Diapositive 1 - OIE

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OIE Activities Related to Laboratory Support


USAID
-

FAO/OIE/WHO Joint Meeting

Strengthening Animal/Human Health Laboratory Capacities

12 June 2009, Rome

OIE Key Facts


Established in 1924


Intergovernmental Organisation


predates the UN


5 Permanent OIE Regional Representations


5 OIE Sub
-
Regional Offices


5 OIE Regional Commissions


174 Members

29

52

13

29

51

OIE Contributions to Global Laboratory
Capacity


OIE Goal = Ensuring transparency in the worldwide
animal disease situation



Disease Reporting


Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres


Laboratory Twinning


Evaluation of the Performance of Veterinary Services
(PVS) and PVS Gap Analysis (needs and priorities)



Collaboration


the sum of the combined efforts is
greater than what could be achieved by individual
partners alone

SPS Agreement

Animal Health

OIE

Food Safety

CODEX

Plant Health

IPPC

International standard setting organizations

OIE Codes and Manuals must be used in context

with
Codex Alimentarius

and SPS Agreement


The linkage between OIE Codes and Manuals,

animal disease policy and the SPS Agreement

Animal Health Standards
-

OIE Major
Texts for Terrestrial Animals


Terrestrial Animal Health Code
(Terrestrial Code)

http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/mcode/en_sommaire.htm




Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines
for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial
Manual)

http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/mmanual/A_summry.htm



OIE Principles


Guidance, Standards,
Transparency

Terrestrial Manual


Principal target readership
-

laboratories

carrying out
veterinary diagnostic tests and surveillance, plus
vaccine
manufacturers

and
regulatory authorities

in Member
Countries



Objective
-

to provide internationally agreed
diagnostic
laboratory methods

and requirements for the production
and control of
vaccines and other biological products



Living document, routinely incorporating democratically
agreed upon revisions proposed by OIE experts to
ensure up
-
to
-
date guidance

OIE Guidance and Standards

Terrestrial Manual Chapters

Introductory Chapters


Collection and shipment of diagnostic specimens


Biosafety and biosecurity in the veterinary
microbiology laboratory and animal facilities


Quality management in veterinary testing laboratories


Principles of validation of diagnostic assays for
infectious diseases


Validation and quality control of polymerase chain
reaction methods used for the diagnosis of infectious
diseases

OIE Guidance and Standards

Terrestrial Manual Chapters

Introductory Chapters
(continued)


Laboratory methodologies for bacterial antimicrobial
susceptibility testing


Biotechnology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and
vaccine development


Principles of veterinary vaccine production


Tests for sterility and freedom from contamination of
biological materials


Guidelines for international standards for vaccine banks


The role of official bodies in the international regulation of
veterinary biologicals


…and 113 additional disease specific chapters

Notification and Reporting


Chapter 1.1. Notification of diseases and


epidemiological information to WAHIS/WAHID


A Secure Access system


Members shall…..




Built upon a framework of


a competent veterinary services and


effective surveillance program


Reporting from OIE delegate (usually the Chief
Veterinary Officer) or proxy

OIE Listed Diseases


Multiple Species
Diseases


Anthrax


Aujeszky's disease


Bluetongue


Brucellosis (B.
abortus/melitensis/suis)


Crimean Congo haemorrhagic
fever


Echinococcosis/hydatidosis


Epizootic

haemorrhagic disease


Equine encephalomyelitis
(Eastern)


Foot and mouth disease


Heartwater


Japanese encephalitis


New world screwworm
(Cochliomyia hominivorax)


Old world screwworm
(Chrysomya bezziana)


Paratuberculosis


Q fever


Rabies


Rift Valley fever


Rinderpest


Surra (Trypanosoma evansi)


Trichinellosis


Tularemia


Vesicular stomatitis


West Nile fever

Criteria for listing a disease

EXCLUDE

INTERNATIONAL SPREAD?

EMERGING?

NO

YES

SIGNIFICANT SPREAD IN
NAIVE POPULATIONS?

NO

NO

EXCLUDE

YES

INCLUDE

INCLUDE

YES

ZOONOTIC
POTENTIAL?

