TGJ3M1- Mr. Negru Clement Law

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 19 μέρες)

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TGJ3M1
-

Mr.
Negru

Clement Law

1800 April 24


Dry battery invented by
A Volta
, ‘Volta’s pile’, made of copper
and zinc discs separated by a moistened cloth electrolyte.
Other batteries developed by
De Luc

(1809) and
Zamboni

(1812) in Italy. This Voltaic pile gave a greatly enhanced net emf
for the combination, with a voltage of about 50 volts for a 32
-
cell pile. In many parts of Europe batteries continue to be
called piles.


Social Impact:



Dry cell batteries have had a huge impact on society and have
allowed the development of many portable and cordless
electronic devices we use today.


Dry Battery

SOCAIL NETWORKING

1800 February 11


Existence of infra
-
red solar rays is discovered by William Herschel
and described in
An investigation of the powers of prismatic colours to
heat and illuminate objects
. Herschel finds that infra
-
red generates
most heat.
Herschel
discovered infrared radiation by passing sunlight
through a prism and holding a thermometer just beyond the red end
of the visible spectrum. This thermometer was meant to be a
control to measure the ambient air temperature in the room. He
was shocked when it showed a higher temperature than the visible
spectrum.


Environmental & Health Impact:



Infra
-
red solar rays have had an environmental and health impact
because it was being developed to be heater and it saves more
energy.


Infra
-
Red Solar Rays

SATELLITES

1803


Modern paper
-
making machinery is invented by two British
brothers after whom the
Foudrinier

machine is named.
The
Fourdriniers

also bought a mill at
St Neots

intending to install two
machines there and the process and machines continued to develop.


Economic Impact:


Modern paper
-
making machinery have had an impact on economic
because it has been a huge business that fulfill everyone’s need and
developed to the newspaper business nowadays.

Modern Paper
-
Making Machine

WRITING

1806 October 7


Carbon paper is patented in London by
Ralph Wedgewood
. Carbon
paper is thin paper
coated with a mixture of wax and pigment,

which is
used between two sheets of ordinary paper to make one or more
copies of an original document.


Social Impact:



Carbon paper had a great impact in social because it is an
inexpensive reprographic device used to make a single copy
concurrently with the original, as in credit card transaction receipts,
legal documents, manuscripts, letters, and other simple forms.

Carbon Paper

WRITING

1808


Humphrey Davy

invents the arc light, in which powerful light is
created by
passing an electrical current across the gap between two
carbon rods held in alignment.

As well as light, it also generates
heat
and smoke
. Arc light
were also used in some early motion
-
picture
studios to illuminate interior shooting; one problem was that such
lights output such
a high level of ultra
-
violet light

that many early film
actors and actresses needed to wear sunglasses when not in front
of the camera to relieve sore eyes resulting from the ultra
-
violet
light.


Social Impact:


Arc light has had an impact on society that it soon developed into
flashlight or torches and brighten the darkness for our society.

Arc
-
Light

TELEVISION

1813


Idea of using negatives in
photography to
allow production of
multiple prints is promulgated

by
English inventor
Frederick Scott
Archer
. Enabling photographers to
combine the fine detail of
the

daguerreotype

with the ability
to
print multiple paper copies like the
collotype.


Cultural Impact:



Idea of using negatives in
photography has had an impact on
cultural by increasing the contrast
when scanning and post processing
the scanned images.

Negatives In Photograph

CAMERA

1814 December 8



Steam
-
driven cylinder press is
used to print
The Times

in
London. The press provided
approximately
400 prints per
hour
.


The production of rollers
and their drive mechanisms
were the major difficulties in
building this machine The first
form to be printed on this
machine.


Political Impact:



Steam
-
driven cylinder press has
had an impact on political
because it leads to an new
generation of printing that
make us know what is
happening around us.

