WiFi, Ubicomp & Smart Mobs

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 24 μέρες)

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WiFi, Ubicomp & Smart Mobs


Smart Mobs


System Directions for Pervasive Computing

-
Are we there yet?


Unplugged U

-
If not now, what’s changed?


T
-
Spaces: The Next Wave

How do we recognize the future?


Does it have to “land on you”?


What role does experience (or inexperience) play in
adoption of ideas & technology?


Analogies help

-
“It’s like X, but with Y”

-
It’s like radio, but with two
-
way communications


What change doesn’t begin within a subculture?

-
Early adopters (innovator’s Dilemma)

-
“Ground truths” and working knowledge


Nothing goes away, but it can get repurposed


Technologies “enable people to act together in new
ways & in situations where collective action was not
before possible” p xviii

Smart Mobs

Chapter 1: Mobile/Context
-
Aware Computing


“Texters”


European/Japanese youth

-
Altered notions of home/place/time

-
Presence uncoupled from physicality


Addition of simple iconography (tools for social
interaction) improved marketability of mobile
computing devicces


Device becomes “remote control” for your life


Swarming: cyber
-
negotiated public flocking
behavior


Location
-
sensitive technology gives locally
relevant information to citizens/travelers

Smart Mobs


Short text messages (SMS) changing social
dynamics

-
New terminology, customs, social norms

-
Read together, composed together, passed around,
edited between users

-
Broadcast messages for parties, fare jumpers, gathering


Text messaging allows maintenance of social
relationships not amenable to “real
-
world”
relationships


Continuous connections, regardless of place


2 simultaneous “spaces” of social
interaction: physical and virtual

-
BUT, they also change “faces” depending on
which world they attend to

Smart Mobs

Chapter 2: Technologies of Cooperation


Why choose to cooperate on line?

-
Input a little knowledge to commons, but access larger
(better) collective knowledge

-
Give to get, pay to play


Design characteristics for self
-
governing & self
-
organizing groups

-
Clear boundaries

-
Rules match local needs/conditions

-
Most people affected by rules can also modify them

-
Right to design own rules respected by external
authorities

-
Monitoring system for behavior

Smart Mobs


Design characteristics for self
-
governing & self
-
organizing
groups

-
Community members themselves do the monitoring

-
Graduated system of sanctions

-
Conflict
-
resolution mechanisms


Mechanisms to overcome “tragedy of commons”


Group = Game Theory Prisoners’ Dilemma


Tit
-
for
-
Tat, Zero
-
sum


Cooperators can thrive in population of defectors
if they can recognize each other (social network)

-
Outperform non
-
cooperative/self
-
centered resource
consumption strategies


Power of social network (not just a group)

-
Metcalfe’s Law: total value of network of nodes grows
w/square of # of nodes

-
Reed’s Law: total value grows at rate of 2 to power of #
nodes

Smart Mobs

Chapter 3: Computation Nations and Swarm
Supercomputers


Distributed sharing of disc space


more storage
than single device


Distributed sharing of CPU cycles


more
processing power than individual CPU

-
SETI@home

-
Distributed crack of RSA encryption

-
Folding@home


examine medical data to devise better
disease treatment


P2P


Every client is also a server


Grid
-
computing


“Node computing” or “Continuous Computing”

Smart Mobs

Chapter 4: Era of Sentient Things


Information in places: media linked to
location


Smart rooms: sensing and responsive


Sentient objects: adding
info/communications to everyday objects


Tangible bits: manipulating virtual world
through interaction w/physical


Wearable computers

Smart Mobs

Chapter 4: Era of Sentient Things


Intel adding radio transponder to every
chip


Ubicomp: not just computing devices
everywhere, but invisible integration
w/environment


“Augmented reality”

using computing
power to sense beyond limits of human
senses


“Perceptual intelligence”

computers
responsive to characteristics of their
users

Smart Mobs

Cooltown

-
virtual information overlays on real
-
world
objects/locations

-
Seamless integration of computing devices
and file formats (print any document on any
device from any local printer)


