Development of research with sisal (Agave sisalana) waste ... - FAO

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22 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Title: Environment and Sustainability: Transforming Biomass into
a Resource Fibre waste management systems: opportunities,
costs and technology advisory resources”



Responsible: Dr. Pedro de Oliva Neto


Department of Biological Science


São Paulo State University

-

UNESP
-

Assis


SP
-

Brazil Av. Dom Antonio 2100


Assis

SP

CEP 19806
-
390
-

poliva@assis.unesp.br




Project: Development of research with waste of sisal (
Agave
sisalana
Perrine)


Pharmacological properties.




Research carried out by UNESP in collaboration with:


-

Common Fund of Food and Agriculture Organization of the


United Nations



-

Sindycate of industries of vegetables fibers of Bahia State


SINDIFIBRAS


Bahia


Brazil

-

Secretary of Science, Technology and Invention of State


of Bahia
-

Brazil




Agreement signed by SINDIFIBRAS and FUNDUNESP
(Fundation of São Paulo State University)

in May 2010.





Researchers :



Prof. Dr. Pedro de Oliva Neto
-

Coordinator (Biotechnology,
Microbiology)



Prof. Dra. Lucinéia dos Santos (Toxicology, Pharmacology)


Dra Ana Flavia Azevedo Carvalho (Microbiology , Biochemistry)


Dr. Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva


(Pharmacology
-

Phytochemistry)


Dra. Edislane Barreiros de Souza


(Genetic


Mutagenicity)


Dra.
Isabel Cristina Cherici (Cell Biology


Reproduction)


Dr. Alvimar José da Costa (Insect Control


mits in animals)


Dr. Carlos Amadeu Leite de Oliveira (Insect Control in agriculture)


Dr. Antonio Carlos Maringoni (Phytopatology


Bacteriology)


Dr. Daniel J. de Andrade (Insect Control in agriculture)


Dra. Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis (Ecotoxicity)


Dr. Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin (Insect control in agriculture and
animals)


New member: Dr. Marcelo Mattos Dinato ( Doctor specialized in pre
-
clinical and clinical tests).


Introduction



The
Agave

-

plant originated from Yucatan
-

Mexico.


Precious fiber
-

for the manufacture of various utensils such as carpets, ropes, twine,
marine cables, bags, etc, and also for natural food source (feed) and alcoholic
beverages like a international tequila.


.



A
gave sisalana

Perrine (sisal)
-

the main hard fibre produced worldwide.


It was introduced in Brazil in 1903 (the largest exporter of this fibre in the world)


In Brazil
-

cultivation in states of Bahia (93.5%), Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte,
in a poor and semi arid region
-

small producers (family labor)
.


The sisal fibre
-

100 million dollars is exported from Brazil and generate more than
half
million jobs.


General Goal of this project


To

study

the

technical

use

of

sisal

waste

in

order

to

develop

new

commercial

products

contributing

to

sisal

workers
.



Results of the Project



1
. Data Process of Pulping and pressing Sisal leaves
.

___________________________________________________________________


Sisal waste %(dried w/w) Wet Mass %

___________________________________________________________________


Total cut leaves (1 m in length): 1645


Total weight leaves: 580.0 kg 100%


Total wet fibres
1
: 65.2 kg 11.2%


Total full wet mucilage 14.6% 503.0 kg 86.7%


Loss 2.1%




Total liquid waste (sisal juice)
2
5.0%

176.8 kg 30.5%


Total solid waste (EMT)
3

18.1% 326.2 kg 56.2%


Liquid from process full mulcilage (EMS) 2.5% 378.0 kg

___________________________________________________________________

1.
the pulping process of the leaves was 1 h. 2. after pressing and filtering the
mucilage 3. Solid waste from full mucilage after pressing and filtering the full
mucilage




The pulping machine The sisal leaves




The pressing machine is very simple and economically viable (very low
cost) .



Press machine





Chemical composition of sisal juice






Chemical determinations

Results

Total caloric value

31.31 kcal/100g

Total Carbohydrates

7
-
12 g/100g

Fiber

0 g/100g

Protein

0.31 g/100g

Fat

0.23 g/100g

Mineral Material

1.03 g/100g

Moisture

91
-
95 g/100g

Sodium (Na)

97.71 mg/kg

Flowchart of the treatments of mucilage from sisal leaves in
some products studied.