Steam
-
Driven
Cylinder Press

PRINTING

1816



First experiments in
photography are conducted by
Frenchman
Joseph Nicéphore
Nièpce

(1765
-
1833). Some of
his early experiments made
images, but they
faded very fast.



Ethical Impact:
Experiments
in photography has had an
impact on ethical because
every scene we have in our life
can be captured by
photography and being
collected.

Experiments In Photography

CAMERA

1819


Flat
-
bed cylinder printing press is introduced
by
David Napier
. It was designed to
print
simultaneously on both sides of a sheet of paper
and a centrifuge for sugar manufacturing
before turning to automobile manufacturing
under his grandson

Montague Napier
. His
machines were described as "
delicate as any
clock could be
", and his printing press in
particular earned praise by

Thomas
Curson

Hansard
.


Economic Impact:



Flat
-
bed cylinder printing press has had an
impact on economic because it introduces a
large amount of job opportunities to people
working on the career of newspaper.

Flat
-
Bed
Cylinder
Printing Press

PRINTING

1820


Charles Wheatstone

(1802
-
1875)
demonstrates sound reproduction. In reality
it was
a mere sounding box
, and the cord was
a steel rod that
conveyed the vibrations of the
music from the several instruments

which were
played out of sight and ear
-
shot. At this
period Wheatstone made numerous
experiments on sound and its transmission.


Social Impact:


Sound reproduction has had an impact on
social because it makes everyone can enjoy
the music and lead to an development to the
communication.

Sound Reproduction

ELECTRONIC MUSIC

1822 July


First Diorama, combining
partially translucent paintings
with lighting effects, opened in
Paris by
Louis
-
Jacques Mandé

Daguerre

(1759
-
1851) and
Claude
-
Marie Bouton.


Cultural Impact:


Combining partially translucent
paintings with lighting effects
has had an impact on cultural
because it leads to an
tidal
current for people to do this
effect.


Translucent Painting
with Lighting Effects

WRITING

1822


A multifaceted lens for use in
lighthouses

is
invented in France by
Augustin Fresnel.

The
design enables the construction of lenses
of large

aperture

and short

focal
length

without the weight and volume of
material that would be required in
conventional

lens

design. Compared to
earlier lenses, the Fresnel lens is
much
thinner
, thus passing more light and
allowing

lighthouses

to be visible over much
longer distances.



Environmental Impact:



A multifaceted lens has had an impact on
environmental because this invention
convenient all the ships traveling on the sea
and reduced many accidents on the sea by
crashing.

Multifaceted Lens

SOCIAL NETWORKING

1822


J N Nièpce’s

first photograph, requiring
nine hours’

exposure, is
made using a glass plate coated with
bitumen of Judea
, which
hardens when exposed to light.


Social Impact:


The first photograph has had a social impact because it prompted
deep emotions in us that made us feel fully alive.

The First
Photography

CAMERA

1823

August 2



Weekly
New York Mirror and
Ladies Literary Gazette
,
forerunner of the
New York
Mirror

daily newspaper is first
published.


Political Impact:



The first publish of the
New
York Mirror

daily newspaper has
had an impact on political
because newspaper allows us
to know what is going on
around us.

First Publish of
the
New York Mirror

daily
newspaper

PRINTING

1825


John Ayrton Paris,

an English doctor, invents and produces a commercial
version of his Thaumatrope, in which two images on either side of a
disc of card threaded with string
appear to merge when spun quickly.


Cultural Impact:


The invention of Thaumatrope has had an impact on cultural because
it soon developed into video tape and became more and more
popular.

Invention of
Thaumatrope

MOVIE

1827June/ July


In France, Dr
Joseph
Nicéphore

Niépce

makes photographs on
metal plates.
Niépce

called his process

heliography
, which
literally means "
sun writing
" and this photograph took
8 hours
of exposure time.



Economic Impact:



Making photographs on metal plates has had an impact on
economy because it enhanced the quality of photography and
developed the technique of printing photos.