Notification procedures

Types of reports


Immediate notification of disease, infection or
unusual epidemiological events


Weekly reports: follow
-
up to the immediate
notification


Final report:


if the outbreaks have ended (event closed)


if the situation becomes endemic



Six
-
monthly report


Annual report

Emerging Disease


… a

new infection

resulting from the
evolution or change of an existing
pathogenic agent, a

known infection

spreading to a

new

geographic

area
or

population
,
or a

previously
unrecognized

pathogenic agent or

disease

diagnosed for the first time

and which has a significant impact on
animal or public health

OIE Role in Early Warning,
Confirmation, Surveillance


Unofficial information (including emerging, re
-
emerging and zoonotic diseases)


Rumor tracking

and informal discussion often precedes official
reporting


Information from OIE Reference laboratories of confirmation
using established standards


OIE component of FAO/WHO/OIE collaborative GLEWS project


Complemented by official notifications with complete (and
ongoing) information on the epidemiologic situation and control
measures taken


Developing new diagnostic assays and
algorithms which can be validated and included
in “living” Code and Manual


OIE Reference Laboratories and
Collaborating Centres*


Reference Laboratories


187 laboratories in 36 Member Countries or
Territories on 100 diseases


Expertise on named disease(s) on the OIE lists


Identified international expert



Collaborating Centres


35 centres from 20 Member Countries or
Territories on 33 topics


Expertise in a specific designated sphere of
competence (epidemiology, risk analysis)

http://photos.news.wisc.edu

http://www.oie.int

*
As of May 2009

OIE Reference Laboratory
Mandate

Mandate:


to function as a centre of expertise and standardisation
for a designated disease(s) or topics;


to store and distribute to national laboratories biological
reference products and any other reagents used in the
diagnosis and control of the designated disease(s) or
topics;


to develop new procedures for diagnosis and control of
the designated disease(s) or topics;


to gather, process, analyse and disseminate
epizootiological data relevant to their speciality;


to place expert consultants at the disposal of the OIE

OIE Reference Laboratory
Mandate

Additional contributions:


provision of scientific and technical training for personnel
from Member Countries of the Office;


provision of diagnostic testing facilities to Member
Countries


organisation of scientific meetings on behalf of the
Office; coordination of scientific and technical studies in
collaboration with other laboratories or organisations;
publication and dissemination of any information in their
sphere of competence which may be useful to Member
Countries of the Office.


OIE Reference Laboratory Reporting
Responsibility




…provision of diagnostic testing facilities to
Member Countries: In the case of results that
are confirmed positive for diseases that are
reportable to OIE, the Reference Laboratory
should immediately inform the OIE Delegate of
the Member Country from which the samples
originated
as well as the OIE Headquarters

List of OIE Reference Laboratories
http://www.oie.int/eng/OIE/organisation/en_listeLR.htm

World
Distribution of OIE Reference
Laboratories
(as of May 2008)

Each OIE Laboratory Twinning
Project...


Is a link between OIE Reference Laboratory or
Collaborating Centre (Parent) and national
laboratory (Candidate)



Aims to improve expertise and diagnostic
capacity with eventual aim of reaching OIE
standards
-

Optimal goal is to achieve OIE
Reference Laboratory designation



Should be sustainable once the project is over

Extending the network of OIE capacity,
expertise and standards through
Laboratory Twinning


To provide regional support with better
geographical coverage for diseases and topics
that are a priority in a given region


Improved access for more countries to high
quality diagnostics and expertise


Better scientific expertise allows members to:


Readily apply science
-
based guidelines and
standards of OIE


To debate OIE scientific justification for standards on
an equal footing with other Members (better
representation)

Approved and Active Twinning
Projects


Italy
-

Russia
; avian influenza
and Newcastle disease


UK
-

China
; CSF and rabies


USA
-

Brazil
; avian influenza
and Newcastle disease


Italy
-

Eritrea
; brucellosis


Germany
-

Egypt
; Avian
influenza and Newcastle
disease


Italy
-

Cuba
; avian influenza
and Newcastle disease


UK
-

Turkey
; brucellosis


Italy
-

Cuba
; epidemiology


Italy
-

Botswana
; CBPP


UK
-

South Africa
; avian
influenza and Newcastle
disease


UK
-

Morocco
; bluetongue
and African horse sickness


UK
-

Botswana
; avian
influenza and Newcastle
disease


Germany
-

Turkey
; rabies

OIE Activities Related to Laboratory
Support


Animal
-
Human Interface


OIE Laboratory
Twinning P
roject
-

Investigate
the capacity/ability of selected national
laboratories to enhance the ability to respond to
diseases at the animals
-
human
-
ecosystem
interface (US CDC)


