Spring 2012 tu 3:30-6:00 PM Jerel Rosati Department of Political Science Gambrell Hall 310

mattednearΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

1 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

217 εμφανίσεις



1


POLI 717

FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS/COMPARATIVE FOREIGN POLICY

(and quite a bit of political psychology)





Spring 2012

tu 3:30
-
6:00 PM


Jerel Rosati

Department of Political Science

Gambrell Hall 310

777
-
2981 (777
-
3109, main office

poli717@gmail.com

(Email)

http://www.cla.sc.edu/poli/faculty/rosati/index.htm

(Rosati website)




This will be a challenging class that requires you
(whether Master’s or Ph.D.
-
oriented) to invest time and
energy on your part!


Please read the entire syllabus carefully for I have given great thought and time to the development of
this course, and it lays out the objectives, the requirements and the expe
ctations. The syllabus and more can
be found on the website above.


PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES



The purpose of the course is to provide you with a
strong foundation to think theoretically about
foreign policy and politics
. The emphasis of the course is conceptual
--
focusing on “interdisciplinary” theories
of human behavior and interaction applied to the study of foreign policy, especially those from a decision
-
making and political psychological perspectives. In other words
, the goal is to better understand the practice,
the dynamics, and the major patterns of foreign policy through the use of theory.


The more
specific goals

of the course to be accomplished are to have you:

1) acquire an overview of different theories a
pplied to the study and practice of foreign policy,

2) acquire an understanding of the evolution of the study of foreign policy and IR,

3) increase your ability to develop a major paper revolving around your interests, and

4) develop your oral and writte
n communication skills as well as to strengthen your ability to reason.


You will be exposed to different bodies of thought throughout the social sciences, to different foreign
policy phenomena of different countries throughout time and space, and to diffe
rent methodological (and
epistemological) approaches. Given its breadth, the course should not only improve your ability to understand
foreign policy, but should also improve your general learning potential and level of professional competence.


The goals

and strategy represent a demanding task and high expectations. My hope is that you will find
the material interesting, that you will learn, and that you will grow as a scholar, an analyst, and an intellectual.
The prerequisite to accomplishing all this
is "time and effort" on your part.



2




REQUIREMENTS


Students are expected to engage in a considerable amount of reading and will be evaluated through class
participation, a major research paper, and a final examination. The intent behind these requirements

is to have
you study and think about the course material throughout the semester
--
to provide you with numerous
opportunities to demonstrate the knowledge you have acquired and to get feedback
--
in order to maximize your
ability to learn and grow as a stude
nt.


1.
Class Participation

(10%). In order to get the most out of class, you must be prepared when you come
to class. Students are required to
complete the readings prior to class meetings

and to come to class ready to
discuss them. I expect everyone to

participate actively in the discussion of the day. More on this below.


2.
Writing Assignment

(90%). You have three writing assignments. Details about the paper are provided
below.


3.
Final Examination

(optional). The final will consist of essays and will be cumulative, focusing on the
major questions/ideas and general concepts/points addressed in the readings and class. Your essays should
demonstrate your mastery and thoughtful consideration of the m
aterial, and should explicitly discuss and
integrate the readings. You will receive a study guide in advance of the examination to help you prepare.

If as a student you demonstrate to me throughout the course of the semester

that you have been doing the
r
eading AND comprehending it at a “very good” or “excellent” level

I will waive the final exam.
Late assignments
. If you cannot fulfill a requirement by the due date, I (or the
POLI office) MUST BE CONTACTED WITHIN 24 HOURS OF THE DUE DATE (at 7
-
3109) and
provided a
legitimate explanation (e.g., medical illness). Assignments which are allowed to be completed after the due
date will be expected to meet higher standards given the additional time granted.


GRADES


Your grade will be based, not on how well you

do compared to others in the class, but on the quality of
substantive knowledge, quality of analysis, and effective communication demonstrated
--
in other words, the
level of understanding demonstrated. An
A

represents "excellence"; a
B
+ represents "very g
ood"; a
B

represents "good". Grades below B indicate that the level of work in the course is below the level expected of
graduate students.


TEACHING PHILOSOPHY AND STRATEGY




The class will be structured around what I call a
class dialogue

in which i
nformation, knowledge, and
thought will be generated through lecture/background, discussion, and, in particular, the Socratic method. I
will often play the role of provocateur and advocate to stimulate participation. The class dialogue emphasizes
the imp
ortance of student participation and as a means to improve one's skills, interest, information,
knowledge, and, ultimately, understanding. In essence, class discussions will consist of an active exchange
between the students and the professor. When deeme
d necessary, background will be provided for some of
the more difficult material and to provide
active learning

appropriate context.


The class is organized around the required readings and their topics.
I expect every student to come to


3


class prepared

and participate. Every student should be able to summarize, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate
each assigned reading by addressing the following questions:


1. What is the author's purpose? Why did I have you read this?


2. What is the basic theme(s) o
r argument(s) of the reading?


3. What is the theoretical explanation? Based on what bodies of knowledge (and philosophical
assumptions)?


4. What research strategy and evidence is provided?


5. What is its overall explanatory power? Explain its stre
ngths and weaknesses and specify the relevant
foreign policy phenomena.


6. How does this reading relate to the other readings and to the central themes of the course?


Every student, in other words, should attempt to absorb the basic thesis and substanc
e of each reading.
In addition, I expect the student to place what is contained within the readings in perspective relative to the
rest of the course material. Students also are encouraged to offer comments or questions which contribute to
class discussi
ons on a regular basis.


ABOUT THE INSTRUCTOR (should you be interested)


Jerel Rosati is a Professor of International Studies and Political Science, and has been a member of the
Department of Political Science at the University of South Carolina since 19
82. His area of specialization is
the theory and practice of foreign policy, focusing on the United States policymaking process, decision
-
making
theory& bureaucratic politics, and the psychological study of political leaders and human cognition. His
schola
rly and intellectual interests range from American politics and history, United States foreign policy, the
Vietnam War and the sixties to the dynamics of world politics, global change and the rise and decline of
civilizations.



He has been a Fulbright Se
nior Specialist in Colombia, Visiting Scholar at the Institute of Democracy &
Human Rights in Yerevan, Armenia, a Fulbright Senior Specialist & Visiting Scholar in Argentina at the
University of San Andreas in Buenos Aires, a Visiting Professor at Somalia
National University in Mogadishu,
and a Visiting Scholar at China’s Foreign Affairs College in Beijing. He also has been a Research Associate in
the Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division (FAND) of the Library of Congress's Congressional
Research Se
rvice (CRS), President of the International Studies Association's (ISA) Foreign Policy Analysis
Section, and President of the Southern region of ISA.


He has been awarded, and participated in, a number of grants (usually through the U.S. Department of
St
ate, and previously the United States Information Agency, USIS) since 1984 as Academic Director, Field
Director, and/or Project Director where he has taught
-
trained students, scholars and practitioners from all
over the world, including Argentineans, Armen
ians, Bulgarians, Chinese, Colombians, Israelis and Palestinians,
Somalis, Master’s of International Business students, and high school teachers.

In 2002 he was the PI (Principal Investigator), Program Director and Academic Director of a six
-
week U.S.
Depa
rtment of State Fulbright American Studies Institute on U.S. Foreign Policy for 18 scholars
-
practitioners
from all over the world. The Institute included four weeks in Columbia, South Carolina (with trips to Charleston
and Atlanta), followed by two weeks i
n Washington, D.C., New York, & Los Angeles. The Fulbright Institute
completed its sixth and final year in 2007 involving 108 international participants from over 60 countries and
$1.6 million in grants.

He is the author of over seventy articles and chapte
rs, as well as five books including The Carter
Administration's Quest for Global Community: Beliefs and Their Impact on Behavior, The Power of Human
Needs in World Society, Foreign Policy Restructuring: How Governments Respond to Global Change, The
Politic
s of United States Foreign Policy (5
th
edition), and Readings in the Politics of U.S. Foreign Policy
(translated in Mandarin Chinese).


The Politics of United States Foreign Policy has been used in colleges and universities throughout the
United States (in
cluding the National War College, the Foreign Service Institute, and the U.S. Fulbright
American Studies Institutes on U.S. Foreign Policy), in over 40 foreign countries (including the George C.
Marshall European Center for Security Studies in Germany), an
d has been translated in Mandarin Chinese and
parts in German and Russian. “It is really the best single source on all aspects of the policy process,” according


4


to Robert Soofer, Professor of National Security Strategy, National War College, Washington, D.
C.


He has been the Director and Reader of over 50 Ph.D. Dissertations & 50 Master’s Theses, and
mentored many more individuals in promoting both their academic and professional careers, within the U.S. and
throughout the world (10 dissertations have resu
lted in books).He has been awarded the Outstanding
Professor of the Year in the Humanities and Social Sciences by the South Carolina (Honors) College, the
Outstanding Teacher in International Studies in the department (the only year of the award), Excellen
ce in
Teaching by the University of South Carolina Alpha Chapter of the Mortar Board Honor Society, and
Outstanding Teacher in Political Science by the American Political Science Association and Pi Sigma Alpha (The
National Political Science Honor Society)
. Roughly one
-
third of the M.A.I.S. and Ph.D. students in the
Department of Political Science are from abroad.


At a more personal level, I enjoy travel, music, movies, athletics, reading, food and spirits, family and
friends, good company, and relaxing.


My father had duo
-
citizenship (American and Italian), and fought in
World War II (on the allied side); My mother was born and raised in Florence, Italy and came to the United
States as a war bride; and I retains close family in Italy. I was raised in the

small multi
-
ethnic city of Gardena
in west LA. I came of age during the early seventies as an undergraduate at U.C.L.A. when the events
surrounding the Vietnam War and Watergate reached a crescendo, which had a profound impact on my
intellectual and perso
nal development to the present day. I have lived half my life in South Carolina and
consider myself half
-
Southern. I have lived abroad in Argentina, China, Italy, Somalia, and 'Washington, D.C.'
The past few years I have visited Argentina, Armenia, Barbado
s, Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Italy, Mexico, and
Romania. I usually visit L.A. twice a year and Italy every other year. This spring I will visit my daughter who is
studying abroad at
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

in Barcelona.


CONTACTING ME AND INTERACTING

Please feel free to come see me before or after class.
Otherwise, the best way is to communicate through email. If you have any questions or complications that I
should be aware, feel free to contact me.



Please check your e
mails, for we may send you articles and updates on the class.




* * *


THIS SYLLABUS REFLECTS THE EXPECTATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS YOU
MUST

FULFILL.
WeEXPECT YOU TO TAKE THE COURSE SERIOUSLY AND WORK HARD
--
WHICH IS, AFTERALL, THE KEY
TO LEARNING AND IN
TELLECTUAL GROWTH.



REQUIRED READING



Buy all books ONLINE. There should be plenty of used copies out to make it even cheaper to buy.



1. Torbjorn L. Knutsen, A History of International Relations Theory (Manchester University Press, 1997)



2. Laura
Neack, The New Foreign Policy: Power Seeking in a Globalized Era (Rowman & littlefield, 2008)


3. John D. Steinbruner, The Cybernetic Theory of Decision: New Dimensions of Political Analysis
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974, 2002) NO NEED
TO BUY NEW; BUY USED ONLINE
-
NO
REAL CHANGE


4. Jerel A. Rosati, The Carter Administration's Quest for Global Community: Beliefs and Their Impact
on Behavior (Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1987; hardback or paper) BUY ONLINE


5. Doris
Kearns, Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream (New York: Signet, 1976, 1991) NO NEED TO
BUY NEW; BUY USED ON LINE
-
NO REAL CHANGE


6. David A. Welch, Painful Choices: A Theory of Foreign Policy Change (Princeton University Press, 2005)


7. Articles and cha
pters through Cooper Library or email. All other required readings CAN be found
through Cooper Library's Electronic Resources or will be emailed to you.


PLEASE CHECK YOUR EMAIL REGULARLY FOR I WILL BE SENDING YOU ARTICLES,


5


REMINDERS, AND UPDATES FOR THE

CLASS.




WARNING and helpful hint.

The readings are intended to be “accessible and diverse” so as to improve
your ability to acquire an understanding of the dynamics of foreign policy and its real
-
world relevance. But I
want you to be aware that, altho
ugh I have tried to provide you with the most accessible and readable
material, the readings will be relatively demanding and challenging given, in particular, their theoretical nature.
This will probably require you to spend more time and effort in under
standing and absorbing the material.




ABOUT THE LITERATURE
. The literature in foreign policy analysis is vast, and while much will be
covered, much will necessarily be left out. An attempt has been made to select readings which present,
exemplify or ap
ply some of the most significant theories and approaches regarding the sources and explanation
of foreign policy. While many of the cases are drawn and applied to Western countries, and in particular the
United States, the theories will be relevant for un
derstanding the conduct of foreign policy in a wide variety
of states and global actors.

Recommended readings have been suggested to enable you to delve more
broadly and deeply into particular theoretical approaches.


COURSE THEMES



The course revolves around five major themes or questions. They will be raised and addressed
throughout the semester for they are integral to making sense of the topics and the readings.


1. Traditionally

that is, since World War II

foreign policy has b
een most likely to be explained from a
rational actor perspective, embedded predominantly within the realist and power politics tradition emphasizing
the role of global, systemic factors and the commonality of states. To the present day the rational actor

model remains the ideal type when it comes to explaining policymaking whether from a realist (conservative),
liberal, or radical theoretical perspective. This raises the following questions: To what extent do global
factors determine foreign policy? To

what extent are other factors from other levels of analysis
consequential? To what extent is foreign policy a function of rationality? To what extent should the rational
actor model be considered an ideal type? What alternatives are available?


2. What

are the most powerful ways of explaining foreign policy? Beginning in the 1950s, social
scientists attempted to be more systematic in identifying and explaining major empirical patterns of foreign
policy in comparison to more traditional historical and p
olicy analyses of foreign policy. Thus, an effort was
made to link theory (explanation) and practice (description) in foreign policy. No consensus has evolved;
instead, there has been a proliferation of competing theories derived from a variety of differ
ent disciplines,
such as psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and anthropology, that have been adapted and
applied to explain foreign policy. We will attempt to provide an overview and examine (within reason) many of
the major theoretical
approaches that have developed in the study of foreign policy and international relations
in order to better explain foreign policy.


3. What foreign policy phenomena is explained? The social science emphasis during the sixties was on
identifying and expl
aining the key patterns in the foreign policy "decision
-
making process" and foreign policy
"behavior." But this does not run the full gamit of foreign policy phenomena. For example, one can speak at
least in terms of foreign policy agenda
-
setting, decisi
on
-
making, foreign policy behavior, foreign policy
outcomes, and foreign policy consequences. These categories can be further broken down into different types
or elements. Therefore, it is important that we be clear as to what type of foreign policy phen
omena is to be
explained, for different theoretical approaches may be more relevant for certain foreign policy phenomena
then others. This is a topic that has been underexplored in the study of foreign policy.


4. When and why does foreign policy change

occur? Throughout much of the sixties and seventies,
foreign policy studies (and IR theory) by social scientists lacked a dynamic quality. The emphasis was on
explaining the foreign policy of different countries at the same point in time. Insufficient
attention has been
given to explaining patterns of continuity and change in foreign policy over time. Clearly, recent developments
and changes throughout the world suggest that much more attention needs to be paid to the sources of
foreign policy change.

This should not only strengthen explanations of foreign policy throughout history but


6


should also provide a stronger foundation for predicting and understanding foreign policy into the future.


5. How has the evolution of the study of foreign policy and

international relations evolved? Foreign
policy scholarship during the 60s and 70s, especially within the U.S., became dominated by scholars who took a
narrowly defined “neo
-
positivist” so
-
called "scientific" approach. Since the 70s U.S. scholarship has

broadened, become more eclectic and richer
--
theoretically and methodologically, as well as becoming more
applied and concerned with policy relevance. Nevertheless, epistemological and methodological debates (and
conflicts) and questions continue. We wil
l briefly cover the theoretical and epistemological foundations in
western civilization. Then we will focus on developments in the 20
th

century, especially since World War II
when American scholarship came to dominate the field.




COURSE TOPICS AND READI
NGS



AN ASTERISK (*) indicates that the reading is required; all other readings are recommended and for
reference.



CLASS ORGANIZATION. Each class usually will be divided into two parts:


A. The first part of class (roughly 2 hours) focuses on variou
s theoretical appr
oaches and the required
readings can be found under section A (then we will take a break); and


B. The latter part of class focuses on epistemology, and the evolution of the study of IR and foreign policy,
and the required readings can be found under section B.


(The readings in section B are not required

only recommended

-
for Master’s
-
oriente
d

students “after”
the
4th week).




WARNING and advice
. Unless I specifically designate “peruse” (which means to skim and get the
general ideas), I expect that you will READ ALL of the required readings and pages designated in their
entirety

this includes

the footnotes or endnotes (they often contain important commentary as well as
bibliographic citations). Just reading certain parts closely, like the intro and conclusion, and skimming the
rest of the required material results in a superficial understand
ing of the readings, harms your ability to learn
and acquire a strong depth of knowledge and understanding, and is unacceptable in this class. This is why I
stated on the first page of this syllabus that this will be a challenging class that requires you
to invest time
and energy on your part.





FIRST MANDATORY EMAIL/INFORMATION ASSIGNMENT.

Due by yesterday. Email me the
following information as a list in the following numerical order (you cannot get a passing grade unless you fulfill
this assignment):


Put as your subject heading: POLI 717 email assignment.



1) name (as registered)



2) social security #



3) phone numbers (home; work; cell; other)



4) email address



5) M.A. or Ph.D. oriented?



7




6) major (PS, IS or other; field o
f concentration



7) class (e.g., first year graduate)



8) do you work during school? hours per week? what do you do?



9) home town (raised most of life)?



10) where have you traveled outside the U.S.? If not outside the U.S., then outside th
e southeast?



11) list three things that you love to do or are passionate about



12) describe your first “international political experience”
(in person or through, e.g., t.v.)



13) describe any practical experience you have in the world of politiics



14) What is your purpose getting a graduate degree and for your career goal? What would you like to
accomplish politically and internationally?


1. Introduction


Course Overview


Syllabus and Requirements


Course Themes



2.

Decision
-
Making Theory


B
ureaucratic Politics


A. *Laura Neack, The New Foreign Policy (2008), preface, chapters 1 and 2 (“Rational Actors and
National Interests”)


*Graham T. Allison, "Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis," American Political Science Review
58
(September 1969), pp. 698
-
718


*Robert Art, “Bureaucratic Politics and American Foreign Policy: A Critique,” Policy Sciences 4 (1973),
pp. 467
-
90


*Jerel A. Rosati, "Developing a Systematic Decision
-
Making Framework: Bureaucratic Politics in
Perspective,"
World Politics 33 (January 1981), pp. 234
-
252


*Tony Judt, “On the Brink,” New York Review of Books (January 15, 1998)


*Jerel Rosati, “Ignoring the Essence of Decision,” International Studies Review 3:1 (Spring 2001), pp.
178
-
181


B. *Joseph S. Nye Jr. “S
cholars on the Sidelines,” Washington Post (April 13, 2009)

*Dale R. Herspring, "Practitioners and Political Scientists," PS: Political Science & Politics (September 1992),
pp. 554
-
558




3.

Decision
-
Making Theory


Groupthink and Small Groups


A. *Irving

L. Janis, "Groupthink Among Policymakers," in To Augur Well: Early Warning Indicators in
World Politics, edited by J. David Singer and Michael D. Wallace (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1979), pp. 71
-
89


*Laura Neack, The New Foreign Policy (2008), chapter 4 (“Deci
sion Units, Small Groups, and
Bureaucratic Politics”)


*Paul 't Hart, Eric K. Stern, and Bengt Sundelius, "Foreign Policy
-
making at the Top: Political Group
Dynamics," in Beyond Groupthink: Political Group Dynamics and Foreign Policy
-
making, edited by Paul

't Hart,
Eric K. Stern, and Bengt Sundelius (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997), pp. 3
-
34


*Eric K. Stern, "Probing the Plausibility of Newgroup Syndrome: Kennedy and the Bay of Pigs," in Beyond
Groupthink: Political Group Dynamics and Foreign

Policy
-
making, edited by Paul 't Hart, Eric K. Stern, and Bengt
Sundelius (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997), pp. 153
-
189


B. *Paul 't Hart, "Irving L. Janis' Victims of Groupthink," Political Psychology 12 (1991), pp. 247
-
279


4. Decision
-
Ma
king Theory


Adviser Interaction and Framing


A. *Jean A. Garrison, Games Advisers Play: Foreign Policy in the Nixon and Carter Administrations
(Texas A & M Press, 1999), intro and chapter 1


*Jean A. Garrison, “Framing Foreign Policy Alternatives in the

Inner Circle: The President, His Advisors,
and the Struggle for the Policy Agenda,” Political Psychology 22:4 (2001), pp. 775
-
807



8



*Jean A. Garrison, "Constructing the "National Interest" in U.S.
-
China Policy Making: How Foreign
Policy Decision Groups De
fine and Signal Policy Choices," Foreign Policy Analysis, vol. 3, no. 2 (2007), pp. 105
-
126.


*Jean Garrison, Jerel Rosati and James Scott, "President Obama and the ‘Team of Rivals’ Model in
Foreign Policy Decisionmaking: Campaigning v. Governing & Washing
ton Policymaking," in progress


B. *Alexander L. George, “The Two Cultures of Academia and Policy
-
Making: Bridging the Gap,” Political
Psychology 15 (1994), pp. 143
-
172




Juliet Kaarbo, "Power and Influence in Foreign Policy Decision Making: The Role of J
unior Coalition
Partners in German and Israeli Foreign Policy," International Studies Quarterly 40 (December 1996), pp. 501
-
530


Irving L. Janis, "Groupthink," Psychology Today (November 1971)


Paul 't

Hart, Eric K. Stern, and Bengt Sundelius, editors, Beyond Groupthink: Political Group Dynamics
and Foreign Policy
-
making, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997), all (and footnotes)


Graham Allison and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explain
ing the Cuban Missile Crisis (New York:
Longman, 1999)


Morton H. Halperin, Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy (Brookings, 1974), pp. 235
-
293



Peter Schraeder, "Bureaucratic Incrementalism, Crisis, and Change in U.S. Foreign Policy Toward
Africa," i
n Foreign Policy Restructuring: How Governments Respond to Change, edited by Jerel A. Rosati, Joe
D. Hagan, and Martin W. Sampson (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1994), pp. 111
-
137


Graham T. Allison, Essence of Decision: Explaining the

Cuban Missile Crisis (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971)


Graham T. Allison, "Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis," American Political Science Review
58 (September 1969), pp. 698
-
718


Morton H. Halperin, Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy (Broo
kings, 1974)


John D. Steinbruner, The Cybernetic Theory of Decision: New Dimensions of Political Analysis
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974), preface, introduction, chapters 2
-
5 and peruse chapter 10


Alexander L. George, Deterrence in Amer
ican Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice (New York: Columbia
University Press, 1974)


Irving L. Janis, Groupthink, introduction, chapters 8, 10 & 11


Fritz Gaenslen, "Decision Making Groups," in Political Psychology and Foreign Policy, edited by Eric
Singe
r and Valerie Hudson (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992), pp. 165
-
193


Paul 't Hart, "Irving L. Janis' Victims of Groupthink," Political Psychology 12 (1991), pp. 247
-
279


Jonathan Bendor and Thomas H. Hammond, "Rethinking Allison's Models," American Polit
ical Science
Review 86 (June 1992), pp. 301
-
322


Miriam Steiner, "The Search for Order in a Disorderly World: Worldviews and Prescriptive Decision
Paradigms," International Organization (Summer 1983), pp. 373
-
413


Glen Whyte, "Groupthink Reconsidered," Aca
demy of Management Review 14 (1989), pp. 40
-
56


Jack Levy, “Organization Routines and the Causes of War,” International Studies Quarterly 30 (June
1986), pp. 193
-
220


Amos Tversky, and Daniel Kahneman, "Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions" in Deci
sion Making:
Descriptive, Normative, and Prescriptive Interactions, edited by David E. Bell, Howard Raiffa, and Amos
Tversky (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988)


Davis B. Bobrow, Steve Chan, and John A. Kringen, Understanding Foreign Policy Decisi
ons: The Chinese
Case (New York: Free Press, 1979)


Richard Snyder, H.W. Bruck, and Burton Sapin, editors, Foreign Policy Decision
-
Making (New York: Free
Press, 1962)


Jack Snyder, The Ideology of the Offensive: Military Decision Making and the Disasters o
f 1914
(Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988)


Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior (New York: Free Press, 1976)


James Q. Wilson, Burueaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It (New York: Basic
Books, 1989)



9



Barry R. Posen, The So
urces of Military Doctrine: France, Britain, and Germany Between the World
Wars (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984)


John R. Oneal, "The Rationality of Decision Making During International Crises," Polity 20 (Summer
1988), pp. 598
-
622


Paul 't

Hart, Uriel Rosenthal, and Alexander Kouzmin, "Crisis Decision Making: The Centralization Thesis
Revisited," Administration & Society 25 (May 1993), pp. 12
-
45


Gregory M. Herek, Irving L. Janis, and Paul Huth, "Decision Making During International Crises:

Is
Quality of Process Related to Outcome?" Journal of Conflict Resolution 31 (June 1987), pp. 203
-
226


Peter Suedfeld, "Cognitive Managers and Their Critics," Political Psychology 13 (1992), pp. 435
-
453


Davis B. Bobrow, Steve Chan, and John A. Kringen, U
nderstanding Foreign Policy Decisions: The Chinese
Case (New York: Free Press, 1979)


John R. Oneal, Foreign Policy Making in Times of Crisis (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press,
1982)


Bruce J. Allyn, James G. Blight, and David A. Welch, "Essence o
f Revision: Moscow, Havana, and the
Cuban Missile Crisis," International Security (Winter 1989/90), pp. 136
-
172


Tony Judt, "On the Brink," The New York Review of Books (January 15, 1998), pp. 52
-
59


Paul A. Anderson, "Decision Making by Objection and the
Cuban Missile Crisis," Administrative Science
Quarterly 28 (1983), pp. 201
-
222



5. Cognition and Image Theory I


Images of the Enemy, Cognition, and Cybernetics


A. *Ole R. Holsti, "Cognitive Dynamics and Images of the Enemy," in Image and Reality in
World Politics
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1967), edited by John C. Farrell and Asa P. Smith, pp. 16
-
39


*Laura Neack, The New Foreign Policy (2008), chapter 3 (“Cognitive Misers and Distrusting Leaders”)


*John D. Steinbruner, The Cybernetic The
ory of Decision: New Dimensions of Political Analysis
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974, 2002), preface, introduction, chapters 2
-
5 and peruse
chapter 10


*Jack L. Snyder, "Rationality at the Brink: The Role of Cognitive Processes in Failure
s of Deterrence,"
World Politics 30 (April 1978), pp. 344
-
365


B. *Jerel A. Rosati, "The Power of Human Cognition in the Study of World Politics,” International
Studies Review 2:3 (Fall 2000), pp. 45
-
75.



6. Cognition and Image Theory II
--

Application


A
. *Jerel A. Rosati, The Carter Administration's Quest for Global Community: Beliefs and Their Impact
on Behavior (Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1987), all (including Appendices)


B. *Cass R. Sunstein, “The Human Variables,” The New Re
public (August 6, 2000)


*Jerel Rosati and Colleen E. Miller, “Political Psychology, Cognition and the Study of World Politics:
Where Should We Go From Here?” Compendium of International Studies (Blackwell, 2011)



7. Cognition, and Image Theory II


Role
of Ideology, Culture and Context


A. John Dower, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York: Pantheon, 1987),
introduction, chapter 1, illustrations, and chapter 11 (and footnotes ) (pp. ix
-
xii, 3
-
14, 181
-
200, 293
-
317)



*Roxanne
Euben, “When Worldviews Collide: Conflicting Assumptions about Human Behavior Held by
Rational Actor Theory and Islamic Fundamentalism,” Political Pscyhology 16 (March 1995), pp. 157
-
178


*Lawrence P. Frank, "The First Oil Regime," World Politics 37 (July
1985), pp. 586
-
598


*Henry L. Mason, "Implementing the Final Solution: The Ordinary Regulating of the Extraordinary,"
World Politics 40 (July 1988), pp. 542
-
569


B. *peruse Hazel Rose Markus and Shinobu Kitayama, "Culture and the Self: Implications for Cog
nition,
Emotion, and Motivation," Psychological Review 98 (1991), pp. 224
-
53



10




Jerel A. Rosati, "Continuity and Change in the Foreign Policy Beliefs of Political Leaders: Addressing the
Controversy Over the Carter Administration." Political Psychology 9 (
1990), pp. 471
-
505


Jerel A. Rosati, "The Impact of Beliefs on Behavior: The Foreign Policy of the Carter Administration," in
Foreign Policy DecisionMaking: Perception, Cognition, and Artificial Intelligence, edited by Donald A. Sylvan and
Steve Chan (New
York: Praeger, 1984), pp. 158191


Ole R. Holsti, "Cognitive Dynamics and Images of the Enemy," in Image and Reality in World Politics
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1967), edited by John C. Farrell and Asa P. Smith, pp. 16
-
39


Robert Jervis, Percept
ion and Misperception in International Politics (Princeton University Press, 1976),
introduction, chapters 1
-
5


Alan Page Fiske, Shinobu Kitayma, Hazel Rose Markus, and Richard Nisbett, “The Cultural Matrix of
Social Psychology,” in The Handbook of Social
Psychology, edited by Daniel T. Gilbert, Susan T. Fiske, and
Gardner Lindzey (Boston: McGraw
-
Hill, 1998), read pp. 915
-
927, 930
-
933, 937
-
939, 943
-
945; peruse pp. 927
-
930, 933
-
937, 939
-
943


Stephen G. Walker, "The Interface Between Beliefs and Behavior: Hen
ry Kissinger's Operational Code
and the Vietnam War," Journal of Conflict Resolution 21 (March 1977), pp. 129
-
168


Keith L. Shimko, “Metaphors and Foreign Policy,” Political Psychology 15 (December 1994), pp. 655
-
671


Janice Gross Stein, "Building Politics

into Psychology: The Misperception of Threat," Political Psychology
9 (1988), pp. 245
-
271


Robert Jervis, "Hypotheses on Misperception," World Politics 20 (1968), pp. 454
-
479


Donald P. Green and Ian Shapiro, Pathologies of Rational Choice (New Haven: Yal
e University Press,
1994)


Richard K. Herrmann and Michael P. Fischerkeller, "Beyond the Enemy and Spiral Model: Cognitive
-
Strategic Research after the Cold War," International Organization 49 (1995), pp. 415
-
50


Daniel Heradstveit and G. Matthew Bonham, "
Attribution Theory and Arab Images of the Gulf War,"
Political Psychology 17 (1996), pp. 271
-
292.


Deborah Welch Larson, "Crisis Prevention and the Austrian State Treaty," International Organization 41
(Winter 1987), pp. 27
-
60


Janice Gross Stein and David

A. Welch, "Rational and Psychological Approaches to the Study of
International Conflict: Comparative Strengths and Weakneses," in Decision
-
making on War and Peace: The
Cognitive
-
Rational Debate, edited by Nehemia Geva and Alex Mintz (Boulder, CO: Lynne Ri
enner Publishers,
1997), pp. 51
-
77


Herbert S. Simon, "Human Nature in Politics: The Dialogue of Psychology with Political Science,"
American Political Science Review 79 (1985), pp. 293
-
304


Richards J. Heuer, Jr. “Analyzing the Soviet Invasion of Afghanis
tan: Hypotheses from Causal
Attribution Theory,” Studies in Comparative Communism 13 (Winter 1980), pp. 347
-
355


Christopher Hemmer, “Historical Analogies and the Definition of Interests: The Iranian Hostage Crisis
and Ronald Reagan’s Policy Toward the Hos
tages in Lebanon,” Political Psychology 20 (June 1999), pp. 267
-
289


Barbara Farnham, "Political Cognition and Decision
-
Making," Political Psychology 11 (1990), pp. 83
-
111


Bruce W. Jentleson, "Discrepant Responses to Falling Dictators: Presidential Belief

Systems and the
Mediating Effects of the Senior Advisory Process," Political Psychology 11 (1990), pp. 353
-
384


Richard K. Betts, "Analysis, War, and Decision: Why Intelligence Failures are Inevitable," World Politics
(October 1978), pp. 61
-
89


Betty Glad

and Brian Whitmore, "Jimmy Carter and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: A Psychological
Perspective," in Politics and Psychology: Contemporary Psychodynamic Perspectives, edited by Joan Offerman
-
Zuckerberg (New York: Plenum Press, 1991), pp. 117
-
142


St
ephen G. Walker, "Psychodynamic Processes and Framing Effects In Foreign Policy Decision
-
making:
Woodrow Wilson's Operational Code," Political Psychology 16 (1995), pp. 697
-
717


Deborah Welch Larson, "The Psychology of Reciprocity in International Relation
s," Negotiation Journal
(July 1988), pp. 281
-
301


Betty Glad, "Personality, Political and Group Process Variables in Foreign Policy Decision
-
Making: Jimmy


11


Carter's Handling of the Iranian Hostage Crisis," International Political Science Review 10 (1989), p
p. 35
-
61


Jack S. Levy, "An Introduction to Prospect Theory," Political Psychology 13 (1992), pp. 171
-
186


Richard Herrmann, Perceptions and Behavior in Soviet Foreign Policy (Pittsburgh: University of
Pittsburgh Press, 1985)


Deborah Welch Larson, Origins

of Containment: A Psychological Explanation (Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 1985)


Robert A. Axelrod, editor, Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites (Princeton, N.J.:
Princeton University Press, 1976)


Richard Cottam, Fo
reign Policy Motivation: A General Theory and a Case Study (Pittsburgh: University
of Pittsburgh Press, 1977)


Daniel Heradstveit, The Arab
-
Israeli Conflict: Psychological Obstacles to Peace (Oslo: Universitites
forlaget, 1979)


Jerel A. Rosati, The Carter

Administration's Quest for Global Community: Beliefs and Their Impact on
Behavior (Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1987)


Robert Jervis, Richard Ned Lebow, and Janice Gross Stein, editors, Psychology and Deterrence
(Baltimore: Johns H
opkins University Press, 1985)


Yuen Foong Khong, Analogies at War: Korea, Munick, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992)


Roberta Wohlstetter, Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision (Stanford, CA: St
anford University Press,
1962)


Donald A. Sylvan and James F. Voss, editors, Problem Representation in Foreign Policy Decision Making
(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998)


Vamik D. Volkan, editor, The Psychodynamics of International Relationships (
Lexington, MA: Lexington
Books, 1990)


Deborah Welch Larson, Anatomy of Mistrust: U.S.
-
Soviet Relations During the Cold War (Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, 1997)


8. Motivational and Personality Theory I


Leaders and Political Psychobiography


A. *Dor
is Kearns, Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream (New York: Signet, 1976, 1991), all, including
footnotes; read the “postscript” closely


*Ole R. Holsti, "Crisis Management," in Psychological Dimensions of War (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1990),
edited by Betty G
lad, pp. 116
-
142


B. * Charles F. Hermann and Gregory Peacock, "The Evolution and Future of Theoretical Research in the
Comparative Study of Foreign Policy," in Hermann, Kegley, and Rosenau, eds., New Directions in the Study of
Foreign Policy (Boston: Alle
n & Unwin, 1987), pp. 13
-
32



spring break


9. Historical Context and Overview of the Theoretical Study of IR and Foreign Policy


A. *Torbjorn L. Knutsen, A History of International Relations Theory (Manchester University Press,
1997), preface,
introduction, parts I and II (and footnotes)


B. *Stanley Hoffmann, "An American Social Science: International Relations," Daedalus 106 (1977), pp.
41
-
60


*Richard Wolin, "Reason of State," The New Republic (June 4, 2001)


10. Motivational and Personality
Theory II


Egoism and Human Needs


A. *William Freidman, "Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House and Political Psychobiography," Political
Psychology 15 (1994), pp. 35
-
59


* Jerel Rosati, Review of Arie W. Kruglanski, The Psychology of Closed Mindedness (New Y
ork:
Psychology Press, 2004), in Political Psychology 27 (June 2006), pp. 506
-
509



12



*Neta C. Crawford, “The Passion of World Politics: Propositions on Emotion and Emotional Relationships,”
International Security 24 (Spring 2000), pp. 116
-
156


*Melchiore J.
Laucella, “A Cognitive
-
Psychodynamic Perspective to Understanding Secretary of State
Cyrus Vance’s Worldview,” Presidential Studies Quarterly34 (June 2004), pp. 227
-
271


B. *Donald J. Puchala, "Woe to the Orphans of the Scientific Revolution," Journal of I
nternational
Affairs 44 (Spring/Summer 1990), pp. 59
-
80


11. Motivational and Personality Theory III
--

Basic Instincts and Human Nature (April 6)


A. *Bradley A. Thayer, “Bringing in Darwin: Evolutionary Theory, Realism, and International Politics,”
Inter
national Security 25 (Fall 2000), pp. 124
-
151


*Vamik D. Volkan, "The Need to Have Enemies and Allies: A Developmental Approach," Political
Psychology 6 (1985), pp. 219
-
247


*Jerel A. Rosati and Roger A . Coate, "Human Needs in World Society," in The Power

of Human Needs in
World Society, edited by Roger A. Coate and Jerel A. Rosati (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1988), pp.
120


*John W. Burton, “Conflict Resolution as a Function of Human Needs,” in The Power of Human Needs in
World Society, edited

by Roger A. Coate and Jerel A. Rosati (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1988), pp.
187
-
204


*Roger D. Masters, "Conclusion: Primate Politics and Political Theory," in Primate Politics, edited by
Glendon Schubert and Roger D. Masters (Carbondale: Sou
thern Illinois University Press, 1990), peruse
chapter; read pp. 221
-
222, 228
-
241, 246
-
247 closely


B. *Herbert S. Simon, "Human Nature in Politics: The Dialogue of Psychology with Political Science,"
American Political Science Review 79 (1985), pp. 293
-
30
4



Michael Link and Betty Glad, "Exploring the Psychopolitical Dynamics of Advisory Relations: The Carter
Administration's "Crisis of Confidence," Political Psychology 15 (1994), p. 461
-
480


Richard Wolin, “Reasons of State, States of Reason,” (review of
Hans J. Morgenthau: An Intellectual
Biography by Christoph Frei), The New Republic (June 4, 2001), pp. 51
-
58


Geoffrey Cocks, "Contributions of Psychohistory to Understanding Politics," in Political Psychology,
edited by Margaret P. Hermann (San Francisco:

Jossey
-
Bass, 1986), pp. 139
-
166


Jerrold M. Post and Robert S. Robins, "The Captive King and His Captive Court: The Psychopolitical
Dynamics of the Disabled Leader and His Inner Circle," Political Psychology 11 (1990), pp. 331
-
351


Roger D. Masters,
"Conclusion: Primate Politics and Political Theory," in Primate Politics, edited by
Glendon Schubert and Roger D. Masters (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1990), peruse
chapter; read pp. 221
-
222, 228
-
241, 246
-
247 closely


Jerold M. Post, "C
urrent Concepts of the Narcissistic Personality: Implications for Political Psychology,"
Political Psychology 14 (1993), pp. 99
-
121


Raymond Birt, "Personality and Foreign Policy: The Case of Stalin," Political Psychology 14 (1993), pp.
607
-
625


Michael Ly
ons, “Presidential Character Revisited,” Political Psychology 18 (December 1997), pp. 791
-
811


Irving L. Janis and Leon Mann, "Coping with Decisional Conflict," in Current Trends in Psychology, edited
by Irving L. Janis (Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann, 19
77)


Manfred F.R. Kets De Vries, "Leaders on the Couch," Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 26 (1990),
pp. 423
-
431


David G. Winter, "Personality and Foreign Policy: Historical Overview of Research," in Political
Psychology and Foreign Policy, edited by

Eric Singer and Valerie Hudson (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992),
pp. 79
-
101


Robert H. Swansbrough, "A Kohutian Analysis of President Bush's Personality and Style in the Persian
Gulf Crisis," Political Psychology 15 (1994), pp. 227
-
276


Philip E. Tetlo
ck, Faye Crosby, and Travis L. Crosby, "Political Psychobiography," Micropolitics 1 (1981),
pp. 191
-
213



13



Robert M. Crunden, "Freud, Erikson, and the Historian: A Bibliographical Survey," Canadian Review of
American Studies (1973), pp. 48
-
64


Peter J. Loewe
nberg, "Nixon, Hitler, and Power: An Ego Psychological Study," Psychoanalytic Inquiry 6
(1986), pp. 27
-
48


Lloyd S. Etheredge, "Personality Effects on American Foreign Policy, 1898
-
1968," American Political
Science Review 72 (June 1978), pp. 434
-
451


Fred

I. Greenstein, "Can Personality and Politics Be Studied Systematically?" Political Psychology 13
(1992), pp. 105
-
128


Betty Glad, "Reagan's Midlife Crisis and the Turn to the Right," Political Psychology 10 (1989), pp. 593
-
624


Rudolph Binion, "Hitler's C
oncept of Lebensraum: The Psychological Basis," The Journal of Psychohistory
1 (1973), pp. 187
-
215


Alan C. Elms, "From House to Haig: Private Life and Public Style in American Foreign Policy Advisers,"
Journal of Social Issues 42 (1986), pp. 33
-
53


Betty
Glad, "Black
-
and
-
White Thinking: Ronald Reagan's Approach to Foreign Policy," Political Psychology
4 (1983), pp. 33
-
76


Jerrold M. Post, "The Season's of a Leader's Life: Influences of the Life Cycle on Political Behavior,"
Political Psychology 2 (1980), p
p. 35
-
49


Irving L. Janis and Leon Mann, Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and
Commitment (New York: Free Press, 1977)


William McKinley Runyan, editer, Psychology and Historical Interpretation (New York: Oxford University
Pres
s, 1988)


Alexander L. George and Juliette L. George, Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: A Personality Study
(New York: 1956, 1964), pp. v
-
xiv, xviii
-
xxii, 3
-
13, 113
-
132, 317
-
322


Robert C. Tucker, "The Georges' Wilson Reexamined: An Essay on Psychobiograph
y," American Political
Science Review (1977), pp. 606
-
618


E.A. Weinstein, J.W. Anderson, and A.S. Link, "Woodrow Wilson's Political Personality: A Reappraisal,"
Political Science Quarterly 93 (1978), pp. 585
-
598


Juliette L. George and Alexander L. George
, "Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: A Reply to Weinstein,
Anderson, and Link," Political Science Quarterly 96 (Winter 1981
-
82), pp. 641
-
666


Jerrold M. Post, "Woodrow Wilson Re
-
examined: The Mind
-
Body Controversy Redux and Other
Disputations," Political
Psychology 4 (1983), pp. 289
-
306


Juliette L. George and Alexander L. George, "Comments on "Woodrow Wilson Re
-
examined: The Mind
-
Body Controversy Redux and Other Disputations," Political Psychology 4 (1983), pp. 307
-
312


Edwin A. Weinstein, "Comments on "W
oodrow Wilson Re
-
examined: The Mind
-
Body Controversy Redux
and Other Disputations, Political Psychology 4 (1983), pp. 313
-
324


Jerrold M. Post, "Reply to the Three Comments on "Woodrow Wilson Re
-
examined: The Mind
-
Body
Controversy Redux and Other Disputati
ons," Political Psychology 4 (1983), pp. 329
-
331


Michael Marmor, "Comments on "Woodrow Wilson Re
-
examined: The Mind
-
Body Controversy Redux and
Other Disputations," Political Psychology 4 (1983), pp. 325
-
327


Robert M. Saunders, "History, Health and Herons
: The Historiography of Woodrow Wilson's Personality
and Decision
-
Making," Presidential Studies Quarterly (Winter 1994), pp. 57
-
77


Stanley A. Renshon, "A Preliminary Assessment of the Clinton Presidency: Character, Leadership and
Performance," Political P
sychology 15 (1994), pp. 375
-
394


Neta C. Crawford, “The Passion of World Politics: Propositions on Emotion and Emotional Relationships,”
International Security 24 (Spring 2000), pp. 116
-
156


Bradley A. Thayer, “Bringing in Darwin: Evolutionary Theory, Rea
lism, and International Politics,”
International Security 25 (Fall 2000), pp. 124
-
151


Blema S. Steinberg, "Shame and Humiliaton in the Cuban Missile Crisis: A Psychoanlytic Perspective,"
Political Psychology 12 (1991), pp. 653
-
690


Richard E. Neustadt, Pr
esidential Power: The Politics of Leadership (New York: John Wiley, 1960,


14


chapters 3
-
5, and pp. 179
-
180


Margaret G. Hermann, "Ingredients of Leadership," in Political Psychology, edited by Margaret P.
Hermann (San Francisco: Jossey
-
Bass, 1986), pp. 167
-
19
2


James M. Goldgeier, Leadership Style and Soviet Foreign Policy: Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev,
Gorbachev (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994)


Henry A. Kissinger, “Domestic Structure and Foreign Policy,” American Foreign Policy (New York
: W.W.
Norton, 1977), pp. 11
-
50


Margaret Hermann and John Thomas Preston, "Presidents, Advisers, and Foreign Policy: The Effects of
Leadership Style on Executive Arrangements," Political Psychology 15 (1994), pp. 75
-
96


Stanley and Inge Hoffmann, "De Gaul
le as Political Artist: The Will to Grandeur," in Decline or Renewal?
France Since the 1930s (New York: Viking Press, 1968), edited by Stanley Hoffmann, pp. 202
-
253


Barbara Kellerman, editor, Political Leadership: A Source Book (Pittsburgh: University of
Pittsburgh
Press, 1986)


Daniel L. Byman and Kenneth M. Pollack, “Let Us Now Praise Great Men: Bringing the Statesman Back
In,” International Security 25 (Spring 2001), pp. 107
-
146


Gabriel Sheffer, editor, Innovative leaders in International Politics (Alb
any: State University Press of
New York, 1993)






12. Foreign Policy Change and Learning Theory


A. *Charles F. Hermann, "Changing Course: When Governments Choose to Redirect Foreign Policy,"
International Studies Quarterly 34 (1990), pp. 3
-
21


*Jerel A.

Rosati, "Cycles in Foreign Policy Restructuring: The Politics of Continuity and Change in U.S.
Foreign Policy," in Foreign Policy Restructuring: How Governments Respond to Change (Columbia, SC: University
of South Carolina Press, 1994), edited by Jerel A.

Rosati, Joe D. Hagan, and Martin W. Sampson, pp. 221
-
261


*Janice Gross Stein, “Political Learning by Doing: Gorbachev as Uncommitted Thinker and Motivated
Learner,” International Organization 48 (1994), pp. 155
-
184


*Martin W. Sampson III, "Exploiting t
he Seams: External Structures and Libyan Foreign Policy
Changes," in Foreign Policy Restructuring: How Governments Respond to Change (Columbia, SC: University of
South Carolina Press, 1994), edited by Jerel A. Rosati, Joe D. Hagan, and Martin W. Sampson, p
p. 88
-
110


B. *Jerel A. Rosati, Martin W. Sampson, and Joe D. Hagan, "The Study of Change in Foreign Policy," in
Foreign Policy Restructuring: How Governments Respond to Change (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina
Press, 1994), edited by Jerel A.
Rosati, Joe D. Hagan, and Martin W. Sampson, pp. 3
-
21


13. Foreign Policy Change and Learning Theory


A. *David A. Welch, Painful Choices: A Theory of Foreign Policy Change (Princeton University Press,
2005)


B. *Thomas S. Kuhn, “The Structure of Scientifi
c Revolutions,” a synopsis of the original by Professor
Frank Pagares. The work was first published as a monograph in the International Encyclopedia of Unified
Science, then as a book by University of Chicago Press in 1962 [I highly recommend that everybod
y read what
many consider the most important work written in the 20
th

century on the philosophy of science).


Also recommended. “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” in Wikipedia. For anybody who doubts the
authenticity and brilliance of Wikipedia, I s
uggest they read:
The Charms of Wikipedia

By Nicholson Baker in
the New York Review of Books (March 20, 2008). “Wikipedia is just an incredible thing. It's fact
-
encirclingly
huge, and it's idiosyncratic
, careful, messy, funny, shocking, and full of simmering controversies, and it's free,
and it's fast."



Sarah Mendelson, "Internal Battles and External Wars: Politics, Learning, and the Soviet Withdrawal
from Afghanistan," World Politics 45 (1993), pp. 32
7
-
360


Jack S. Levy, "Learning and Foreign Policy: Sweeeping a Conceptual Minefield," International
Organization 48 (1994), pp. 279
-
312


Douglas W. Blum, "The Soviet Foreign Policy Belief System: Beliefs, Politics, and Foreign Policy


15


Outcomes," Internation
al Studies Quarterly 37 (1993), pp. 373
-
394


Joe D. Hagan and Jerel A. Rosati, "Emerging Issues in Research on Foreign Policy Restructuring," in
Foreign Policy Restructuring: How Governments Respond to Change (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina
Pre
ss, 1994), edited by Jerel A. Rosati, Joe D. Hagan, and Martin W. Sampson, pp. 265
-
279


Colin J. Bennett and Michael Howlett, "The Lessons of Learning: Reconciling Theories of Policy Learning
and Policy Change," Policy Sciences 25 (1992), pp. 275
-
294


Dan
Reiter, "Learning, Realism, and Alliances: The Weight of the Shadow of the Past," World Politics 46
(1994), pp. 490
-
526


David A. Welch, Painful Choices: A Theory of Foreign Policy Change (Princeton University Press, 2005)


Richard Ned Lebow and Janice Gro
ss Stein, "Afghanistan, Carter, and Foreign Policy Change: The Limits
of Cognitive Models," in Diplomacy, Force, and Leadership: Essays in Honor of Alexander L. George, edited by
Dan Caldwell and Timothy J. McKeown (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993), pp.
95
-
127


Jeff Checkel, "Ideas, Institutions, and the Gorbachev Foreign Policy Revolution," World Politics 45
(1995), pp. 271
-
300


Thomas Risse
-
Kappen, "Ideas do not Float Freely: Transnational Coalitions, Domestic Structures, and
the End of the Cold War," I
nternational Organization 48 (1994), pp. 185
-
214


Rey Koslowski and Friedrich V. Kratochwil, "Understanding Change in International Politics: The Soviet
Empire's Demise and the International System," International Organization 48 (1994), pp. 215
-
247


Lloyd

S. Etheredge, Can Governments Learn: American Foreign Policy and Central American Revolutions
(New York: Pergamon Press, 1985)


George W. Breslauer and Philip E. Tetlock, editors, Learning in U.S. and Soviet Foreign Policy (Boulder,
CO: Westview Press, 19
91)


14. The End: Epistemology: Understanding and Studying the Dynamics of Foreign Policy and Politics (April
30)


*Edward L. Morse, “The Transformation of Foreign Policies: Modernization, Interdependence, and
Externalization,” World Politics 22 (1970), pp
. 371
-
392


*Hayward R. Alker, Jr. and Thomas J. Biersteker, "The Dialectics of World Order: Notes for a Future
Archeologist of International Savoir Faire," International Studies Quarterly 28 (June 1984), pp. 121
-
142



*David O. Sears, "The Ecological Niche

of Political Psychology," Political Psychology 10 (1989), pp. 501
-
506


*Margaret G. Hermann and Robert B. Woyach, “Toward Reflection, Evaluation, and Integration in
International Studies: An Editorial Perspective,” Mershon International Studies Review
38:1 (April 1994), pp.
1
-
10


* J.M. Goldgeier and P.E. Tetlock, “Psychology and International Relations Theory,” Annual Review of
Political Science 4(2001), pp. 67
-
92.


*Jean A. Garrison, editor, “Foreign Policy Analysis in 20/20: A Symposium,” Internation
al Studies
Review 5 (2003), 155
-
202


*
-

The American Scholar
-

http://www.theamericanscholar.org

-

The Disadvantages of an Elite
Education Posted By
William Deresiewicz

On June 1, 2008


General
Epistemological
-
oriented works on the study of IR and foreign policy:


Richard Snyder, H.W. Bruck, and Burton Sapin, editors, Foreign Policy Decision
-
Making (New York: Free
Press, 1962), peruse pp. 1
-
185


Alexander L. George, “The Two Cultures of Academia
and Policy
-
Making: Bridging the Gap,” Political
Psychology 15 (1994), pp. 143
-
172


Stanley Hoffmann, "An American Social Science: International Relations," Daedalus 106 (1977), pp. 41
-
60


Hayward R. Alker, Jr. and Thomas J. Biersteker, "The Dialectics of W
orld Order: Notes for a Future
Archeologist of International Savoir Faire," International Studies Quarterly 28 (June 1984), pp. 121
-
142


John A. Vasquez, The Power of Power Politics: A Critique (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,


16


1983), pp. 1
-
23


Valerie Hudson, with Christopher S. Vore, "Foreign Policy Analysis Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow,"
Mershon International Studies Review 39 (1995), pp. 209
-
238


Yosef Lapid, "The Third Debate: On the Prospects of International Theory in a Post
-
Positivist
Era,"
International Studies Quarterly 3 (September 1989), pp. 234
-
254


Charles F. Hermann and Gregory Peacock, "The Evolution and Future of Theoretical Research in the
Comparative Study of Foreign Policy," in Hermann, Kegley, and Rosenau, eds., New Directi
ons in the Study of
Foreign Policy (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1987), pp. 13
-
32


Donald J. Puchala, "Woe to the Orphans of the Scientific Revolution," Journal of International Affairs
44 (Spring/Summer 1990), pp. 59
-
80


Laura Neack, Jeanne A.K. Hey, and Patric
k J. Haney, "Generational Change in Foreign Policy Analysis," in
Foreign Policy Analysis: Continuity and Change in Its Second Generation, edited by Laura Neack, Jeanne A.K.
Hey, and Patrick J. Haney (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
-
Hall, 1995), pp. 1
-
15


Al
exander L. George and Richard Smoke, “Theory for Policy in International Relations,” Deterrence in
American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974), peruse pp. 616
-
642


Margaret G. Hermann and Robert B. Woyach, “Towa
rd Reflection, Evaluation, and Integration in
International Studies: An Editorial Perspective,” Mershon International Studies Review 38:1 (April 1994), pp.
1
-
10


Walter, Carlsnaes, "The Agency
-
Structure Problem in Foreign Policy Analysis," International St
udies
Quarterly 36 (1992), pp. 245
-
270


Colin Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman, "Diplomatic History and International Relations Theory:
Respecting Difference and Crossing Boundaries," International Security 22 (Summer 1997), pp. 5
-
21


Alexander L. George, Br
idging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy (Washington, D.C.: United
States Institute of Peace, 1993)


G. John Ikenberry, David A. Lake, and Michael Mastanduno, eds. 1988. "The State and American
Foreign Economic Policy," 42 International Orga
nization (Winter 1988), pp. 1
-
14


Thomas J. Biersteker, "Critical Reflections on Post
-
Positivism in International Relations," International
Studies Quarterly 3 (September 1989), pp. 263
-
267


Jim George, "International Relations and the Search for Thinking

Space: Another View of the Third
Debate," International Studies Quarterly 3 (September 1989), pp. 269
-
279


James N. Rosenau, "The Study of Foreign Policy," in Rosenau, Boyd, and Thompson, eds., World Politics
(New York: Free Press, 1976), pp. 15
-
35


James

N. Rosenau, "Comparative Foreign Policy: One
-
Time Fad, Realized Fantasy, and Normal Field,"
International Studies Quarterly 12 (September 1968), pp. 296
-
329


Steve Smith, "Rosenau's Contribution," Review of International Studies 9 (1983), pp. 137
-
146


Bah
gat Korany, "The Take
-
Off of Third World Studies? The Case of Foreign Policy," World Politics 35
(April 1983), pp. 465
-
487


Joseph Lepgold, "Is Anyone Listening? International Relations Theory and Policy Relevance," Political
Science Quarterly (Spring 1998
), pp. 43
-
62


John A. Vasquez, The Power of Power Politics: A Critique (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,
1983), pp. 1
-
23


Ersel Aydinli and Julie Mathews, “Are the Core and Periphery Irreconcialbe? The Curious World of
Publishing in Contempora
ry International Relations,” International Studies Perspectives 1 (December 2000), pp.
289
-
303


Ole Waever, “The Sociology of a Not So International Discipline: American and European Developments
in International Relations,” International Organization 52 (
Autumn 1998), pp. 687
-
727


Margaret G. Hermann, “One Field, Many Perspectives: Building the Foundations for Dialogue,”
International Studies Quarterly


Richard K. Betts, “Should Strategic Studies Survive,” World Politics 50 (October 1997), pp. 7
-
33


Philip

E. Tetlock, "Psychological Advice on Foreign Policy: What Do We Have to Contribute?" American
Psychologist (May 1986), pp. 557
-
567



17




FINAL EXAM (optional at the discretion of the instructor)



OTHER RECOMMENDED READINGS


General Theoretical
-
oriented work
s

that tend to provide a broader overview then those listed above:


Torbjorn L. Knutsen, A History of International Relations Theory (Manchester University Press, 1997),
preface to and including chapter 9 (and footnotes)


Kenneth N. Waltz, Man, The State,
and War (New York: Columbia University Press, 1954, 1959)


Michael W. Doyle, Ways of War and Peace: Realism, Liberalism, and Socialism (New York: W.W. Norton,
1997)


Paul R. Viotti and Mark V. Kauppi, editors, International Relations Theory: Realism, Plura
lism, and Beyond
(Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999)


Joseph H. deRivera, The Psychological Dimension of Foreign Policy (Charles E. Merrill, 1968)



Alexander L. George, Presidential Decisionmaking in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of Information
and Advice

(Westview Press, 1980)


G. John Ikenberry, editor, American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays (Scott, Foresman, 1989)


Charles F. Hermann, Charles W. Kegley, and James N. Rosenau, editors, New Directions in the Study of
Foreign Policy (Boston: Allen &
Unwin, 1987)


Maurice A. East, Stephen A. Salmore and Charles F. Hermann, editors, Why Nations Act: Theoretical
Perspectives for Comparative Foreign Policy (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1978)


Margaret G. Hermann, editor, Political Psychology (San Francisco:
Jossey
-
Bass, 1986)


James N. Rosenau, The Scientific Study of Foreign Policy (New York: Free Press, 1979


Patrick J. McGowan and Howard B. Shapiro, The Comparative Study of Foreign Policy: A Survey of
Scientific Findings (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1973)


Betty
Glad, editor, Psychological Dimensions of War (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1990)


Laura Neack, Jeanne A.K. Hey, and Patrick J. Haney, editors, Foreign Policy Analysis: Continuity and
Change in Its Second Generation (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
-
Hall, 1995)


Jam
es N. Rosenau, "Pre
-
Theories and Theories of Foreign Policy," in Rosenau, ed., The Scientific Study
of Foreign Policy (New York: Nichols, 1979), pp. 115
-
136, 167
-
169


Charles F. Hermann, "International Crises as a Situational Variable," in International P
olitics and Foreign
Policy (New York: Free Press, 1969), edited by James N. Rosenau, pp. 409
-
421


Richard Ned Lebow, Between Peace and War: The Nature of International Crisis (Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1981), preface to and including chapt
er 5


The Rosenau readers


National Characteristics and Domestic Political Approaches


William Jess Biddle and John D. Stephens, "Dependent Development and Foreign Policy: The Case of
Jamaica," International Studies Quarterly 4 (December 1989), pp. 411
-
43
4


Maurice East, "Size and Foreign Policy Behavior," World Politics (June 1973), peruse pp. 556
-
576


Lawrence P. Frank, "The First Oil Regime," World Politics 37 (July 1985), pp. 586
-
598


Joe D. Hagan, "Domestic Political Regime Changes and Third World Vot
ing Realignments in the United
Nations, 1946
-
84," International Organization 43 (Summer 1989), pp. 505
-
541


Michael W. Doyle, "Liberalism and World Politics," American Political Science Review 80 (December
1986), pp. 1151
-
1169


Barbara Rearden Farnham, Roo
sevelt and the Munich Crisis: A Study of Political Decision
-
Making
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997)


G. John Ikenberry, “The Irony of State Strength: Comparative Respones to the Oil Shocks in the
1970s,” International Organization 40 (Winter 1
986), pp. 105
-
137


Steve Chan, “In Search of Democratic Peace: Problems and Promise,” Mershon International Studies
Review 41 (May 1997), pp. 59
-
91



18



Robert D. Putnam, “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two
-
Level Games,” International
Organizati
on42 (Summer 1998), pp. 427
-
460


Michael M. Atkinson and William D. Coleman, "Policy Networks, Policy Communities, and the Problems of
Governance," Governance: An International Journal of Policy and Administration 5 (April 1992), pp. 154
-
180


Thomas Risse
-
Kappen, "Public Opinion, Domestic Structure, and Foreign Policy in Liberal Democracies,"
World Politics 43 (July 1991), pp. 479
-
512


Michael N. Barnett and Jack S. Levy, "Domestic Sources of Alliances and Alignments: The Case of
Egypt, 1962
-
73," Internatio
nal Organization 45 (Summer 1991), pp. 369
-
395


Grant Jordan, "Sub
-
Governments, Policy Communities and Networks," Journal of Theoretical Politics 2
(1990), pp. 319
-
338


Robert S. Ross, "International Bargaining and Domestic Politics: U.S.
-
China Relations S
ince 1972," World
Politics 38 (January 1986), pp. 255
-
287


Kent E. Calder, "Japanese Foreign Economic Policy Formation: Explaining the Reactive State," World
Politics 40 (July 1988), pp. 517
-
541


Amos Perlmutter, "The Presidential Political Center and
Foreign Policy: A Critique of the Revisionist and
Bureaucratic
-
Political Orientations," World Politics 27 (October 1974), pp. 87
-
106


Peter J. Katzenstein, "Conclusion: Domestic Structures and Strategies of Foreign Economic Policy,"
International Organizat
ion 31 (Autumn 1977), pp. 879
-
920


James N. Rosenau, "Pre
-
Theories and Theories of Foreign Policy," in Rosenau, ed., The Scientific Study
of Foreign Policy (New York: Nichols, 1979), pp. 115
-
136, 167
-
169


Robert D. Duval and William R. Thompson, "Reconsid
ering The Aggregate Relationship Between Size,
Economic Development, and Some Types of Foreign Policy Behavior," American Journal of Political Science 24
(August 1980), pp. 511
-
525


Joe D. Hagan, "Regimes, Political Oppositions, and the Comparative Analysi
s of Foreign Policy," in Policy,"
in New Directions in the Study of Foreign Policy (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1987), edited by Charles F. Hermann,
Charles W. Kegley, Jr., and James N. Rosenau, pp. 339
-
365


Robert C. North and Nazli Choucri, "Population, Techn
ology, and Resources in the Future International
System," Journal of International Affairs 25 (1971), pp. 224
-
237


Masato Kimura and David A. Welch, "Specifying "Interests": Japan's Claim to the Northern Territories
and Its Implications for International R
elations Theory," International Studies Quarterly 42 (1998), pp. 213
-
244


G. John Ikenberry, Reasons of State: Oil Politics and the Capacities of American Government (Ithaca,
N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988)


Ralph Miliband, The State in Capitalist So
ciety: The Analysis of the Western System of Power (London:
Quartet Books, 1969)


Joel S. Migdal, Strong Societies and Weak States: State
-
Society Relations and State Capabilities in the
Third World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988)


Stephen

D. Krasner, Defending the National Interest: Raw Material Investments and U.S. Foreign Policy
(Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1878)


Leon V. Sigal, Fighting to a Finish: The Politics of War Termination in The United States and Japan,
1945 (I
thaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988)


Judith Goldstein, and Robert O. Keohane, editors, Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and
Political Change (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993)


Jack Snyder, Myths of Empire: Domestic Politics an
d International Ambition (Ithaca: Cornell University
Press, 1991)


David Skidmore and Valerie M. Hudson, editors, The Limits of State Autonomy: Societal Groups and
Foreign Policy Formulation (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993)


Richard Rosecrance and Arthur A.

Stein, editors, The Domestic Bases of Grand Strategy (Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, 1993)


Joe D. Hagan, “Domestic Political Systems and War Proneness,” Mershon International Studies Review
38 (October 1994), pp. 183
-
207



19



Cultural and Ideological Appr
oaches


John Dower, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York: Pantheon, 1987),
introduction, chapter 1, illustrations, and chapter 11 (and footnotes ) (pp. ix
-
xii, 3
-
14, 181
-
200, 293
-
317)


Roxanne Euben, “When Worldviews Collide: Con
flicting Assumptions about Human Behavior Held by
Rational Actor Theory and Islamic Fundamentalism,” Political Pscyhology 16 (March 1995), pp. 157
-
178


Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (New York:
Alf
red A. Knopf, 1996), introduction, and epilogue (and footnotes) (pp. 3
-
24, 416
-
461)


James N. Rosenau, "Pre
-
Theories and Theories of Foreign Policy," in Rosenau, ed., The Scientific Study
of Foreign Policy (New York: Nichols, 1979), pp. 115
-
136, 167
-
169


Vamik D. Volkan, "The Need to Have Enemies and Allies: A Developmental Approach," Political Psychology
6 (1985), pp. 219
-
247


Fritz Gaenslan, "Culture and Decision Making in China, Japan, Russia, and the United States," World
Politics 39 (October 1986),
pp. 78
-
103


Martin W. Sampson III, "Cultural Influences on Foreign Policy," in New Directions in the Study of
Foreign Policy (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1987), edited by Charles F. Hermann, Charles W. Kegley, Jr., and James
N. Rosenau, pp. 384
-
405


Gordon A. C
raig, "How Hell Worked," The New York Review of Books (April 18, 1996), pp. 4
-
8


Omer Bartov, "Ordinary Monsters," The New Republic (April 29, 1996), pp. 32
-
38


Daniel Jonal Goldhagen, "Motives, Causes, and Alibis: A Reply to My Critics," The New Republic
(December 23, 1996), pp. 37
-
45


Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, "Healers as Killers," Commentary (December 1986), pp. 77
-
80


Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, "False Witness," The New Republic (April 17, 1989), pp. 39
-
44


Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, "The Road to Death," The New

Republic (November 4, 1991), pp. 34
-
39


Daniel Johah Goldhagen, "The Evil of Banality," The New Republic (July 13 & 20, 1992), pp. 49
-
52


Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, "The People's Holocaust," New York Times (March 17, 1996), section 4, p. 15


Norman G. Finkel
stein, A Nation on Trial: The Goldhagen Thesis and Historical Truth (New York: Henry
Holt, 1998)


Lucian W. Pye, "Political Culture Revisited," Political Psychology 12 (1991), pp. 487
-
508


Lucian W. Pye, "Introduction: The Elusive Concept of Culture and th
e Vivid Reality of Personality,"
Political Psychology 18 (June 1997), pp. 241
-
254


Richard W. Wilson, "American Political Culture in Comparative Perspective," Political Psychology 12 (June
1997), pp. 483
-
502


Jayantanuja Bandyopadhyaya, "National Character

and International Relations," International Studies 15
(1976), pp. 531
-
555


Paul Egon Rohrlich, "Economic Culture and Foreign Policy: The Cognitive Analysis of Economic Policy
Making," International Organization 41 (1987), pp. 61
-
92


Mlada Bukovansky, "Am
erican Identity and Neutral Rights from Independence to the War of 1812,"
International Organization 51 (Spring 1997), pp. 209
-
243


Stephen Twing, Myths, Models, and U.S. Foreign Policy: The Cultural Shaping of Three Cold Warriors
(Boulder: Lynne Rienner P
ublishers, 1998)


Peter J. Katzenstein, editor, The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1996)



Stanley A. Renshon and John Durkitt, editors, Political Psychology: Cultural and Crosscultu
ral
Foundations (New York: New York University Press, 2000)


Valerie M. Hudson, editor, Culture and Foreign Policy (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1997)


Global
-
Oriented Theoretical Approaches


Edward L. Morse, “The Transformation of Foreign Policies: Modernizati
on, Interdependence, and
Externalization,” World Politics 22 (1970), pp. 371
-
392