Making Photography on
Metal Plate

CAMERA

1829



Leopoldi Nobili

invents the
galvanometer. The most familiar
use is as an analog
measuring
instrument
, often called a

meter
.
It is used to measure the
direct
current

(flow of electric charge)
through an electric circuit.


Environmental Impact:


The invention of galvanometer
has had an impact on
environmental because it
protect our Earth form being
over use the electricity.

The Invention of Galvanometer

COMPUTER

1840January 10



Penny post begins in UK, the
pre
-
paid flat rate stamp

(the 'penny black')
guaranteeing delivery anywhere in the country;
112,000 letters

are
posted in London and use of the mail service grows rapidly hereafter.


Social Impact:


The pre
-
paid flat rate stamp has had an impact on social because it is
soon being used all around the world for communicating with each
other by mail. The stamps is still being used nowadays.

The Pre
-
Paid Flat
Rate Stamp

SOCIAL NETWORKING

1840


September 21



W H Fox Talbot

includes
gallic

acid in the
silver nitrate solution

for his photographic system,
revealing the latent image and
significantly
reducing the
exposure time
.


Economic Impact:



This process of reducing time
of exposure has had an impact
on economic because time is
significant to everyone,
customer can print more
photo if exposure time is
faster.

Reduction of Exposure Time

CAMERA

1845

January 1



Samuel Morse

opens a
50
-
mile
electric telegraph line

from
Washington to Baltimore using
his
code

for messages.


Social Impact:


The opens of electric telegraph
line has had an impact on social
because it shared a message for a
long distance at those days, it
indicates the importance of
delivering message.

The Opens of Electric
Telegraph Line

TELEPHONE

1851

November



First successful submarine cable is laid
between Dover and Calais by
Thomas
Crampton’s

Submarine Cable Company
,
creating a continuous
telegraph link
between
London and Paris. The four copper wires,
sheathed in
gutta

percha

and a protective
iron rope,
lasts 37 years.



Social Impact:


The successful submarine cable settlement
has had an impact on social because this
invention has an introduction to long
distance telegraph which is important to
communication technology.


The Successful Submarine
Cable Settlement

PHONE

1857

March 25



Edouard
-
Léon

Scott de
Martinville

(
Léon

Scott) is
granted French patent number 19,457 for his
'
Phonautograph
' cylinder recorder, which records
lateral movements of a vibrating

stylus via a
membrane on the
lampblacked

surface of paper
wrapped around a rotating cylinder. The device
goes into production for several years and is sold
for use in laboratory
measurement and analysis of
sounds
. There is no means of playing back
recordings.


Cultural Impact:


The invention of '
Phonautograph
’ has had an
impact on cultural because it introduces an device
of recording sounds which is important to the
technology of sound recording.


The Invention of '
Phonautograph


SOUND RECORD

1858 August 5

2:45am



First telegraph message

by undersea cable is
sent between Trinity Bay, Newfoundland and
Valentia, Ireland. The project's supervising
engineer,
Charles Bright
, is knighted for his
work; the engineer on HMS Agamemnon is
William Thomson

(later Lord Kelvin). The rate
of transmission is about four words a minute.


Political Impact:


The successful transmission of the first
telegraph message has had an impact on
political because the transmission can bring
us the information immediately.

The Successful Transmission of
The First Telegraph Message

TELEPHIONE

1861

December



German
Johann Philipp Reis

(1834
-
1874) invents a

Telephon
, using
vibrating membranes connected to
an
electromagnetic receiver.

He is a
German physicist who constructed a
precursor
of the electric

telephone.


Economic Impact:


The invention of
Telephon

has had an
impact on economic because it
produced a supply for people who
need to communicate in a new way,
in order to send a mail.

The Invention of
Telephon

TELEPHONE

1863


F B
Fenby
,

an inventor in
Worcester, Massachusetts, is
granted a US patent for an
'electro
-
mechanical phonograph
',
which is never constructed.
This marks the first use of the
word
'phonograph'.

