FROM THE GROUND TO THE

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ADVANCE OF COMPUTING
FROM THE GROUND TO THE
CLOUD

Basic concepts and library applications

Marshall Breeding

Director for Innovative Technology and Research

Vanderbilt University Library

Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides

http://www.librarytechnology.org/

http://twitter.com/mbreeding


Computers in Libraries 2012

March 22, 2012

Summary


Cloud computing is one of the most important technology
trends of the times. The phase of client/server computing is
fading into obsolescence, replaced by entirely web
-
based
systems, increasingly deployed through SaaS. Libraries and
other technology
-
oriented organizations now have options
through infrastructure
-
as
-
a
-
service offerings such as
Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud and Simple Storage
Service to ramp up computing capabilities quickly, enjoy
free access for smaller projects, and take advantage of
usage
-

based subscription models for larger
-
scale
production projects. Breeding expands on these topics and
provides a basic explanation of cloud computing that
focuses on real advantages and disadvantages for libraries.

Continuum of Abstraction


Locally owned and installed servers


Co
-
located servers


Co
-
located virtual servers


Web hosting


Server hosting services


Application Service Provider


Software
-
as
-
a
-
service


Infrastructure
-
as
-
a
-
service


Platform
-
as
-
a
-
service

The
Advance of Computing From the Ground to the Cloud

Computers in Libraries, December 2009

http
://www.librarytechnology.org/ltg
-
displaytext.pl?RC=14384

What is Cloud

computing?


Wikipedia:


“Cloud computing

is

Internet
-
based

computing
,
whereby shared resources, software, and information
are provided to

computers

and other devices on
demand, like the

electricity grid
.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing

Cloud

computing as marketing term


Cloud

computing used very freely, tagged to almost
any virtualized environment


Any arrangement where the library relies

on some

kind of remote hosting environment for major
automation components


Includes

almost any vendor
-
hosted product offering

Cloud computing


characteristics


Web
-
based Interfaces


Externally

hosted


Pricing: subscription or utility


Highly

abstracted computing model


Provisioned on demand


Scaled according to variable needs


Elastic


consumption of resources can contract and
expand according to demand

Fundamental technology shift


Mainframe computing


Client/Server


Cloud

Computing

http://www.flickr.com/photos/carrick/61952845/

http://soacloudcomputing.blogspot.com/2008/10/cloud
-
computing.html

http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw
-
10
-
2001/jw
-
1019
-
jxta.html

Gartner Hype Cycle 2009

Gartner Hype Cycle 2010


Gartner Hype Cycle 2011

Local

Computing


Traditional model


Locally owned and managed


Shifting

from departmental to enterprise


Departmental servers co
-
located in central IT data
centers


Increasingly virtualized

Virtualization


The ability

for multiple
computing images to
simultaneously exist on
one physical server


Physical hardware
partitioned into multiple
instances using virtual
machine management
tools such as VMware


Applicable to local,
remote, and cloud
models

Application service

provider


Business

applications hosted by software vendor


Standalone application on discrete or virtualized
hardware


Staff and public clients accessed via the Internet


Same user interfaces and functionality as if installed
locally


Established as a deployment model in the 1990’s

ASP
vs

SaaS


From:
THINKstrategies
: CIO’s Guide to Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service

Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service


Complete software application, customized

for
customer use


Software

delivered through cloud infrastructure,
data stored on cloud


Eg
: Salesforce.com

widely

used
business

infrastructure

Google

Apps


Microsoft Office 365


Enterprise

SaaS deployments


Many universities outsourcing mail


Retain institutional domain names


Google Apps Education Edition


Gmail


Microsoft
Live@Edu

Infrastructure
-
as
-
a
-
service


Provisioning of Equipment


Servers, storage


Virtual server provisioning


Examples:


Amazon Elastic Compute

Cloud (
EC2)


Amazon Simple

Storage Service (S3)


Rackspace Cloud (
http://www.rackspacecloud.com/
)


EMC
2
Atmos

(
http://www.atmosonline.com/)

Data as a service


SaaS

provides opportunity for highly shared data models


WorldCat: one globally shared copy that serves all libraries


Primo Central: central index of articles maintained by Ex
Libris shared by all libraries implementing Primo / Primo
Central