Preliminary cost for some products of sisal waste
.

__________________________________________________


main products operations workers production cost


in 8 h. (reais)

___________________________________________________ _______________


EMS
-

Liquid from FM pressing and filtration 2 3038 l. R$ 0.01/l


OJ
-

Original juice pressing 2 1414 l. R$ 0.02/l


DP
-

Dried Precipitate centrifugation, drying 1 4.45kg R$ 9.73/kg


AP
-

Acid Precipitate heating, acidification


and centrifugation 1 4.95kg R$ 14.92/kg

___________________________________________________________________



DP


R$ 15.00/1 worker (8 h)+ R$ 28.28 (cost of 1,414 l juice)

AP
-

R$ 15.00/ 1 worker (8 h)+ R$ 28.28 (cost of 1,414 l juice)


+ cost of H
2
SO
4
34 l x R$ 0.90/l = R$ 30.6 total = R$ 73.88


Obs. Several costs is not considered (energy, depreciation, investiments, etc), but it is
calculating by an expert.


2. Biological tests



The preliminar study was divide in
three categories
depending on:



the results of analysis , degree of technical difficulties, costs and time demanded to become a
commercial product.




Category A


Products with high chances of commercial application.



1) Agent against mites on citrus (orange, lemon, tangerine).

2) Cream for mycoses.

3) Shampoo antifungal

(antidandruff)




Malassezia
ssp.

Class B
-

Products with intermediate chances of commercial application
.

1) Antioxidant for use in cosmetic creams .

2) Action on inhibition of ticks.




3) Anti
-
inflammatory Action 4) Anti
-
parasitic nematodes of plants

5) Action contraceptive

Class C
-

Products that technically has no recommendation for further studies
-

(
due to showed very weak or non existent action for the target) .


1. Insecticidal action of sisal juice 2. Antibacterial action against


against whitefly (attack leaves of legumes)
Xanthomonas

(phytopatogenic bacteria)






Toxicological studies of Sisal waste were:

• Ecotoxicity (
Daphnia
) • Male Reproductive toxicity in rats • Mutagenicity



Median Lethal Dose (dosage to kill 50% of the rats)




Tests of antifungic activities of sisal waste .


Based on MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) test of several products
formulated by sisal waste .


MIC Test


Macrodilution of antimicrobial compounds

Microorganisms

used
:



Candida

albicans

(ATCC

10231
)

Malassezia

pachydermatis

(ATCC

14522
)

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
783
391
195
98
49
24
Inhibition (%)

Concentration (µg/ml)

Natural juice
Dried precipitate
Wet precipitate
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
6250
3125
1563
783
391
195
98
Inhibition (%)


Concentration (µg/ml)


Dried precipitate
Cream

for

C.
albicans

60g

Shampoo

antimycotic


100 ml

Cream

for
skin

mycosis



60g

Lotion

for
nail

mycosis

30ml

Mass

of

Sisal
dried

precipitate

for
bottle

8.4 g

1.7g

1.03g

0.51g

Cost

of

dried

precipitate

for bottle
1

R$ 0.082

R$ 0.016

R$ 0.01

R$ 0.005

Cost

of

formulation

more
bottle

2

R$1.13

R$ 2.18

R$ 1.0

R$ 1.00

Total
cost

(
only

the

formula
and

bottle
)

R$ 1.21

R$ 2.20

R$ 1.01

R$ 1.00

Trade

value


R$ 16.38 (
Nystatin
)

R$ 39.00 (
cetoconazol
)

R$ 18.00 (
cetoconazol
)

R$ 142.00 (12 ml)

Cost for the formulation of creams, lotion and shampoo from sisal
waste (Dried Precipitate).



Obs. Not included others cost like energy, governament taxes, transport and
employers for the cosmetic industry



















Class A


A
caricide Effect of Sisal waste on mite
Brevipalpus phoenicis
,


(vector of citrus leprosis)




Experiments with direct effect of
Agave

waste on

Brevipalpus phoenicis
in 12 h.

