Chapter 1 - HFT 3444

matchmoaningΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

66 εμφανίσεις

“The most valuable commodity I know of is information.
Wouldn’t you agree. ”


Gordon
Gekko
, the character played by Michael
Douglas in the film
Wall Street

Information Processing

RAW DATA

Reservations/Front Office/Sales/POS/Accounting, etc.

Decision

Making

Rules

Shaped

Data

INFORMATION

Information Systems

An information system(IS) is typically considered to be a set of
interrelated elements or components that collect(input),
manipulate(processes), and disseminate (output) data and
information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an
objective.

INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY

Hardware

Software

Databases

Networks

Other related
components

are used to build

INFORMATION
SYSTEMS

Payroll
System

Inventor
y
System

Marketin
g System

Customer
Service
System

IS
vsIT

Computer is defined…

A

computer

is

an

electronic

device
,

operating

under

the

control

of

instructions

(software)

stored

in

its

own

memory

unit
,

that

can

accept

data

(input),

manipulate

data

(process),

and

produce

information

(output)

from

the

processing
.

Generally,

the

term

is

used

to

describe

a

collection

of

devices

that

function

together

as

a

system
.


8 bits

=

1 byte

1000 bytes

=

1 kilobyte

1000 kilobytes

=

1 megabyte(MB)

1000 megabytes

=

1 gigabyte (GB)

1000 gigabytes

=

1 terabyte (TB)





Devices that comprise a computer system

Printer
(output)

Monitor
(output)

Speaker
(output)

Scanner
(input)

Mouse
(input)

Keyboard
(input)

System unit

(processor, memory

)

Storage devices

(CD
-
RW, Floppy,
Hard disk, zip,

)

Computer system unit internal view

Information Processing

Information Processing Phases:



Input
:

Collection and
conversion of data for
processing.



Processing:

Performs work on
data


calculating, classifying,
sorting, and summarizing.



Output:

Preparation of
processed information into a
form acceptable for analysis.

© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation

Information Processing

Information Processing Phases:


Output:

An effective information system will inform
management when results deviate from
predetermined goals.

Feedback

is necessary for
operational control. An information system may be
composed of many subsystems where the output
of on subsystem often becomes the input into
another.


Storage:

After data is processed, then is
commonly stored. Operations need to accumulate
historical statistics and financial totals for
accounting purposes and to
guage

performance.

Input Devices




Keyboard


Most widely used device for entering text and
information.


Mouse



Used in conjunction with the keyboard.


Touchscreen



Popular input device used in various hospitality
environments (e.g., restaurants). Click on this
Video Link: An
example of a multi
-
touch screen.
Click on this
Video Link: Learn
about Microsoft’s Surface Computing.


Voice Recognition



Used to book hotel rooms. A
voice portal

allows customers to access information from Web using a voice
browser. Automatic speech recognition connects a user directly to
the Web with voice prompts without a personal or handheld
computer. Click on this
Video Link: Tellme.com
.



Pen
-
based


Used to enter for various hospitality applications (e.g.,
entering a food order) on PDAs using a pen
-
like stylus. Other types
of wireless handhelds can operate by

single

or
multi
-
touch
.



Scanners and Bar
-
Code Readers



Used to identify luggage and
inventory items.



Radio
-
Frequency Identification



Used to provide hotel guests with
keyless entry into hotel rooms. Click on this
Video Link: “RFID Wine
Selection and POS System.”



Biometrics


Uses a person’s physical traits to restrict access to
physical locations, equipment, and computer systems. Click on this
Video Link: “The future of biometrics.”




I/O in Hospitality


LCD (liquid crystal
display
(touchscreen)


Hand Held Terminals


Cash Register


Point of Sales (POS)


Bar Code Reader


Scanner


Input Devices


Barcode

Introduction to Computers:
CPU



Central Processing Unit



The heart of the computer where data
is processed. Click on this
Video Link: History of Intel CPU.


A CPU consists of
control

and
arithmetic/logic units

and
primary
storage
.



Primary Storage

consists of random
-
access memory (
RAM
) and
read
-
only memory (
ROM
). RAM is measured in bytes. Most
computers come equipped with at least 512,000,000 bytes (512
MB). The number of bytes required depends on how much
space the program and data occupy.


Speed
is measured in gigahertz (GHz) or million instructions per
seconds (MIPS). It is important to make sure that the CPU has
enough processing power to handle all system requests. The
speed at which data travels is affected by the
data bus

or size
of the data path. A 64
-
bit bus can transfer data more quickly
than 32
-
bit bus. The latest development is the
multi
-
core CPU
,
which enables two (dual
-
core) or four (quad
-
core) CPUs to be
integrated on a single processor chip.