Global Knowledgebase of e
-
journal holdings shared among all
customers of SFX


Serials Solutions: KnowledgeWorks



General opportunity to move away from library
-
by
-
library
metadata management to globally shared workflows

Amazon EC2


Amazon Machine

Instances (AMI)


Red Hat Enterprise Linux


Debian


Fedora


Ubuntu

Linux


Open Solaris


Windows

Server 2003/2008

Storage
-
as
-
a
-
Service


Provisioned,

on
-
demand storage


Bundled to, or separate from other cloud services

Platform
-
as
-
a
-
Platform as a Service


Virtualized computing environment

for deployment
of software


Application engine, no specific server provisioning


Examples:


Google App Engine


SDKs for Java, Python


Heroku
:

ruby platform


Amazon Web Service

Private
vs

Public cloud


Public


multi
-
tenant provisioning


Logically

isolated computing environment


Theoretical security / competitive concerns


Private


cloud architecture,

institutionally controlled


Enforces physical segregation


Leverages cost

and scalability


Institutions may require private clouds from providers


Institutions

may operate their own cloud infrastructure
for internal clients

Library automation through SaaS


Almost all library automation

products offered
through hosted options


Saas

or ASP?

ILS Products offered as SaaS (mostly
ASP_


SirsiDynix Symphony


SirsiDynix

Horizon


Innovative Interfaces Millennium


Ex
Libris

Aleph


EOS International
EOS.Web


Evergreen


Equinox Software


Koha


LibLime
,
ByWater
, many others
internationally


…many other examples …

Multi
-
tenant SaaS


Serials Solutions


Summon


Intota (Announced for 2012/
-
12)


360 Search, 360 Link, KnowledgeWorks


Ex

Libris


Alma


Primo Central


BiblioCommons


OCLC WorldShare Management

Services

Platform as a Service


OCLC WorldShare

Platform


WorldShare

Management Services


WorldShare License Manager


Library
-
created applications

Repositories in the cloud


Dspace



institutional repository application


Fedora


generalized repository platform


DuraSpace



organization now over both
Dspace

and Fedora


DuraCloud



shared, hosted repository platform


Pilot since 2009, production in early 2011


http://www.duraspace.org/duracloud.php


Caveats and concerns with SaaS


Libraries must have adequate bandwidth to support
access to remote applications

without latency


Quality of service agreements that guarantee
performance and reliability factors


Configurability and customizability limitations


Access to API’s


Ability to interoperate with 3
rd

party applications


Eg
: Connect SaaS ILS with discovery product from
another vendor

Cost implications


Total cost

of ownership


Do all cost components result in increased or decreased
expense


Personnel costs


need

less technical administration


Hardware


server hardware eliminated


Software costs: subscription, license, maintenance/support


Indirect costs: energy costs associated with power and
cooling of servers in data center


IaaS
: balance elimination of hardware investments for
ongoing usage fees


Especially attractive for development and prototyping

Risks and concerns


Privacy of data


Policies, regulations, jurisdictions


Ownership

of data


Avoid vendor lock
-
in


Integrity

of Data


Backups and disaster recovery

Security issues


Most providers implement stronger safeguards
beyond the

capacity of
local institutions


Virtual instances equally

susceptible to poor security
practices as local computing

Cloud computing trends for

libraries


Increased migration away from local computing
toward some form of remote / hosted / virtualized
alternative


Cloud computing especially attractive to libraries
with few technology support personnel


Adequate bandwidth will continue to be a limiting
factor

Increased pressure


Library automation vendors

promoting SaaS
offerings


Some

companies already exclusively SaaS


Software pricing increasingly favorable to SaaS

Caveat



technologies promoted by companies and
organizations have a vested interest in their
adoption


Critically assess viability of the technology and its
appropriateness for your organization

Cloud Computing for Libraries



Volume 11 in The Tech
Set


Neal
-
Schuman


Expected April 2012


ISBN:
781555707859


http://www.neal
-
schuman.com/ccl

Book Image

Publication Info:

Questions and Discussion