Byrne, R. (2012). Piazza-Not Just Another Message Board System. Free Technology for

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Annotated Bibliography

By: Robert Hays

Byrne, R. (2012)

Not Just Another Message Board System.
Free Technology for

. Retrieved July 3, 2013, from


Richard Byrne was a high school teacher
for eight years and he is currently
working with this blog website. He said the purpose of this site is to share free
resources for teachers. I learned about this article because I was looking for a free
discussion thread for my capstone project and I hav
e decided to try out Piazza. Some of
the features that I like about this discussion thread are that it is
free, student use can
be tracked, and discussions can be threaded. I also like that students can download
free apps to their iphone or android phone f
or easier access. This will be a good
technology for students to share their ideas outside of class and to collaborate with
each other.

Cauley, P. (2011)


the review!
Technology in the Classroom
. Retrieved July

3, 2013, from

This is a blog article about technology written by Patrick Cauley. I couldn’t find
out much information about the author, but the audience is for te
achers. It is a blog
designed to review free technologies for teachers and in this case the technology is the
website timetoast. The author says some positives about timetoast is its ease of use
and all you need is an email address to get started. The one
big negative was that
videos can’t be embedded in the interactive timeline. I was drawn to this article
because I have heard some positive things about timetoast from some of my
colleagues. I needed a project for my French Revolution unit and this seems li
ke a good
one to me.

Dobler, E. (2012). Flattening Classroom Walls: Edmodo Takes Teaching and Learning

across the Globe. Reading Today, 29(4), 12

This article is about a fourth grade elementary teacher named Jan who uses
edmodo very effectively in the classroom. She discusses how she uses edmodo to
collaborate with other teachers around the United States and the world. She is from a
town of 814 people, so edmodo helps this teacher to connect to the world. She
puts lessons and videos on the site as well. I want to start using edmodo more like how
Jan does in the article. Maybe I could also have my students to a collaborative project
th a class from another country or for my students to share ideas with other students
from around the world.

Hacker, P. (2011). 5 Tools for Building a Next
Generation Hybrid Class Website.

. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from

This article was about a man named Nicholas Martin and

how he taught a class about
making five tips for creating a hybrid class. Nicholas Martin is a professor at American
University and works for the United Nations as well and the target audience would
probably be teachers. After reading about five tools to
use when creating a hybrid class
online, I didn’t really know anything about a lot of the new technologies that were
being referred to. I did like suggestion one that suggested having students take a self
guided pre
course assessment. It made me think how
I could create a survey on
edmodo or survey monkey to gauge what my future students already know about some
of these technologies. I could make it one of the first assignments to be completed
online, which would let me know if most of my students are truly

ready for their first
hybrid class.

Hensley, Gordon (2005)

Creatinga Hybrid College Course: A Case Study and

Recommendation for Beginners. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from

This article is a case study explaining why Gordon created his first hybrid theatre class
years ago because there were too many students wanting to take his class and not
enough staff. Gordon has a bache
lors degree and masters degree in theatre and has
been teaching for over a decade at Appalachian State University. The target audience
for this article would be teachers who want to create their first hybrid class. Gordon
explained his whole process for cr
eating the class and how it was a success. He gives
dozens of suggestions for teachers if the
y want to create one. I will use some of these
suggestions when I create my hybrid class!

HOLZWEISS, K. (2013). edmodo. School Library Monthly, 29(5), 14


The author of this article is an elementary school librarian. She found out about edmodo

through a teacher professional day just like I did. Kristina was very enthusiastic about the site
about how she can help students beyond the library on research, citations, and other things as
well. I think the audience would be other teachers because she

seemed so happy with edmodo
that she wanted other teachers to begin using it as well.
She does a great job of explaining
everything that edmodo has to offer. I think the author is a little ahead of where I am with using
edmodo. At this point, I just want
to use it to communicate with students and to update students
on assignments.

Iqbal, M., Kousar, N., & Ajmal, M. (2011). COLLABORATIVE LEARNING: MYTH FOR

International Journal Of Academic Research
, 3(4), 605

The author starts out in this article by giving a history of c
ollaborative learning. He then
explains distance learning and explains how many different countries around the world are
currently using technology to collaborate. One example was how in Bangladesh a computer
program called iProf is being used. Students wo
rk together over the Internet on writing projects.
Another example is how mobile phones are being used in China to teach English. As a result,
soon China will be the country in the world that has the most English speaking people.