More RAM enables a program to run faster since

more of it can be loaded into RAM. Windows
7

requires at least 1 Gigabyte of RAM for it to run

comfortably.



Introduction to Computers:

Storage Devices





Hard Disk

-

Most of the data processed by a computer
resides in permanent or nonvolatile storage called a hard
disk. The size of the hard disk depends on program and data
space requirements. Typical capacity ranges from 80
gigabytes to over one trillion bytes or one terabyte (1 TB).
Click on this
Video Link: Look at the inside of a hard drive.


USB Flash Drive

-

A miniature mobile device (16 MB to 4 GB)
that is used to transfer data between a desktop computer
and a notebook computer, or for personal backup needs.


Magnetic Tape

-

Used for storing and backing up large
amounts of data (up to 800 gigabytes) quickly and cost
effectively.


Optical Storage



Used an alternative to magnetic storage.
Data is written to optical media (e.g., CD , DVD) with a laser
for archival or backup purposes. Optical discs are more
durable than tapes but slower than typical hard drive speeds
and offer lower storage capacities.



© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation

Introduction to

Computers: Output Devices


Printers
-

Key factors to consider when purchasing a printer
include print resolution (DPI) and speed (PPM), color, wireless and
remote printing capabilities, paper handling, life expectancy, and
cost. Two basic types of printers are
impact

(e.g.,
dot matrix

for
food orders in the kitchen) and
non
-
impact

(e.g.,
thermal

for
producing restaurant checks,

inkjet

for generating business
documents, and

laser

for printing guest folios and registration
cards). Click on this
Video Link: Dot matrix printer used in the
kitchen.


Monitors

-

Key factors to consider when purchasing a monitor
include resolution (800 by 600 to 2560 by 1600 pixels), dot pitch
(.26mm), refresh rate (72 Hz or screens per minute), ergonomics
(adjustment controls), and color. Configuring the information
system for optimal performance. The two basic types of monitors
are the
flat panel monitor

(e.g., LCD) and the
CRT monitor
. LCD
monitors are popular because of their thin design and superior
performance. Click on this
Video Link: Digital menu.


Multimedia Devices

-

Integrate multiple forms of media, including
text, graphics, audio, animation, and video. Multimedia
applications


include educational software, interactive TV, Web conferencing,

and virtual worlds. Click on this

Video Link: Learn about a virtual world called Second Life.


© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation

Zip Drives


Zip floppy drive


Iomega is the vendor


750MB
capacity

External Hard Drives


Removable Hard Drive


USB


Firewire


Jazz Drive

Flash Drives (Stick/USB Memory)

compact USB flash memory drive that acts like a portable hard drive

The Computer Revolution





Advancements in information technology continue at a


rapid and intimidating pace. A modern day desktop

computer is now more powerful than a 15
-
year old
supercomputer. Click on this
Video Link: “Did you know
.”


The
next generation of computers will be infinitely more
intelligent, smaller, and mobile than today’s computers
and much easier to use and operate.


By the 1990s, anyone could create meaningful and useful
digital content. The next breakthrough in the computer
revolution allowed digital content to be easily shared and
accessed via a global network called the
Internet
. Click
on this
Video Link: “History of the Internet
.”


http://www.cs.ucla.edu/~
lk/LK/Inet/1stmesg.html


Billions of users now view digital content via the
World
Wide Web
, a system of interlinked, hypertext documents
that was created in 1989. Click on this
Video Link:
“Beyond Web 2.0.”

© 2008 Jupiter Images
Corporation

Advantages of Computerizing
Information Processing





Improved labor productivity
. Eliminates repetitive clerical tasks and
redundant data entry and increases the span of control (e.g., Taco
Bell increased the span of control from one supervisor for five
restaurants to one for 30 through technology).


Enhanced decision
-
making capability
. Provides access to timely,
relevant information. For example,
Donato’s

Pizza restaurant uses
a
Business Intelligence System (BIS)
or
Decision Support System
for
consolidating data from different systems to reveal real
-
time data
on customer frequency, order trends, and coupon performance.
Click on this
Video Link: “The evolving information age.”


Reducing operating costs
. Emailing reservation confirmations, for
example, saves paper and lowers mailing expenses.