His concept
detailed a system that would
record a
sequence of keyboard
strokes

onto paper tape.


Social

Impact:


The invention of ‘phonograph’
has had an impact on social
because it helps to make this
technology became popular.

The Invention of ‘phonograph’

SOUND RECORD

1875 June 3



Intelligible speech transmitted by
Alexander
Graham Bell

using a magnetic microphone.
This led to the
"gallows
"

sound
-
powered
telephone, which was able to
transmit
indistinct,

voice
-
like sounds
, but not clear
speech.


Cultural Impact:



The use of magnetic microphone has had
an impact on cultural because it has led to
a development of telephone which
generates us to use telephone nowadays.

The Use of Magnetic Microphone

VIDEO

1890

December 16



In Japan, a telephone switching system is
inaugurated at
Tatsunokuchi
, Tokyo

and a
telephone service is established between
Tokyo (155 subscribers at launch) and

Yokohama

(42 subscribers). following
verbal
instructions

produced by a computer, has
both hands and both eyes free to

concentrate
on wiring a telephone switching
system assembly.



Economic Impact:


The formation of a telephone switching
system has had an impact on economic
because it requires labour force on doing
this job, therefore it can increase an
country's GDP (Gross Domestic Product).

Formation of A Telephone Switching
System

TELEPHONE

1895

November 8



X
-
rays are discovered by
Wilhelm Röntgen
. Röntgen
discovered its medical use
when he saw a picture of his
wife's hand on a
photographic
plate

formed due to X
-
rays. His
wife's hand's photograph was
the first ever photograph of a
human body part using.


Health Impact:


The discovery of X
-
rays has
had an impact on
environmental and health
because it can offer patients an
immediately treatment from
bone injury.

The Discovery of X
-
rays

CAMERA

1899 March 27



Marconi

receives the first
wireless signals
across the
English Channel

at his ship
-
to
-
shore station at South Foreland
Lighthouse near Dover from
Boulogne, France.


Political Impact:


The successful receive of the
first wireless signals has had an
impact on political because
leads to a revolution in
communication technology
that maintain an connection
from a long distance.

The Successful
Receive of The First
Wireless Signals

VIDEO

1904 April



Several

inventors, scientists, and

engineers

contributed to
the

development of radar. The first to use radio waves to
detect "
the presence of distant metallic objects
" was
Christian
Hülsmeyer
, who in 1904 demonstrated the feasibility of
detecting the
presence of a ship

in dense fog, but not its
distance.


Political Impact:



The invention of radar has had an impact on social and
military because it conveniences people to know where they
are in the ocean and avoided many accidents .

The Invention of radar

SOCIAL NETWORKING

1929


January 4



Radio Corporation of America

and the

Victor Talking Machine
Company

agree to a takeover in which, although described as
'a
new joint company
', the latter becomes the RCA Victor division
of the former (which acquires Marconi patents). RCA pays $5
cash plus one share of common stock and one of $5.00
preferred stock for each share in Victor. Victor had made a
net
profit of $7,324,019 in 1928.


Economic Impact:


It has had an economic impact because it
indicated the combination of a radio can make a
high profit.



“A New Joint Company”

VIDEO

1939 May 17



First televised baseball game is
between Princeton and Columbia
universities at Baker's Field, New
York. The contest was aired
on

W2XBS
, an experimental station
in

New York City

which would
ultimately become

WNBC
-
TV.

The
game was announced by

Bill Stern.


Cultural Impact:


The first televised baseball game has
had an impact on cultural because

it
established a general mood that
people would rather watch the live
games at home.

The First Televised Baseball Game

TELEVISION

1949 March



Canadian parliament authorises a
television service,
spurred by the
developments

in the US that could be
viewed across the border. The recently
appointed Royal Commission on
National Development in the Arts,
Letters and Sciences (the Massey
Commission) is to consider
implementation.