G. John Ikenberry, David A. Lake, and Michael Mastanduno, eds. 1988. "The State and American


20


Foreign Economic Policy," 42 International Organization (Winter 1988), pp. 1
-
14



Martin W. Sampson III, "Exploiting the Seams: External Structures and Libyan Foreign Policy Changes,"
in Foreign Policy Restructuring: How Governments Respond to Change (Columbia, SC: University of South
Carolina Press, 1994), edited by Jerel A. Rosati,

Joe D. Hagan, and Martin W. Sampson, pp. 88
-
110


Timothy W. Luke, "Technology and Soviet Foreign Trade: On the Political Economy of an Underdeveloped
Superpower," International Studies Quarterly 29 (September 1979), pp. 327
-
353


Lawrence E. Grinter, “Barg
aining Between Saigon and Washington: Dilemmas of Linkage Politics During
War,” Orbis (Fall 1974), pp. 837
-
865


James M. Goldgeier, "Psychology and Security," Security Studies 6 (1997), pp. 137
-
166


Edward L. Morse, Interdependence and Foreign Policy in Ga
ullist France (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1973)


Miriam Fendius Elman, "The Foreign Policies of Small States: Challenging Neorealism in Its Own
Backyard," British Journal of Political Science 25 (1995), pp. 171
-
217


Colin Elman, "Why Not Neorea
list Theories of Foreign Policy?" Security Studies 6 (Autumn 1996), pp. 7
-
53


David A. Lake, "International Economic Structures and American Foreign Economic Policy, 1887
-
1934,"
World Politics 35 (July 1983), pp. 517
-
543


Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Ny
e, Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition (Boston:
Little, Brown, 1989)


Robert Gilpin, War and Change in World Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981)


Jacqueline Anne Braveboy
-
Wagner, The Caribbean in World Affairs: The Fo
reign Policies of the English
-
Speaking States (Boulder, Co.: Westview Press, 1989)


Philip Darby, Three Faces of Imperialism: British and American Approaches to Asia, and Africa, 1870
-
1976 (New Haven, Co.: Yale University Press, 1987)


Charles A. Kupchan,
The Vulnerability of Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994)


Gideon Rose, “Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy,” World Politics 51 (October 1998), pp.
144
-
172


Thomas F. Homer
-
Dixon, “Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Confli
ct, International Security 16
(Fall 1991), pp. 76
-
115


Stephen Walker, ed., Role Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis (Durham: Duke University Press, 1987)



RECOMMENDED JOURNALS



These journals tend to have articles which emphasize the role of theory in un
derstanding the practice
of foreign policy:


Alternatives


Cooperation and Conflict (Scandanavian)


European Journal of International Relations


Foreign Policy Analysis


International Journal (Canadian)


International Organization


International Security


International Social Science Journal


International Studies Quarterly


International Studies Perspectives


International Studies Review


Jerusalem Journal of International Relations (Israeli)


Journal of Conflict Resolution


Journal of Peace Research (Nor
dic)


Millenium: Journal of International Studies (British)


Political Psychology



21



Political Science Quarterly


Presidential Studies Quarterly


Review of International Studies (British)


World Politics





MAJOR PAPER



This course gives you the opportunity to improve and demonstrate your ability to engage in scholarship
and theoretical analysis, as well as improve your written communication skills.



PAPER OPTIONS. You must choose one of the following paper options:

1
. Three shorter summary, critical review essays, each covering one (or two) week’s required readings. The
paper sould addres the following. What are the major strengths of (and what did you learn most from) the
readings for contributing to explaining and u
nderstanding world politics and, more specifically, foreign policy?
What are the major weaknesses of (and what did you learn least or was most critical about) the readings for
contributing to explaining and understanding world politics and, more specifica
lly, foreign policy? Please
emphasize analysis over summary (the summary should capture the forest but be relatively succinct), or
interweave the two together. To what extent are the required readings relevant for your area of special
interest (naturally,

you need to describe what you are primarily interested in). Provides some examples. Each
essay is to be 4
-
6 pages in length (not counting footnotes or endnotes), double
-
spaced, with normal fonts.


OR


2. A major analytic theoretical/empirical systemat
ic study
--

similar to much of the required and recommended
reading above (and that can be found in the recommended journals above).

3. A major synthetic, literature review article and critical analysis of a body of knowledge
--

similar to what is
done w
ithin major scholarly journals such as International Studies Review (or the work of Rosati on cognition,
Jack Levy on learning, Freidman on Woodrow Wilson, Cocks on psychohistory, Hermann on leadership above),

4. A major book review article and critical an
alysis
--

similar to what is done within major scholarly journals
such as International Organization or World Politics (or the work of Frank on regimes or Mason on the final
solution above),



22


5. A major literature review of a prominent scholar's work
--

sim
ilar to, for example, the work by Paul 't Hart,
"Irving L. Janis' Victims of Groupthink," Political Psychology 12 (1991), pp. 247
-
279,

6. A major topically or policy
-
oriented research paper that is heavily explained and informed by theory


such
as what
were the major theoretical reasons for why North Korea invaded South Korean (or similar to Robert
Ross on U.S.
-
China Relations or Kent Calder on Japanese foreign economic policy above),



FOR OPTIONS 2
-

6:


You are to select one option, specify your topic
, and identify a journal and/or article that you will use as
your model (for content, format, and style). Use the required readings for possible ideas and as possible
models to emulate in your paper. I have also provided a list of recommended readings in

order to assist you in
formulating, researching, and developing your paper. And each reading has footnotes and/or a bibliography of
potentially useful, relevant works.


The first five options consist of a multi
-
stage process where eventually you must sub
mit:


1.
A research question.

In one double
-
spaced paragraph, provide the basic research question (or
research questions

in one sentence per question) that you want to address, and briefly describe, discuss and
defend it. In other words, explicitly and s
uccinctly communicate what is the research question and why this
should be of interest to others.


2.
A proposal
. Provide 1
-
2 pages of text, double
-
spaced that ADDRESSES: 1) what you plan to do
--
state your question (I would like to see an actual questi
on or two); 2) why you plan to do it
--
the purpose (why is
it significant and should the reader find it of interest); and 3) how do you plan to proceed
--
your research
strategy. Include a tentative TITLE. Specify your intended audience and the JOURNAL you

will use as a
model for the format. It should be accompanied by a 1 page, single
-
spaced, tentative OUTLINE of how the
paper will be organized and a 1 page single
-
spaced BIBLIOGRAPHY of the works that appear to be most
significant that you have consulted

for developing your paper (that you may also discuss or refer to in the text
of the proposal). The quality of your proposal is most important, for most finished papers usually are only as
good as the original proposal.


3.
An outline
. Provide a 1
-
2 pag
e, single
-
spaced, EXTENDED OUTLINE, including sections and
subsections, detailing the organization and contents of the paper (or what you believe will by the final contents
of the paper). Again, specify the research question, intended audience and JOURNAL

you will use as a model
for the format.


4.
The final paper
. 17
-
25 pages of text (typewritten, double
-
spaced, with foot/endnotes and
bibliography, with normal fonts and 1" margins). It should be preceeded by an ABSTRACT of roughly 150
words that also
specifies the journal you will use as a model for the format. The final paper should be as
polished and professional in appearance and contents as possible.


Deadlines will be provided, but you are encouraged to submit each part of the process as soon as
possible. Before you can proceed to the next stage, you must satisfactorily complete the previous stage. I
expect high quality in the contents, presentation, and readibility for all the stages in the process. The grade
ultimately will be based on the su
bmission of the final paper.


FOR ALL OPTIONS


THE IMPORTANCE OF CLEAR AND COHERENT WRITING, ORGANIZATION, AND
PRESENTATION:


Each stage of your paper should be well
-
written and well
-
organized
--
in other words, clear and concise.
It should have an introdu
ctory section and a concluding section. The purpose behind the introduction and the
conclusion is to communicate/recapitulate the purpose and importance of the research question as well as
promote a coherent overview of the entire paper. The transition b
etween one paragraph and another must be
smooth, and the discussion within a paragraph must be clear and concise. Each paragraph after the
introductory section should discuss a key point or idea.


It should look professional. REMEMBER: this type of pa
per is not easy to construct or develop. THINK
about what you are going to say and how you are going to say it. THE BURDEN IS ON YOU to be as clear and
understandable as possible.


The paper will be graded based on the quality of the content and scholarship as well as its written style


23


and overall presentation. Do not be careless. A sloppy paper reflects a sloppy thinker, and the grade for the
paper will reflect this.


You are en
couraged to get feedback from others and consult
The Writing Center

in the Humanities
Building (7
-
7078). Have your peers critique your work before you turn it in.



GENERAL LIBRARY ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR

FINDING INFORMATION AND SOURCES ON POLITICS



Go to the following website
http://www.sc.edu/library/

and then to Article Databases & d Indexes.

is a great tool for accessing any or all of the databases and indexes in Parts I and II below.


I. Best Databases a
nd Indexes

Congressional (LexisNexis)
-

CIS

Custom Newspapers
**

Expanded Academic ASAP
**

General Reference
Center
**

Infotrac

Infotrac OneFile

IPSA
-

International Political Science Abstracts
*

JSTOR
***

LexisNexis Academic
***

Military & Government Collection
*

Readers’ Guide Abstracts

*** = best all around American sources and usually full text


** = very good sources; often full text


* = unique inte
rnational and U.S. military/govt sources


II. Potentially Helpful Databases and Indexes:

Academic Search Premier

America: History and Life

Biography Resource Center

Books in Print

Dissertations and Theses

Global Books in Print

Global Trade Atlas

GPO Access

Historical Statistics of the United States

Humanities Abstracts

PAIS
-

Public Affairs Information Service International

Project Muse
**

Social Sciences Abstracts

Stat
-
USA

Statistical
(Lexis
-
Nexis)
-

ASI & IIS

TDNet Electronic Journals Management

U. S. Census Bureau


Ask
a Librarian