Collaborative
expansion of the Mediterranean
Zoonoses Control Programme (MZCP) into a
FAO/OIE/WHO center of excellence (e.g. Athens
/
Padova)

to strengthen the tripartite effort to
reduce risks of diseases at the animal
-
human
-
ecosystem interfaces

Relevant OIE collaborations with FAO
and WHO


GLEWS
and related Risk Assessment and Risk
Reduction outreach to countries


OFFLU

(OIE/FAO Network on Animal Influenza
Expertise)


also with WHO Global Influenza
Programme


Joint Operations Coordination

-

CMC
-
AH
(FAO/OIE)
-

SHOC (WHO) Collaboration


“Strengthening Joint WHO/OIE/FAO Cooperation In
the Management of Avian Influenza and other
Zoonotic Diseases” (tripartite project with CIDA)


Regular FAO/OIE/WHO
tripartite meetings


PVS Evaluations and

PVS Gap Analysis


PVS and PVS Gap Analysis Trainings


PVS evaluation of performance of Veterinary
Services
(using the OIE
-
PVS Tool)


PVS Gap Analysis


PVS follow
-
up missions

PVS


Chapter II


Technical Authority
and Capability


4 Fundamental Components


40 Critical
competencies, of which:


The authority and capability of the VS to develop
and apply sanitary measures and science
-
based
procedures supporting those measures


Section II
-
1

Veterinary laboratory diagnosis


Section II
-
2

Laboratory quality assurance


Section II
-
3

Risk analysis


Section II
-
4

Quarantine and border security


Section II
-
5

Epidemiological surveillance


Section II
-
6

Early detection and emergency response


Section II
-
7

Disease prevention, control and eradication

Country Evaluation of the Performance of
Veterinary Services (PVS)

Competent Veterinary Services is a Global Public Good



PVS Evaluation
-

a qualitative assessment of the performance
and the compliance of the Veterinary Services with respect to
the OIE international standards* on quality of VS



PVS Gap Analysis
-

an identification of needs and the
corresponding resources in collaboration with the host country
authorities to address improved compliance for priority critical
competencies as identified by a preceding PVS evaluation

* OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, Chapter 3.2

Qualitative evaluation of

the performance on 40

critical competencies

Specific Objectives

of the Country

Prioritization of the critical competencies and of related needs

PVS

Gap Analysis

PVS

Evaluation

PVS Gap Analysis process


Gap identification and
PVS Gap Analysis



National use for self improvement

and national
budget applications (Ministry of Finance;
Parliament)


External use for financial support (Donors’
investment programs), if needed



PVS Gap Analysis

field visits


Dialogue with the country


Country appropriation/internal consultations


Validation of choices and priorities with the
country concerned

PVS Gap Analysis process

Special PVS Gap Analysis Project
Animal
-
Human Interface


Project to assess needed support by one or a few
selected countries in respect to establishing and
strengthening the veterinary services to respond to new
or ongoing diseases within the animal
-
human
-
ecosystem
interface, with an initial focus on avian influenza


The activity will focus on a PVS Gap Analysis with the
specific task to identify the links and potential for
coordinated animal and human health response


In collaboration with US CDC avian influenza dedicated country staff,
and country human and animal health representatives


Using the PVS Gap Analysis and results from any existing human
health system evaluation (e.g., US CDC pandemic influenza monitoring
and evaluation tool, WHO IHR assessment tool [under development])


PVS Global Programme

State of Play
(June 10, 2009)

OIE
Regions

OIE
Members

PVS
Requests
received

PVS
Missions
done

Draft
Reports
received

PVS
Reports
available
(Donors &
Partners)

PVS Gap
Analysis
Requests
received

Africa

51

40

36

35

26

20

Americas

29

17

16

14

5

2

Asia & Pacific

29

13

12

12

5

3

Europe

52

12

12

10

3

3

Middle East

13

12

9

8

2

2

Total

174

94

85

79

41

30

12 rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France
-

www.oie.int



oie@oie.int



Organisation

Mondiale

de la Santé

Animale

World

Organisation

for Animal

Health

Organizaci
ó
n

Mundial

de Sanidad

Animal