Title: Environment and Sustainability: Transforming Biomass into
a Resource Fibre waste management systems: opportunities,
costs and technology advisory resources”
Responsible: Dr. Pedro de Oliva Neto
Department of Biological Science
São Paulo State University
Brazil Av. Dom Antonio 2100
Project: Development of research with waste of sisal (
Research carried out by UNESP in collaboration with:
Common Fund of Food and Agriculture Organization of the
Sindycate of industries of vegetables fibers of Bahia State
Secretary of Science, Technology and Invention of State
Agreement signed by SINDIFIBRAS and FUNDUNESP
(Fundation of São Paulo State University)
in May 2010.
Prof. Dr. Pedro de Oliva Neto
Prof. Dra. Lucinéia dos Santos (Toxicology, Pharmacology)
Dra Ana Flavia Azevedo Carvalho (Microbiology , Biochemistry)
Dr. Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva
Dra. Edislane Barreiros de Souza
Isabel Cristina Cherici (Cell Biology
Dr. Alvimar José da Costa (Insect Control
mits in animals)
Dr. Carlos Amadeu Leite de Oliveira (Insect Control in agriculture)
Dr. Antonio Carlos Maringoni (Phytopatology
Dr. Daniel J. de Andrade (Insect Control in agriculture)
Dra. Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis (Ecotoxicity)
Dr. Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin (Insect control in agriculture and
New member: Dr. Marcelo Mattos Dinato ( Doctor specialized in pre
clinical and clinical tests).
plant originated from Yucatan
for the manufacture of various utensils such as carpets, ropes, twine,
marine cables, bags, etc, and also for natural food source (feed) and alcoholic
beverages like a international tequila.
the main hard fibre produced worldwide.
It was introduced in Brazil in 1903 (the largest exporter of this fibre in the world)
cultivation in states of Bahia (93.5%), Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte,
in a poor and semi arid region
small producers (family labor)
The sisal fibre
100 million dollars is exported from Brazil and generate more than
General Goal of this project
Results of the Project
. Data Process of Pulping and pressing Sisal leaves
Sisal waste %(dried w/w) Wet Mass %
Total cut leaves (1 m in length): 1645
Total weight leaves: 580.0 kg 100%
Total wet fibres
: 65.2 kg 11.2%
Total full wet mucilage 14.6% 503.0 kg 86.7%
Total liquid waste (sisal juice)
176.8 kg 30.5%
Total solid waste (EMT)
18.1% 326.2 kg 56.2%
Liquid from process full mulcilage (EMS) 2.5% 378.0 kg
the pulping process of the leaves was 1 h. 2. after pressing and filtering the
mucilage 3. Solid waste from full mucilage after pressing and filtering the full
The pulping machine The sisal leaves
The pressing machine is very simple and economically viable (very low
Chemical composition of sisal juice
Total caloric value
Flowchart of the treatments of mucilage from sisal leaves in
some products studied.
Preliminary cost for some products of sisal waste
main products operations workers production cost
in 8 h. (reais)
Liquid from FM pressing and filtration 2 3038 l. R$ 0.01/l
Original juice pressing 2 1414 l. R$ 0.02/l
Dried Precipitate centrifugation, drying 1 4.45kg R$ 9.73/kg
Acid Precipitate heating, acidification
and centrifugation 1 4.95kg R$ 14.92/kg
R$ 15.00/1 worker (8 h)+ R$ 28.28 (cost of 1,414 l juice)
R$ 15.00/ 1 worker (8 h)+ R$ 28.28 (cost of 1,414 l juice)
+ cost of H
34 l x R$ 0.90/l = R$ 30.6 total = R$ 73.88
Obs. Several costs is not considered (energy, depreciation, investiments, etc), but it is
calculating by an expert.
2. Biological tests
The preliminar study was divide in
the results of analysis , degree of technical difficulties, costs and time demanded to become a
Products with high chances of commercial application.
1) Agent against mites on citrus (orange, lemon, tangerine).
2) Cream for mycoses.
3) Shampoo antifungal
Products with intermediate chances of commercial application
1) Antioxidant for use in cosmetic creams .
2) Action on inhibition of ticks.
inflammatory Action 4) Anti
parasitic nematodes of plants
5) Action contraceptive
Products that technically has no recommendation for further studies
due to showed very weak or non existent action for the target) .
1. Insecticidal action of sisal juice 2. Antibacterial action against
against whitefly (attack leaves of legumes)
Toxicological studies of Sisal waste were:
• Ecotoxicity (
) • Male Reproductive toxicity in rats • Mutagenicity
Median Lethal Dose (dosage to kill 50% of the rats)
Tests of antifungic activities of sisal waste .
Based on MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) test of several products
formulated by sisal waste .
Macrodilution of antimicrobial compounds
R$ 16.38 (
R$ 39.00 (
R$ 18.00 (
R$ 142.00 (12 ml)
Cost for the formulation of creams, lotion and shampoo from sisal
waste (Dried Precipitate).
Obs. Not included others cost like energy, governament taxes, transport and
employers for the cosmetic industry
caricide Effect of Sisal waste on mite
(vector of citrus leprosis)
Experiments with direct effect of
in 12 h.
Concentr. Death efficiency vol/ha
Original juice (5% solid) 100% 94
100% 4000 l. 80.00
2.7 time conc.juice (12% solid) 100% 100%
Dried Acid precipitate 2% 100% 80 kg 1194.00
Dried precipitate 0.2% 25
Solid from Mucilage (18% sol.) 2% 37
Liquid from Mucilage
(2.5 % sol.) 80% 100% 3200 l.
cyhexatin (Sipcatin) 0,05%
100% 2 l. 300.00
Control (distilled water)
Sipcatin is used 50 mL to 100 L of water or 1 liter of commercial product for 2,000 liters (or 0.05%)
of water and 2 liters per hectare
R$150/l. 2. volum spend per Hectare
Flowchart of Pilot plant for waste sisal processing
dried on sun
Solid waste from
Effect against nematodes .
Represents the main source of losses for Sheep farmers around the world.
are infected (ex. horses)
Egg counts of nematodes (gastrointestinal strongyles) per gram of feces
(EPG) in sheep after treatment with the
of sisal juice (dosage:
1 ml/ 10 kg of animal, de animal, administered orally.
of number of eggs per gram of feces of
: These results are preliminary but promising, since only
was used and
only one dose
. A more detailed tests are recommended.
PS. We do not test all products of sisal wa
ste (EMT, EMS, Dried Precipitate)
Reproductive parameters of female ticks Rhiphicephalus
The most important arthropod in veterinary medicine as result of economic losses and
Methodology: the reproductive parameters of female ticks were evaluated after treatment
with the juice of sisal. The parameters analyzed were:
% reduction in oviposition,% reduction of hatchability, reproductive efficiency.
Products tested: Pure and diluted juice, Acid Precipitate (2%)
% reduction in oviposition = results were not significant at different treatm.
% reduction of hatchability = Best result was with sisal juice (75% diluted in
47% reduction of hatchability and efficience of 57% in the ticks control.
Conclusion: The efficience in the control of ticks
however it is recommended
that a new research is conducted, in more depth.
Evaluation of antioxidant potential of concentrated juice of
Methodology based on the
stable free radical DPPH and absortion of H
quantified by Absorbance at 517 nm (spectrophotometry). 2.7 times
concentrated juice was used in several dilution.
Concentrated juice Antioxidant activity
e has a
potential for use
0.05 % 3.31%
as a natural antioxidant
0.1 % 4.75% or other products depending on
0.5 % 13.9% more applied studies.
1.0 % 24.5%
2.5 % 57.8%
5.0 % 68.1%
Sisal waste toxicity
Acid precipitated from sisal juice showed:
Spermicide action on rats if ingested.
Ecotoxicity is considered high (
superior of oil refinery,
so not recommended to discharge into rivers.
Not mutagenic in dosages up to 100 mg/kg, superior
dosages was not tested.
We need to test Liquid from Mucilage and Dried
This research especially with the insecticide and antimycotic activity, respectively,
with the products Liquid from full mulcilage and Dried Precipitate from sisal juice needs
to be continued.
The new steps will require a pilot plant for processing greater amount of full mucilage
to new tests in animals (field tests) and clinical tests in humans.
We believe this research
waste in order to obtain economic value and
generating wealth and
for the workers of sisal.