Attentive billboards:
Minority Report

consumerism


Code reading devices

click on object in
real world and expect something to
happen


Google Maps, Satellite photos,
Ridesharing, Taxi availability

Smart Mobs


RFID

-
Track movement of objects, people,
information and how they are used

-
“Smart money”


Wheel of Zeus

-
Radio tagging for keeping found things found

-
Bookmarking your tennis shoes, loaning a
book


Cyborgspace


Steve Mann

-
Personally mediate reality on YOUR terms

-
Record all your experiences from your PoV &
others

Smart Mobs

Chapter 5: Evolution of Reputation


Overview of getting know
-
how on line

-
Usenet

-
Collaborative filtering

-
FAQs


Building trust along w/reputation

-
eBay

-
Epinions

-
Blogs

-
Slashdot

Smart Mobs


Online anonymity can also be a shield for
irrational/unproductive behavior

-
Drives away legitimate contributors if too many
“freeloaders” of freely accessible information


Biological theories of cooperation

-
“Restores shadow of future” to each transaction

-
Threat of future consequences mediates present
behavior


Reputation allows loosely related people to
cooperate and collectively create value beyond
capabilities of action on local/individual levels

Smart Mobs

Chapter 6: Wireless Quits


LOTS of technology and spectrum management
review

-
History of wireless infrastructure development

-
Spectrum access methods


Spread spectrum


Frequency hopping


“Mini
-
burst” transmissions


What if every receiver is also a mini transmitter

total production of ad
-
hoc networks

-
WiFi, Bluetooth, low
-
power transmitters

Smart Mobs

Chapter 7: Smart Mobs
-

The Power of the Mobile
Many


Less effort to perpetuate information movement
than information production


Rise of P2P journalism

-
Constant surveillance mitigates our social behavior


Notion of personal area network


wearable
computers + context & location awareness


New task
-
based economy (WALID)

-
Agents exchange lists of personally relevant tasks
between actors in close proximity (see Good Old
Fashioned Future)

Smart Mobs

Chapter 7: Smart Mobs
-

The Power of the
Mobile Many


Swarm intelligence: thresholds of
individual action actually a social function


4 characteristics of swarm systems

-
Absence of centralized control

-
Autonomous subunits

-
High connectivity between subunits

-
Peers influencing peers

Smart Mobs

Chapter 8: Always
-
On Panopticon


Dangers of smart mob technologies

-
Threats to liberty


ubiquitous surveillance

-
Threats to quality of life


too much
information


Digital neuroses: is someone constantly
watching me or piecing together a picture of
my activities?

-
Threats to human dignity


are we becoming
too

automated and tied to technology?


Favor virtual relationships for face
-
to
-
face


Lose social skills in “real” interaction

Smart Mobs

Chapter 8: Always
-
On Panopticon


Key to influence in future: network capital

-
Ability to use technical and social networking
resources to your advantage


Smart mob technology may change how
we view the world and relate to each other
the way printing and literacy transformed
our society once before

Pervasive Computing


Pervasive computing: focus on users & tasks
vs. computing devices & technology

-
Seamless infrastructure

-
Invisible technology


HW is approaching, but little software
operates in this environment


3 primary problems to be solved in pervasive
computing system architecture

New Devices, Old Interfaces


Each new device builds on the assumptions
of the previous devices & designs

-
Who has read all of the documentation for their
phone, iPod, PDA, bluetooth device?

-
Who can use
all

of the functions on
any

of these
devices?


How many
steps

does it take to do a common
task?

-
Infrequent tasks like configuration,
synchronization, sequential tasks need
more

support
, not less

Working with PVC Devices?


Connections?

-
How are the bits interlinked?

-
How do they get into the PIM?


All in one place?

-
Is centralized necessarily better?


Client or Server for storage & help?


