Food Design For The Future

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22 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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My Name is
Baboo M. Nair



I am a


Professor emeritus



Department of Applied Nutrition



Lund University,
SWEDEN





We will talk about


Food design for India


-

requirement of a strategy


and how it could be executed.



The main message
-
1



The main message of this presentation is that it is very urgent to start
giving utmost priority to Higher education and advanced research in
food science and biotechnology to create new advanced knowledge
necessary to produce highly value added products for export.


It should be the strategy of choice that each and every product offered
for export should contain as much new and advanced knowledge as
possible. This will increase monetory gain from the export while
ensuring the availability of food for domestic consumption.


Food design require development of new courses, new programmes,
new technologists and new scientists who are educated and trained
to take part in the global arena.



The main message
-
2


To reach the top of the value addition pyramid, cutting edge
knowledge in food technology, food engineering, food
biotechnology and bioinformatics are necessary.


Higher education and research in food science and biotechnology
need to be reformed to take advantage of the oppertunity,
globalisation and climate change offers to us.


In the following slides this stand point is elaborated and motivated
with some good arguments. If you haver any comments, please
let me know.


With best wishes

Baboo M. Nair








In
short

we

shall

have







A Look at the present situation




In a global perspective

(The state of the planet Earth)



In a national perspective

(State of the affairs in India)





-

suggest /choose a policy/strategy



-

suggest a mode of operation/execution



-

Search for a connection to bioinformatics









The present situation


State of the planet Earth






Population growth and Urbanisation

Food production and post harvest losses

Hidden hunger and Welfare diseaces

Depletion of natural resurces (land, water, energy)

Food production and Climate change

Globalisation and changing markets




The state of the planet Earth

-

Population growth

The
state of the planet Earth

-

Urbanisation of the Population

The State of the planet Earth

Food production and Post harvest losses



Food
production

really

increased

during



the last few decades almost to the double




At the same time


Post
harvest

loss
-
25 to 40 % of fruits, vegetables, cereals
legumes, fish and meat produced annually in the world are lost
due to lack of proper post harvest handling


(It is sufficient to feed about 300 million people)



because


Lack of post
harvest

facilities


-

Infra

structure


-

Knowledge


The state of the planet Earth

-

Food production and hidden hunger



Total world food production have been increased almost to
the double during the last 20
-
30 years


Yet there is !



Hidden hunger (low income societies)


(Almost 50% of the population of South Asia and sub Saharan
Africa (about 800 million)



Protein
-
energy malnutrition


Vitamin A deficiency


Iodine deficiency


Iron deficiency anaemia



Diabetes

CVD (hypertension, stroke, heart infarct)

Cancer, and Osteoporosis


Chronic diseases


associated to affluence

The other side of the coin

Unbalanced intake of nutrients

Excessive energy/fat and refined
carbohydrates

Wrong kind of fat

Low intake of dietary fibre

High intake of salt and alcohol

Lack of exercise

The State of the planet Earth


Depletion

of
resourses






Availability

of land


Availability

of water


Availability

of
energy


Scarcity of arable land



51% in North America


88% in Europe


83% in Asia


84% in Russia and countries around


is already taken


Only Africa 22%, Australia 10% South America 11%


have some extra land for cultivation


The State of the planet Earth

Environmental

consequences




Polluted

Rivers


Polluted

costal

areas


Polluted

lakes


Polluted

air


Accumulation

of
waste


Deforestation


Land degradation




Environmental consequences

like acidic rain, nitrogen leaching, pollution
with pesticide and heavy metals

Scarcity of clean drinking water and energy



For example water in all the big rivers of
Europe, Asia and America have very high
levels of nitrate and it is increasing year after
year to the highest tolerable level of
8mg/litre




The
state

of the planet Earth

-

Utilisation

of
natural

resources





-

The
FAO
-
report

of 2006





Animal
production

adds

almost 20% of
the green house
gases

to the
atmosphere
.



This is a
frightening

fact


as
meat

consumption

is
increasing


and the
number

of
cattle


have

inceased

four

times


since

the
beginning

of 1990s


The
climate change
is evident


a
ccording

to
IPCC report
-
2008






Global average surface


temperature




Global average sea level





Northern hemisphere


snow cover



The State of the planet Earth


-

Changing

market
-
1

Consumer

preference

-

Quality


Safety


Nutritional

value


Health
effects


Environmental

impact


Ethical



Ethnical


Convenience


Functional

foods


Fair
trade


Global


Vegetarian





The State of the planet Earth

-

Changing

market
-

2



From small
domestic

to
big

global

From
Raw

material to
finished

products

From
one

raw

material to
many

value

added

products

Market potential for
value

added

food

poducts

is
increasing



A reasonable estimate of the present total sales of functional foods




2 Billion USD in Europe



2 Billion USD in USA




2.5 Billion USD in Japan




Food
Regulation

-
1

Functional

foods

with
health

benefits




A Food
which

has
been

produced

to
give

a
specific

and
scientifically

documented

health

effect

and is
intended

to be
consumed

as a part of a
healthy

and
balanced

diet.