The result of this
article is that distance learning can be successful. Students can
collaborate online with students in other parts of the world. Collaborative learning is student
centered and it is part of the indirect learning style. It leads to positive growth in student

achievement, a closer classroom environment, and improved critical thinking!

I agree that collaborative learning is a great way for students to learn. I want to also find a
way to do more distance learning in my classroom. For my capstone project, I am ac
planning to create a wiki page and use different social media sites to provide lessons when they
are absent, suspended, or we have a snow day. I think that distance learning is the future of
education. More students than ever are getting home school
ed in high school or attend digital
schools. Even at Ashland University, there are more online classes like this one or hybrid classes
than ever before. This is the direction where we are heading!

Kelly, R.


Nine Tips for Creating a Hybrid Cours
Faculty Focus
. Retrieved June 26,

2013, from

In this article, Rob Kelly gives nine tips for creating a hybrid class. I didn’t find much
background about the author besides the fact that he works in curriculum development in
education. The intended audience would be teachers who want to crea
te a hybrid class. The tips
help me focus on what I need to think about when creating my class. One tip was to provide in
class orientation. I do need to spend some class time during the first few days to walk my
students through my hybrid class, since thi
s will be their first one. Another tip was to include
online interaction. I need to find a site with discussion threads or blogs, like many online classes
do at Ashland University use. The final tip that I liked was don’t overload the students. I need to
emember that there shouldn’t be more work just because it will b
e a hybrid class.

Kesek, A. (2011). Indirect goal priming is more powerful than explicit instruction in children.

Developmental Science
, 14(5), 944

In this article, 106 4 year olds are volunteered for a study. In the study, all the kids were divided
into four groups. Some kids heard a story about a g
randkid playing with a grandpa and going to a
fair afterwards. This story was the indirect method to try to motivate the kids. The other half of
the kids were given direct instruction. The study tested to see if the 4 year olds would want a

award like a piece of candy versus a larger/delayed reward at the end of the
study. Each child was also asked 3 memory questions, like “who did the grand kid” play with in
the story?” The result of the story was that indirect instruction worked better tha
n direct
instruction. Kids who indirectly learned during this study did better with the three memory

It was an interesting article comparing indirect versus direct instruction. The only
problem mentioned in this article was that there was onl
y one primer during this study. The
authors proved that there is a difference between these two learning styles. The subjects didn’t
learn as well when they were just told to do something. This probably has to do more with the
fact the subjects were four y
ear olds. The indirect method, which was to get the kids to do
something through the use of a story was more effective. The kids could relate to it, so the story
stayed with them longer than just the verbal instructions.

This article is a perfect example of why I want to start making all my units more student
centered. Indirect instruction helps students to remember things longer and they get to take more
of an active role in their instruction rather than being told what t
o do.

Kharbach, M. (2012)

21 Ways To Use Edmodo In Your Classroom.
Educational Technology

and Mobile Learning
. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from


The title from this article gives away what is about. Med shows teachers 21 ways to use
Edmodo in the classroom. It seems like a credible website because the author is a
professor at St.
Vincent University the information is relevant. I learned about many additional ways I can use
Edmodo class next school year. I think that I feel start slow with using Edmodo until I am more
comfortable with using more of these features. I

did like the authors idea of using Edmodo to
communicate with students when out of the classroom.

McCray, G. E. (2000). The hybrid course: Merging on
line instruction and the traditional

classroom. Information Technology & Management, 1(4), 307

In this article, the author discusses how a teacher needs to go beyond just putting lectures
online to create an effective hyb
rid classroom. Its suggested that activities and projects can be
completed online that promote higher level thinking.
Students must like the appeal of an online
hybrid class in order for it to be effective. This could be a dilemma for me. If I create an on
class, then this could be a first of this kind for most of my students. Some students might be
nervous or lack the experience, so I have to realize that I must start slowly because there could
be a learning curve for my students.

McFarlin, B. K. (20
08). Hybrid lecture
online format increases student grades in an

undergraduate exercise physiology course at a large urban university. Advances
In Physiology Education, 3286
91. doi:10.1152/advan.00066.2007

This article is about how students who took a college undergraduate physiology class
complained that there was too much lecture going on in the teacher evaluation and tha
t the
teachers at this college weren’t taking advantage of the technology out there. In response, the
physiology department started offering the class as a hybrid class. A study was done and half the
students took the traditional class and the other half o
f the students took the hybrid version with
lectures being online. The result of the study is that students who took the hybrid version did
about 10% better in the class. Before reading this article, I never thought of putting lectures
online, but this see
ms like a good idea. It would give students an opportunity to go back and
watch it plus absent students could view it as well. The only problem in my mind is what if some
students don’t have a computer or internet at home because I teach in a poor school d
Also, what if a bunch of the students don’t watch a lecture and therefore come unprepared, which
I could see happen. So, it seems like a good idea, but there are also many problems to work out.