Political Impact:


The authorisation of the television
service has had an political impact
because it can maintain a good openness
of the politics to the citizens.

The Authorisation of The Television
Service

TELEVISION

1965


Charles K. Kao

and
George A.
Hockham

of the
British company Standard Telephones and
Cables (STC) were the first to promote the
idea that the attenuation in
optical fibers

could be reduced below 20 decibels per
kilometer (dB/km), allowing fibers to be a
practical medium for
communication.
They
proposed that the attenuation in fibers
available at the time was caused by
impurities, which could be removed, rather
than fundamental physical effects such as
scattering. Professor Charles
Kuen

Kao
is a
Chinese
pioneer in the use of fiber optics in
telecommunications.


Social Impact:


The invention of fiber optics has had an
social impact because it has expedited the
use of telephone and internet.

The Invention
of Fiber
Optics

INTERNET

1959

August 14



First photographs of the Earth
from space are transmitted by
the
Explorer 6 satellite.


Social Impact:


The First photographs of the
Earth from space has had an
impact on social because it can
manifest the technology of
human being that can take an
picture from the space.

The First Photographs of
The Earth From Space

COMPUTER

1969 April



Sony announces its
first colour
videocassette recorder
. Known as the
Magazine
Videocorder,

it uses one
-
inch tape running at
3.25 ips giving
60 minutes
’ recording time. Sony’s
one
-
inch videotape recorder
model
EV310
, costing £1,200, is
introduced this year.


Economic Impact:


The Videocorder has had an impact
on economic because it started
the climate of video recording to
make a film which became one of
the largest business in the world.

The “
Videocorder


VIDEO

1976

April 1



Apple was established on
April
1, 1976

by

Steve Jobs,

Steve
Wozniak, and

Ronald Wayne
,

to
sell the Apple I

personal
computer

kit.


Economic Impact:


The establish of Apple has had
an impact on economic
because the production of the
iPod have being sold out all
over the world, approximately
1.21 billion dollars.

The Establish of Apple

COMPUTER

1979


July 1



Sony launches the model
TPS
-
L2
pocket
-
sized audio cassette
player with earphones in Japan.
It is called the
Walkman.



Social Impact:


The invention of the Walkman
has had an impact on social
because it make people are
able to hear music in
everywhere and anytime they
want.

The Invention of The Walkman

ELECTRONIC MUSIC

1988



Sharp Corporation

introduced the
first commercial LCD television
, a
14" model. These were offered primarily as boutique items for
discerning customers, and were not aimed at the general market.


Economic Impact:



The introduction of the first LCD television has had an impact on
economic because it caused a revolution in television technology that
many people prefer using LCD TV than CRT TV.

The Introduction of The First
LCD Television

TELEVISION

1989 November 7



BBC Television transmits the first programme bought form an
ITV company: Granada Television’s

What the Papers Say

had been
on ITV for 26 years and then Channel Four for eight years.


Cultural Impact:


The transition of the TV programme has had an impact on
cultural because it attracted more and more people to watch
television.

The Transition of The TV
Programme

TELEVISION

1998 January 19



Titanic

becomes the first film to
take more than
$20millions

on each
of the
first five weekends

on release
in the US.


Cultural Impact:


The influence of the movie
Titanic

has had an impact on cultural
because it draw audience attention
the occupation of movie.

The Influence of The Movie
Titanic


MOVIE

1998


September 7



Google search engine company is founded by
Sergey
Brin

and Larry
Page
, former students of Stanford University.

Google is
the most
-
used
search engine

on the

Web.

Google receives several hundred million
queries each day through its various services.


Social Impact:



The searching engine company, Google has had an impact on social
because this engine allows their client to researching information in
plenty of time and satisfactory results.

The Foundation of Google

INTERNET

2000

March 4



Sony launches its PlayStation 2 games
console.
The

PlayStation 2

(often
shortened to

PS2) is
a

sixth
-
generation

video game console
manufactured by

Sony. The PS2 console
is the sequel to the original PlayStation
console.




