Chapter 01 intro - ElsevierDirect

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22 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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Introduction to


Environmental Microbiology


Course: Companion Site for Environmental Microbiology

Instructor: Maier


Chapter 1
-

Lecture Objectives:



Understand course objectives and how to obtain the
grade you want


Recall some of the names of your classmates and your
instructor


Locate course materials on the web


Define Environmental Microbiology and articulate its
relevance to the human race



Environmental Microbiology


definition


The study of microbial fate and activity in air, water and soil, and the
resulting impact on human health and welfare.


Driving force behind Environmental Microbiology:


How can we harness the understanding of environmental microbes

to benefit society?


Microbial Ecology


definition


The science that explores interrelationships between organisms and

their living and abiotic environment



Compare with:


Introduction to Environmental Microbiology

Important Events Leading to Environmental Microbiology

A Historical Perspective

A) Ancient History

1676

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek


-

1
st

microscope “animalcules”

1830
-
1900 Louis Pasteur



-

rejected theory of spontaneous generation




-

demonstrated presence of microbes in air

1856
-
1953 Sergei Winogradski



-

“Father” of Soil Microbiology



-

nitrification, autotrophy

1843
-
1910 Robert Koch


Nobel Prize




-

pure culture technique



-

Koch’s postulates: a specific organism causes a specific




process (e.g., disease)



B) 20
th

Century

1928 Griffith

-

bacterial genetics




-

transformation

1952 Selman Waksman
-

Principles of Soil Microbiology




-

Discovery of streptomycin (Nobel Prize)

1953 Watson and Crick
-

Structure of DNA (Nobel Prize)

1985 Kary Mullis
-

Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nobel Prize)

C) The Next Millenium



“Bioinformatics”


"Beginning with a single molecule of the genetic material DNA, the PCR can
generate 100 billion similar molecules in an afternoon. The reaction is easy to
execute. It requires no more than a test tube, a few simple reagents and a
source of heat. The DNA sample that one wishes to copy can be pure, or it can
be a minute part of an extremely complex mixture of biological materials. The
DNA may come from a hospital tissue specimen, from a single human hair, from a
drop of dried blood at the scene of a crime, from the tissues of a mummified
brain or from a 40,000
-
year
-
old wooly mammoth frozen in a glacier."

Modern Environmental Microbiology

Soil microbiology

Aquatic microbiology

Hazardous waste/bioremediation

Water quality

Food safety

Aeromicrobiology

Occupational health/infection control

Diagnostic microbiology

Biotechnology

Industrial microbiology