It is
also

a
food

that
occupies

the borderline
between

food

and
medicine that
can

have

a preventive
effect

or
reduce

the risk of
illness
.


Food Regulation
-

2

Environment friendly production


Food
regulation

-

3

Environmental

labellling

GWP, LCA,
Carbon

footprint


Increasing movement to nuclear families (over 50% in urban India)

Increased confidence in credit instruments (“Do I really need it” to “I want
it right now”)


Increasing literacy rates of women ( From 25% in 1981 to 54% in 2001)

Rapid Urbanisation


top 10% towns have 60% of urban population.


Lifestyle related expenses (eating out, movies, entertainment) (From 14%
in 2000 to 19% in 2002


"Food" is still a large
-
spend category, accounting for about 53% of total
spending; significant opportunities for food
-
focused retailers


In India

Age distribution of Indian population

Indian population has a low median age of 24

About 50% or roughly 500 million people are below the age of 20.

A large part of population is in the 20
-
34 years group


0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Mn

1996

2001

2006

2010

0
-
4

5
-
19

20
-
34

35
-
59

60 & above

36 cities with > 1 million population

will be 60 in a few years


Mumbai


Kolkata


Delhi


Chennai


Bangalore


Hyderabad


Ahmadabad


Pune


Surat


Kanpur


Lucknow


Nagpur


Patna


Indore


Vadodara


Bhopal


Coimbatore


Kochi


Agra


Varanasi


Madurai


Meerut


Nashik


Jabalpur


Jamshedpur


Asansol


Dhanbad


Allahabad


Amritsar


Vijayawada


Rajkot


Chandigarh


Goa


Jaipur


Ludhiana


Visakhapatnam

Pune

Nashik

Surat

Vadodara

Nagpur

Kanpur

Meerut

Agra

Allahabad

Varanasi

Jabalpur

Indore

Amritsar

Ludhiana

Coimbator
e

Madurai

Kochi

Vishakahapatnam

Jamshedp
ur

Dhanbad

Asansol

India is already a producer of many important raw materials


MILK

Largest Producer

FRESH PRODUCE

#2 in the world

WHEAT

#2 in the world

RICE

#2 in the world

LIVESTOCK

Largest in the world

TEA

Largest Producer

SUGAR

# 2 in the world


With a NET CROPPED AREA of
142 mn hectares it can become

THE GRANARY OF ASIA

TRACTORS

Largest Market

In India

Low

productivity

and
low

income




65% of the people work in the agro
-
food sector and
contribute only 25% of the GNP





No food shortage But more than 350 million go hungry
every day





In India

Low

value

addition and
low

export




Value addition in agro
-
sector on an average is only
about 7%


India's share of the global market is only around 0,5%
and for agro food products it is very low, especially on a
per capita basis





The Opportunity”


Can probably be the ”missing Link” !


Number

of

Patented

inventions/innovations

in the
food

area
during

the last
few

years

Japan


4184

USA


2792

China


1555

Russia



1074

Korea



864

Germany



839

France




294

UK




271

India




?



Globalisation is also an opportunity



Movement of


People, capital, goods, services, information,
technology, ideas, interest, concern, feelings.


Competition, collaboration & cooperation across the
borders of each country






It is Advantage to India !


The strategy is to develop produce and market highly value added
products in the global market and leave the domestic market for
small scale entrepreneurs



Development and design of modern
novel

functional

innovative Indian
finished

food

products

for the global urban market



in

strategic

alliance

with global small and medium
scale


Agro
-
food

and
biotech

industries


and relevant global institutions of research and
higher

education

in
food

health

and
related

areas





”The Challenge”

is to define the goals and mission accordingly


Functional Foods

Advanced

products

Products with added value

Generic products

R&D

to
reach

the
top

of the
Value

Pyramid

more value from less volume is the aim



Radvanced food research”

opens also new perspectives for business




Patents as immaterial rights/assets

Knowledge as competitive advantages

Licences as one way of capitalizing on patents

Sales of ”Value added products”

Image marketing: a health image in products

and companies

Advantage in pricing other products



Better higher education

for better advanced research and better value addition





Value addition

Product innovation

New knowledge

Advanced research

Postgraduate education

Graduate education


Three initiatives

to be concrete are necessary




A specially designed internationalised masters degree programme of
two years duration in food science and biotechnology with special
emphasis on development and design of novel value added Indian
food products for export



A Model centre of excellence for advanced Research in food science
and biotechnology for acquiring new knowledge for development of
value added functional fermented foods based on the traditional
fermented foods of India.