Increased information accuracy
. A computer reduces the number
of times data is handled by employees. One study revealed that
handwritten restaurant checks, for example, were inaccurate 16%
of the time.

Advantages of Computerizing
Information Processing






Increased revenues
. Ensures that all sales are
captured and recorded properly and enables the
automatic execution of revenue enhancement
strategies based on an evaluation of product pricing
and cost in relationship to facility capacity (e.g., If
occupancy in the group discount class exceeds X
percent with Y days before arrival, then move all group
discounts to the rack rate class).


Greater customer satisfaction and loyalty
. Computers
enable employees to more efficient and responsive to
customer needs. For example, wireless order taking
enables servers to provide faster service. Computers
are used to collect data about customer satisfaction.
For example, European
-
based Accor sends follow
-
up
e
-
mails to guests immediately after a stay inviting them
to take an online survey

Advantages of Computerizing Information
Processing






Greater customer satisfaction and loyalty

Feedback is also
obtained from
Consumer Generated Media
, such as blogs,
discussion boards.,
hotel

and
travel

review sites, social
networks, etc. Click on this
Video Link: Strategic Internet
marketing and social media and computing.
A Facebook
application was developed by Renaissance Hotels entitled
the “Renaissance Cocktail Mixer. The app lets users send
and receive house specialties.

After installing the app, virtual
dice are rolled to select a cocktail, then an action is
selected

toast, shake, pour, mix, etc.

before finally
selecting which Facebook friend to send the virtual drink.
That person then displays the drink on his or her Facebook
profile page.


Improved controls
. Automated systems make it possible to
collect money earlier and to spend it more intelligently. For
example, notices on past due accounts can be sent out
more quickly.


Technology and Information






The organization of information affects its
usefulness. There are several ways to organize
information: category, time, location , alphabet,
and continuum.


Category
. Overtime hours broken down by job
position pinpoints where corrective action is
needed.


Time
. Recording the number of meals served
per hour assists in labor scheduling.


Location
. Performance can be tracked for each
property in a hotel chain. For example, an
executive vice president of one hotel chain
lowered the labor cost percentage by 10% by
sending each GM a report that contained the
labor cost percentage for each property in the
chain, which incited healthy competition to top
the best performance.





Technology and Information






Alphabet
. Arranging information
alphabetically, such as an employee
directory, enables the desired information
to be more quickly accessed.


Continuum
. Departments can be ranked
from high to low on such things as labor
turnover or customer satisfaction.



The research firm Basex selected “Information Overload” as its
2008 “Problem of the Year.” Basex maintains that this problem
has led to reduced productivity and throttled innovation. Click
on this
Video Link: “Information and Technology.”

© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation

Data Miners






Data Mining
.
This involves harvesting
knowledge from mountains of data. It
enhances prediction and modeling
capabilities. For example, data mining
can help predict what new menu items
to offer to customers based on their past
choices or what customers are unlikely to
pay their bills on time. Click on this
Video
Link: Introduction to data mining.


© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation

Taking Full Advantage of
Information Technology






Organization Structure
. IT enhances organizational
efficiency and effectiveness by streamlining the
distribution of information, which results in a flatter
organization.


Communication
. The combination of the PC and
email was the first technological breakthrough to
dramatically change organizational
communications. Since them various communication
tools, such as an
Intranet (internal Web site),

have
been developed to increase staff productivity and
effectiveness. Click on this
Video Link: Microsoft CEO
Steve Ballmer discusses a single
-
platform package of
business communications applications such as voice,
instant messaging and e
-
mail.

Taking Full Advantage of
Information Technology






Standard Operating Procedures
. Simply automating
an existing process does not always compensate for
performance deficiencies. Redefining of standard
operating procedures and reengineering of work
may be required. Click on this
Video Link: An Intel
case study demonstrating a scalable solution to
improve productivity and customer service
.


Computing Platform
. Productivity in hospitality
corporations with large software implementations
has often declined due to widespread deployment
of stovepipe technologies, isolated “islands of
technologies” that cannot collectively adapt to
changing needs. Click on this
Video Link: An
example of an integrated solution developed by
Ford Motor Corporation.

Executive Information Systems



An EIS, an enterprise
-
wide business
intelligence application, is a
sophisticated tool to help
executives make timely, well
-
informed business decisions.


It enables meaningful information
to be extracted quickly and to
present it in a way that is
understandable, interesting, and
easily accessible. For example, an
EIS could alert a regional manager
that sales are below budget for a
particular unit. Click on this
Video
Link: The future of business
intelligence.

© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation