Precipitate by adding cold methanol

DNA appears as white strands in methanol

Role of chromosomes & genes


-

Wizard DNA Gel Electrophoresis

Gel Electrophoresis


negative charge on molecules


gel is porous


molecules travel through gel according to size
when electrical current applied


smaller molecules travel faster

Role of chromosomes & genes


-

Wizard DNA Electrophoresis

Importance of gel electrophoresis


Gene identification, manipulation and sequencing


Forensics, paternity cases

Practical introduces the idea of separating mixtures
and using bands to assist in identification

Electrophoresis of a mixture of food dyes