Integration among tools

-
Formats

-
Importing & Exporting


Integration for
tasks

-
Sequences

-
Automation


Integration among
users

-
Shared contacts, bookmarks, lists, filters

-
Common formats or meta information

Pervasive Computing

1: Objects don’t scale well in large networks

-
Single abstraction for data AND function

-
Assumes interfaces don’t change often


WWWeb consortium standards driving
standardized data types/formats


Private companies compete for functionality
making for many different interfaces

-
Assumes we can design interfaces that handle
object implementations w/stability & over time


Static data easy to handle (html, pdf, etc.)


Active data harder to control/secure (active
content)

Pervasive Computing

2: Resource availability limited/intermittent

-
Data/resource locations transparent in distributed
environment

-
Programmer’s folly


applications assume
continuity of resource access

3: Program/distributing apps unmanageable

-
No common platform

-
Many “classes” of computing devices

-
Installation/functionality differ between classes


Pervasive Computing

Solutions:
one.world
architecture

1. Keep data and functionality separate

-
Data = tuples (named & typed fields)

-
Functionality = components (units of functionality)

-
Both unified in environments = tuples + components +
other environments (nested data/functionality)

2. Program for change

-
Applications must acquire all resources (local and
distributed) incl. storage & communication channels

-
Store resources as primitives movable to other
devices (environment tree of all tuples + components
from execution state)

-
Constantly renew/refresh resources

Pervasive Computing

Solutions:
one.world
architecture

3. Common platform w/integrated API &
single binary format

-
Single instruction set implemented across
classes

-
Should be virtual machine
-
based technology

-
Smaller devices emulate networking
protocols or communicate through proxies
elsewhere on network

Unplugged U


Wireless experiments/trendsetting @
Dartmouth

-
Locators (laptops, PDAs, panic
-
button boxes)


Where are your friends (or at least their
laptops)?

-
In the classroom


Aggregate responses


like a game show


Avoids “performance anxiety”


PDA appointment reminders adjusted!

-
Social analysis (network traffic patterns)

-
E
-
mail (“Blitzes”) for idle chat

T
-
Spaces: The Next Wave


T
-
Spaces: combination of dbase, tuplespace, mobile
computing and Java

-
Promises total internetworking for every/any computing
device on the network

-
“Middleware” that manages data exchange between mobile
devices, PCs, mainframes, etc.


Tuplespace: simple agents communicating through
tuples exchange asynchronously & anonymously

-
Globally

shared, visible and addressable memory space

-
Allows number of agents to work simultaneously

-
Allows variable receivers to register interest in message

T
-
Spaces: The Next Wave


How they work

-
Data generating programs create a tuple and pushes it out to
tuplespace (data store)

-
Program requiring data requests some or all of the tuple for
its own purposes and reads it in

-
Beyond simple message passing


addressing is associative
not determinative


Early example


blackboard system (Hearsay II)

-
Knowledge sources (agents) communicate through the
blackboard (a global database)

-
Knowledge sources search blackboard for problem
descriptions matching their domains of expertise

-
Write solutions for these problems back to the blackboard

T
-
Spaces: The Next Wave


Evolution of Tuple
-
based systems included
database/query/join functions


Renewed interest thanks to distributed applications
apps on WWW and platform
-
independent
environment of Java


T
-
Space application:

-
Tuplespace component = flexible communications model

-
Dbase component adds stability, durability, advanced query
& data storage

-
Java provides instant portability and instant download for
changes in functionality on the fly

What are the myths of new tech?


We’ll automatically be better, smarter & faster


Society will embrace the change


Organizations will adapt

-
Workers will like it

-
Shareholders will be pleased (quarterly)


Everyone gets a voice


Coordination is easy, we just needed the tools


What’s next?


Personal Area Networks


Separating Space vs. Location


Phone as remote control for your life


Swarming technologies


Distributed computing


Keys, tunnels and tokens