A model production unit for taking the products to the market . A
model which incorporates interests of the producers, scientists and
investors









Internationalisation

of

higher

education

and
advanced

research

for
networking

and
strategic

alliances






To influence, knowledge, skill as well as the attitudes of
the student to suit the dynamics of the global market




Broadening and strengthening the base of the
undergraduate education



Training in research & problem solving


Training in Communication skills


Education in entreprunership & financing


Knowledge of management and marketing




in an international perspective



Give priority to Masters degree programmes giving importance to
theory and methods of research and development




International masters
degree

programme

in
food

science and
biotechnology


Objective

To impart knowledge about the modern methods of food processing
(including food engineering, food technology, food microbiology,
applied nutrition, food chemistry, enzyme and fermentation
technology, and other related subjects) to make the students able to
identify specific problems and suggest solutions which are
sustainable and environment friendly


Contents

Duration is three semesters of six months each

First semester is for preparatory courses

Second semester is for specialised courses

Third semester is for doing a small research project to train in planning
and design experiments as well as analysis of the data for writing a
scientific article


New
Model

Centres of
excellence



in
food

research



Bring
together

scientists from
various

disciplines

to
form
network

projects

working

with
development

of
functional

foods

based

on
traditional

indian
foods




A facility for Scientific documentation and
certification of the health effects and other positive
aspects by carrying out unbiased clinical and or
field trials and analysis on its own and in
collaboration with other faculties and institutions




Objectives

of

the
model

centres

of
excellence

are




to strengthen the area of advanced research and higher
education in food science and biotechnology



to act for the development of food products with health
benefits and other unique qualities in collaboration with
the food industry



to promote the concept of functional food related to
health status and social wellbeing in the food industry as
well as in the health and medical care system.








Model

production

units


The model prodcution unit actually is a food processing
company owned
by
farmers,

scienitsts

and
investers
which manufacture and export those products which
are developed at the centres of excellence

Fermented foods

A great advantage



The positive effects of prebiotic substances and, probiotic
organisms in synbiotic foods is a matter of great attention among
the researchers, medical practitioners, food companies, and
marketing agencies, because the demand for such products is
enormous and growing fast day by day.





It has the advantage of being generally regarded as safe

(GRAS)
and at the same time offer immense opportunity for production of
products with high added value which can be classified as
“organic foods”, “natural foods”, “health foods”, “convenience
foods”,” ethnic foods” “neutraceuticals” “food for clinical nutrition”
and not to forget “functional foods”



Functional Synbiotic foods

and bioinformatics




Development of value added food
products demand new knowledge


Quantitatively and qualitatively



also in bioinformatics !


A short inventory of


what we already know says




Life is cell activity


Nutrients for metabolism


Food for nutrients


Food is not only nutrients


Nutrigenetics


Nutrigenomics


Metabolomics


Bioinformatics and food design



Food for life
-
1

Life is cell activity





Cell activity (metabolism) is breack down
of molecules (catabolism) and building
new molecules (anabolism)


Food for life
-
2

Metabolism cannot happen in a closed system



Metabolism is a process which cannot
happen in a closed system (organism)


Require input of raw materials and
energy (nutrients)

Food for life
-
3

Food is nutrients


Raw matrials for metabolism is provided
by nutrients of the food


Essential

Non essential

Food for life
-
4

Food is not only nutrients


Social

Psychological

cultural

Clinical

Religious

And so on


Food for life
-

5

Food is not only nutrients



Food and health status

Food and Performance


(physical as well as cognitive)


Nutrigenetics

(nutrition and systems biology)


Information about the human genome

Information about links between

genotype and phenotypes


Information about how food components

influence the gene expression related to physical and
cognitive performance on a short term as well as on a
long term basis

Nutrigenomics


Genomics

Trancriptomics

Proteomics

Metabolomics

Top of the product development
pyramid



Personalised nutrition

( ultimate challege to food design)

Food design

(personalised nutrition)



Knowledge on how nutrients modulate
genes, protein expression and ultimately
influence cellular and organic metabolism is
used in food design



Multiple minor changes in genomic responce
to nutrition in contrast to single target gene
response commonly studied in drug design

Food design
-
Fermented foods


Prebiotic food components


Probiotic food components


Connection/relation to health

Bioinformatics could be
useful in


Many metabilites as biomarkers
-

databanks ?


Principle component analysis ?


Criticial mass of knowledge/data
quantitatively and qualitatively ?

What metabolomics can do


1.
Estimate nutritional status on a broad base

2.
Follow compliance, progress, success of dietary intervention

3.
Identify side effects, unexpected metabolic responses,lack of
response to specific dietary changes

4.
Recognise metabolic shifts due to environmental changes,lifestyle
modifications and normal progress of aging and maturation

5.
Predict likely health outcomes and suseptabilities to metabolic stress

6.
Provide a new generation of tools and methods for testing dietary
strategies

7.
Explore the range of of metabolic states accessible to the individuals
enabling them to achieve their ultimate health potential

8.
Metabolite profiling in toxicology and drug metabolism





That is it !








www.nair.se


www.fermented
-
foods.net