Mostmans, L., Vleugels, C., & Bannier
, S. (2012). Raise Your Hands or Hands
on? The

Role of Computer
Supported Collaborative Learning in Stimulating Intercreativity
in Education.
Journal Of Educational Technology & Society
, 15(4), 104

This article describes a study in Flanders and other European countries were discussed as
well, but schools in Flanders were the main focus. Flanders is a country
like the United States in
which most households have a tv, a game console, a computer, and almost all teenagers have a
cell phone. However, it was discovered in this study that these technologies are not being used
for educational purposes. Teenagers mainl
y use them to listen to music, play games, or talk to
each other on social media sites, like Facebook or Twitter. Even whiteboards in school aren’t
being used with a student
centered approach, but they are used with a teacher
centered approach.

I think the article is completely correct. I did a project at school this year and my high
school students couldn’t read an article, find the important information, and use it in a paper.
They would go to yahoo answers or some other site and just wanted to

be given an answer. I had
assumed that they each had an email address, but only a few did. They were masters of
Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter and knew ways to get around these blocked school sites.

I don’t do a great job of using technology in the
classroom period. I have made strides
this year to use technology to help make my classroom more student
centered. My first seven
years of teaching with technology was probably the same as what teachers had thirty years ago.
Over the last year, my high sch
ool has made a big push to catch up to other districts. Every
professional day has been used to train teachers by exposing us to new technology and offering
solutions of how to implement these new technologies into the classroom. These technologies are
ls to help make my classroom more student
centered. My students already use these
technologies in general, so I need to find a way to use them for educational puroposes!

Rao, Aditi (2012) PollEverywhere and 5 Classroom Uses.
. Retrieved June 22,



This website explains five reasons to use the website polleverywhere in the clas
sroom. At my
high school, the use of cell phones are still frowned upon and taken away from students by
teachers and administrators. I think the audience for this site would be teachers. Aditi explains
how cell phones are a technology that most students h
ave and especially texting. I like some of
the ideas of when doing group work for example, students can just text that their group is done. I
also like how shy students can text their ideas. I was a shy student and rarely raised my hand in
class and was al
ways nervous that the teacher might call on me. If I could have texted my ideas,
then I would have been more involved. I might use this site to gage student understanding during
a lesson because there are endless ways that I can use it!

Rivero, V. (2011).

We're Talking Social Media in Education. Internet@Schools, 18(3),


The author discusses how social media is becoming more important in the field of
education. The author basically discusses what
edmodo is and gives a brief overview of about a
dozen other sites like schooltube, survery monkey, and a bunch of others.
Edmodo is a great site
because not only can teachers communicate with students, parents, and people around the world,
but the site is
safe. When a teacher creates a class, they get a password that they share with
students, so a random person on the street can’t get on your class page, like they can on facebook
or twiter for example. Teacher or students can also give parents a password, s
o they too can
monitor whats going on. I will be using edmodo next year in my classroom for sure.

Rodriques, J. (2009)

Oral Hygiene Indirect Instruction and Periodic Reinforcements: Effects on

Index Plaque in School Children.
Journal of Clinical Pediat
ric Dentistry
, 34(1), 31

In this article, there was a study in a public elementary school. 40 students ages 7 to 9
were randomly selected for
this study. The students all watched a video titled the “smiling
robot.” This video showed how clean his teeth were. The 40 students were then divided up into
two groups. One group that received positive reinforcement and the other group did not. The
nts were told that their plaque levels would be checked after 30 days, 60 days, and after 90

The result of this study showed that both groups saw about the same decreases in plaque
after 30 days. The group of students in the positive reinforcement

group saw the plaque numbers
continuously declining during the whole study while the non reinforced group saw mainly a drop
just after the first 30 day check. Both groups were not told that they had to floss and brush their
teeth, but the “smiling robot”
video indirectly convinced them to try hard.