Economic Impact:



The development of Play Station has had
an economic impact because it led to an
engagement of its primary
competitors,

Sega's

Dreamcast,Microso
ft's

Xbox, and

Nintendo's

GameCube.

The Development of Play Station

VIDEO GAMES

2003 November



Chinese manufacturers display the
Enhanced Versatile Disc
(EVD)

in Beijing as a next
-
generation contender to succeed
DVD. Developed by China’s Beijing E
-
world Technology and
the US technology company On2 Technologies, it is
supported by
10 leading Chinese consumer electronics
manufacturers

and has been approved by the Standards
Administration of China. It stores 120 minutes of high
definition content on a dual
-
layer 9 Gb DVD disc.


Economic Impact:


The new generation contender has had an economic
impact because this kind of Disc has a lower prime cost
and it has the same quality of content.



The New Generation Contender

VIDEO RECORD

2004 June



Specifications for the HD
-
DVD ROM high definition video disc
format are approved by the DVD Forum. It supports both
MPEG
-
4 and Microsoft's VC
-
1

compression technologies.


Cultural Impact:


Specifications for the HD
-
DVD ROM has had a cultural impact
because it provides customer another choice to visually enjoy
the quality of high definition scenery.

Specifications for The HD
-
DVD ROM

VIDEO RECORD

2005


June 28



Sony demonstrates what it claims is the
first commercially available 4K digital
cinema projector, model
SRX
-
R100
.
Conforming to the Digital Cinema Initiative
(DCI) specifications for
'high
-
end'

digital
cinema presentations, it accepts 2K or high
-
definition sources and processes them for
display as 4K. The first unit is installed in
the
Nova Kino at Trondheim, Norway
.


Social Impact:


The demonstration of the digital cinema
projector has had a social impact because it
promoted the use of projector convert into
more and more common that many family
can afford to purchase.




The Demonstration
of The Digital
Cinema Projector

VIDEO

2006

May 15


BBC HD

is a

high
-
definition television channel

provided by the

BBC.
The broadcasts are generally
six to nine hours per day
. When high
-
definition programs are not being shown, the channel broadcasts a
looped preview containing clips from BBC HD programmers.


Social
Impact:


The high definition television channel has had an social impact
because it popularized the audience to watch television in high
definition .

The High Definition Television Channel

TELEVISION

2007 January



Dual
-
format HD DVD/
Blu
-
ray Disc
hardware and software are
introduced.
The

BD
-
ROM

specification mandates certain
codec compatibilities

for both
hardware decoders (players) and
movie software (content).


Social Impact:


The introduction of
Dual
-
format
HD DVD/
Blu
-
ray Disc hardware
and software has had a social
impact because it offered users to
store more information than the
past.

HD DVD/
Blu
-
ray Disc hardware and
software

VIDEO RECORD

2008 May 26



IBM's latest supercomputer, Roadrunner,
achieves a processing rate of one million
billion calculations a second

known
as a
petaflop
. The Roadrunner, a massive
machine occupying
6,000 square feet of
space,

this week achieved a peak of 1.026
petaflops, or just
over one million billion
calculations per second.

Just ten years ago,
the fastest supercomputer in the world
would have taken 20 years to finish a
problem the Roadrunner is capable of
finishing in a week.


Social Impact:


The achievement of this super computer
has had an impact on social because it
symbolized our technology has stepped
into a new century.

Super Computer

COMPUTER

2008 June 9


Apple introduces the third
-
generation (3G) iPhone. Apple
released the iPhone 3G in
twenty
-
two countries
, including the
original six.

Apple has since released the iPhone 3G in upwards
of
eighty countries and territories.


Social Impact:


The introduction of iPhone 3G has had a social impact because
it affected people all around the world “addicted” to this
telephone.

iPhone

3G

CELL PHONE