History_of_microbiology

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22 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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C
hair

of
Medical Biology, M
icrobiology,
V
irology,
and I
mmunology


THE HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.

Lecturer As. Prof. O. Pokryshko

Why Study Microbiology?


Pharmaceuticals


Vaccines/Antibiotics


Biotechnology


Bioremediation



Pathogenicity



Fundamental Biology

Microbiology


The study of microorganisms


Microorganisms


living
things too small to be seen
with the unaided eye


Microorganisms = Microbes

Microorganisms

Divided into six groups


Bacteria


Archae


Algae


Fungi


Protozoa


Viruses

History of Microbiology


Microbes discovered >300yrs


Known to man during the mid
1800s


Period of progress began &
continues to the present

Periods

of microbiology development



Morphologic


Physiologic


Prophylactic

Morphological period

in

microbiology history

(XVII middle of age).


It

is

also

called

micrographycal

period,

as

the

study

of

microorganism

came

only

to

description

of

their

dimensions

and

forms
.

Biological

properties

and

their

significances

for

man

still

a

long

time

remained

incomprehensible
.

Experimental phase


Leeuwenhoek


Pasteur


Koch


Lister

Before 17th century, study of microbiology was
hampered by the lack of appropriate tools to
observe microbes.


Robert Hooke
: In 1665 built a compound light
microscope and used it to observe thin slices of
cork. Coined the word
cell
.


Anton van Leeuwenhoeck:

In 1673 was the
first person to observe live microorganisms
which he called “
animalcules
” (bacteria,
protozoa), using single
-
lens microscopes that he
designed. He observed 50,000 different
specimens, reported findings to the Royal Society
of London


Edward Jenner

( 1796)


Smallpox
immunity / Vaccine








Pasteurization:

Developed a process in
which liquids are heated (at 65
o
C) to kill
most bacteria responsible for spoilage.


Disease Causes
: Identified three different
microbes that caused silkworm diseases.


Vaccine:
Developed a vaccine for rabies
from dried spinal cords of infected rabbits.



Directed Pasteur Institute until his death in
1895.

Pasteur’s Contributions:

French Chemist Pasteur
(1861)


Joseph Lister (1859):

Used
disinfectant to treat surgical wounds,
greatly reducing infection rates.
Considered the father of antiseptic
surgery.



Robert Koch (1876):


First person proved that microorganisms
caused diseases


Only specific microorganisms caused
specific diseases


Studied anthrax


affects cattle & humans


Proved that
Bacillus anthracis

causes
anthrax in cattle.



Later identified bacterium that causes
tuberculosis.


Study of viruses



Iwanoski (1892)


studying
diseases of tobacco plants


Discovered TMV


Filterable viruses

P
rophylactic period

After 1914

Classic

Metchnikov's

researches

defined

a

prophylactic

period

in

microbiology

history
.


The Patriarch of world and Ukrainian
microbiology
-

I. Metchnikov








Paul Ehrlich (1910
): Search for “
magic bullet
”.


Discovered salvarsan, an arsenic derivative, was
effective against syphilis. (
1
st

synthetic drug to
come in to widespread use)


Alexander Fleming (1928)
: Discovered that
penicillin produced by the mold
Penicillium notatum

was able to prevent microbial growth.


Penicillin
came into use 10 yrs later



-
By the 1940s known as the

“wonder drug”


Rene Dubos (1939):
Discovered two antibiotics
(gramidin and tyrocidine) produced by bacterium
(
Bacillus brevis
).