I wasn’t really surprised by this study. Having a two year old child, I see how toy commercials
convince my kid to beg for toys. This is the same thing in this study how all the students
suddenly wanted cleaner
teeth. I also wasn’t very surprised that the students who were positively
reinforced tried harder throughout the study. Kids want to be rewarded and if they aren’t, then
they stop trying if there isn’t anything to motivate them.

Roy Rosenzweid Center fo
r History and New Media (2010). Survey Monkey.
Teaching History

Retrieved June 20, 2013, from

On th
is website, the creator discusses all the features of survey monkey and how
beneficial it can be for a history class. I liked this site because it was for history teachers and I
am a history teacher. Also, this website seems pretty credible, since it is ba
cked by the US
department of education. There is also an example of an actual history teacher and how she used
it for a project by putting a ten question survey on facebook and how 500 people responded. This
website gave me some good ideas for how to imple
ment survey monkey in my classroom next

Slavin, Robert (2007). Cooperative Learning and the Cooperative School.

, 11, 1

In this article, the author summarizes what exactly cooperative learning is. He explains
how to implement it in your classroom. He talks about how you to create groups of four and how
each group needs to be differentiated and each group needs to have a goa
l. Robert Slavin
summarized studies from dozens of countries and he explained how group work (student
centered) is more effective than how students are traditionally taught. He specifically mentioned
how 33 of 38 studies saw significant achievement in comp
arison to the traditional teaching like
the direct method. In the five other studies, the results were just about the same as usual.

This article does a great job of showing how changes need to be made in the classroom.
The numbers were there in this ar
ticle and the studies prove that students learn better in a group
setting rather than by themselves. Students need to learn to work together and to problem solve,
which is a skill that many students lack after high school. This quote sums things up “ there

substantial evidence that students working together in small cooperative groups can master
material better than students working on their own.”

This article explains exactly why doing direct instruction alone doesn’t benefit the students.
instruction doesn’t teach the students the 21

century skills that they will need after high
school. However, indirect instruction does teach the students some of the 21

century skills of
working together and becoming more social, which is the direction

that I want my students to be

STURGILL, R. (2011). A Hybrid Model for Making Online Assignments Effective In a

Traditional Classroom. Journal Of Systemics, Cybernetics & Informatics, 9(2), 89

In this article, the author gave strat
egies for how to make a traditional classroom more
hybrid. Some suggestions that I liked were doing online discussions, like I have done in a lot of
masters classes. This way students respond to the teacher plus to a few other students responses.
Using dis
cussion threads helps teachers hear from all students, which includes the shy ones who
normally would be afraid to raise their hand in a traditional classroom.
I also liked how the
author suggested doing tests and quizzes online to free up more class time
to do hands on
activities. This article gave me a lot of insight about strategies for making my class a hybrid one.

Tsai, C. (2011). Achieving Effective Learning Effects in the Blended Course: A Combined

Approach of Online Self
Regulated Learning and Col
laborative Learning with
Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking
, 14(9), 505

This article was based on the country of Taiwan. In Taiwan, every college student is
required to take one introduction computer class. This author feels that this class is a waste of
time and students are spoon fed the information by the teacher and don’t
learn how to think on
their own. Therefore, a study was done involving 221 students and they were divided up into
four groups. Group one (G1) had students use self regulated learning (SRL) and collaborative
learning (CL) and has a teacher initiation (teach
er taught them the basics about computers).
Group two has CL with teacher initiation, but not SRL. Group three (G3) has CL without teacher
initiation and Group four (G4) received traditional lecture.

It should be pretty obvious what the results of this
study were. Group one students did
better than group two students who did better than group three students and of course the group
four students did the worst Each group during the study designed a business website. Group four
did the worst because they we
ren’t prepared to think on their own. Group one did the best
because the teacher taught the students the basics at the beginning of the class and then the
students collaborated to achieve success. These students learned how to think on their own and
how to

work together and created a successful business website. Hopefully, changes were made
in Taiwan as a result of this study!

During professional development days, I always found it funny when administrators lectured us
about making our classrooms more stu
dent centered. I would almost fall asleep after a very dull
long lecture. Why do education teachers in college or schools in general teach us using a
teacher centered approach instead of a student centered approach, like how they want us to
teach? I
always found this very ironic. This article and study shows how a predominantly
traditional lecture approach to education isn’t working, but yet most teachers still are using a

centered approach. Change needs to happen everywhere, but how do you g
et teachers to
buy into it?