______________________________________________________________________


Product
Concentr. Death efficiency vol/ha
2

cost/ha




(R$)

______________________________________________________________________________

Original juice (5% solid) 100% 94
-
100% 4000 l. 80.00

2.7 time conc.juice (12% solid) 100% 100%

Dried Acid precipitate 2% 100% 80 kg 1194.00



Dried precipitate 0.2% 25
-
46%

EMT
-

Solid from Mucilage (18% sol.) 2% 37
-
46%

EMS


Liquid from Mucilage
(2.5 % sol.) 80% 100% 3200 l.
64.00


cyhexatin (Sipcatin) 0,05%
1

100% 2 l. 300.00

Control (distilled water)
_____________________________________________________________________




Sipcatin is used 50 mL to 100 L of water or 1 liter of commercial product for 2,000 liters (or 0.05%)
of water and 2 liters per hectare


R$150/l. 2. volum spend per Hectare
.




















Flowchart of Pilot plant for waste sisal processing

Sisal leaves

4640
kg/
day

Pulping

522
kg/
day


Full Mucilage

4024
kg/
day

Dried Extract

4.43 kg/
day

Cream

for
Candidiasis

527
bg

of

60g
p/
day

Shampoo
antimycotic

2605
fr

of

100ml p/
day

Full Mucilage
dried on sun
and rehydratade

1957,2 kg/dia

Extract

from

Full

mucilage

-

Acaricide

3020
kg/
day

Solid waste from
Full mucilage


1004kg/
day

Fibre

Category
-

Class B


1.
Effect against nematodes .


Family
Strongylidae


gen.Strongylus



-

Represents the main source of losses for Sheep farmers around the world.
Other animals
are infected (ex. horses)
.


Method
-

Egg counts of nematodes (gastrointestinal strongyles) per gram of feces
(EPG) in sheep after treatment with the
Acid Precipitate
of sisal juice (dosage:
0.02
g/ml
-

1 ml/ 10 kg of animal, de animal, administered orally.


Results
:
Reduction

in
average
-

68.1%

of number of eggs per gram of feces of
the animal.






Conclusion
: These results are preliminary but promising, since only
one
treatment
was used and
only one dose
. A more detailed tests are recommended.
PS. We do not test all products of sisal wa
ste (EMT, EMS, Dried Precipitate)




Reproductive parameters of female ticks Rhiphicephalus



The most important arthropod in veterinary medicine as result of economic losses and

health problems.


Methodology: the reproductive parameters of female ticks were evaluated after treatment


with the juice of sisal. The parameters analyzed were:

% reduction in oviposition,% reduction of hatchability, reproductive efficiency.


Products tested: Pure and diluted juice, Acid Precipitate (2%)


RESULTS:



% reduction in oviposition = results were not significant at different treatm.


% reduction of hatchability = Best result was with sisal juice (75% diluted in


water)


47% reduction of hatchability and efficience of 57% in the ticks control.




Conclusion: The efficience in the control of ticks
was limited

however it is recommended


that a new research is conducted, in more depth.


















Evaluation of antioxidant potential of concentrated juice of
Agave sisalana
(Agavaceae).


Methodology based on the
stable free radical DPPH and absortion of H
+

quantified by Absorbance at 517 nm (spectrophotometry). 2.7 times
concentrated juice was used in several dilution.

_____________________________________


Concentrated juice Antioxidant activity
Conclusion:


____________________________________
Sisal juic
e has a
potential for use


0.05 % 3.31%
as a natural antioxidant
for cosmetic


0.1 % 4.75% or other products depending on


0.5 % 13.9% more applied studies.


1.0 % 24.5%


2.5 % 57.8%


5.0 % 68.1%


10% 75.0%

_______________________________________


Sisal waste toxicity


Acid precipitated from sisal juice showed:



Spermicide action on rats if ingested.


Ecotoxicity is considered high (
superior of oil refinery,
so not recommended to discharge into rivers.


Not mutagenic in dosages up to 100 mg/kg, superior
dosages was not tested.


We need to test Liquid from Mucilage and Dried
precipitate toxicity.









Final Conclusion




This research especially with the insecticide and antimycotic activity, respectively,
with the products Liquid from full mulcilage and Dried Precipitate from sisal juice needs
to be continued.



The new steps will require a pilot plant for processing greater amount of full mucilage
to new tests in animals (field tests) and clinical tests in humans.


We believe this research

points to

a promising

technology development

from
sisal

waste in order to obtain economic value and
generating wealth and
welfare

for the workers of sisal.



Thank You