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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Motivating Corporation in
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A
Step Forward

Attiqa Rehman

Syed Sajid Hussain

Dr Sajjad Mohsin

COMSATS Institute of Information
Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan




Presentation Plan

1

Description of MANET

2

Problem Statement

3

Techniques to Avoid Selfish Behavior

4

Reactive Techniques

5

Proactive Techniques

6

Problems In Existing Techniques

7

Proposed Solution Model

8

Expected Outcomes

Description of MANET


Node Properties


Autonomous


Self Organizing


Self Managed


Works as a router as
well


Network Characteristics


Wireless Media


Infrastructure less

Mobile Ad Hoc NetworkSource: http://www.dsta.gov.sg

Problem Statement


Nodes belonging to Multiple Organization
domains


Not a single Goal to achieve as in military and
emergency applications


Multiple Administrative polices


Limited energy resources


Wish to capitalize the resource energy


Going to Sleeping mode state


Selfish behavior




Decreasing network Throughput



Degrading QoS

Issue Addressed

Techniques to Avoid Selfish
Behavior



Reactive Techniques


Detection then removal


Watchdog and Pathrater[2]


CONFIDANT[7,8,9]


CORE[10]



Proactive Techniques


Avoid the occurrence



Nuglet System[1]


Watchdog and Pathrater[2]


Trust management


No punishment for selfish nodes


Increase QoS


Enable safe path selection

CONFIDANT[7,8,9]


CO
operation of
N
odes
F
airness
I
n
D
ynamic
A
d hoc
N
e
T
works


Isolates misbehaving nodes


Monitor for observing node behavior


Path manager for nodes to adapt their
behavior according to reputation




CORE[10]


CO
llaborative
RE
putation mechanism


Subjective reputation


Observation



indirect reputation



(positive reports by others)



Functional Reputation


Task specific behavior


Weight for combined reputation


Subjective Reputation


Functional Reputation



Decision of isolation or
gradual

Proactive Techniques


Nuglets Algorithm[1]


Nuglets

to gain profit by routing for others


Used to pay for sending node

s own packets


Nuglets reside within a counter protected by
Security Modules SM


Incremented each time it forwards a packet
for other nodes


reduced by a multiple of hop count
h
each
time the node wants to send a packet to
destination
h
hops away


Problems In Nuglet Algorithm[1]


Node in
Dead State


Node ran out of nuglets


Only option: Buffer till got enough nuglets


Real time system


Sending a packet that is buffered for too much time is
useless


Drop packets


Problems


Increased Packet Drop Rate


QoS Requirements


We aim to provide a reasonable solution to
this problem better than wait for sending or
packet dropping.

Proposed Model


A node can be removed from the dead
state, by taking a loan from any other
node.


The loan is granted on some guarantee
provided by the
deprived

to the
lender

node.

Bank Model


Loan grant

1.
Application for loan

2.
Provide guarantee

3.
Assess guarantee

4.
Assess bank’s monetary situation

5.
Negotiate interest rate and time

6.
Grant loan


Loan payback

1.
Check if amount available

2.
Pay it back

3.
Otherwise increase interest rate


Bank Model Formally Stated

Proposed Algorithm

Pay Back Nuglet

Expected Outcomes


Increase Corporation



Increased Quality of service


Decreased packet drop rate


Increased Throughput of the Network


References

1.
L. Buttayan and J. P. Hubaux
“Stimulating Cooperation in Self Organizing Mobile Ad hoc Networks”

ACM/Kluwar Mobile Networks and Applications, 8(5), Oct 2003.

2.
S. Marti, T. J. Guili, K. Lai and M. Baker
“Mitigating Routing Misbehavior in Mobile Ad hoc Networks”

Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Bostan,
MA, 2001.

3.
I. Chlamtac, M. Conti and J. J. Liu
“Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Imperatives and Challenges”

Ad hoc
Networks Vol. 1, No. 1 pp. 13
-
64, 2003.

4.
S. Corson, J. Freebersyser and A. Sastry
“Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET)”
, Special Issue
on Mobile Ad hoc Networking, Oct 1999.

5.
S. Buchegger, J. L. Boudec “
Cooperative Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Effort against
Malice and Selfishness”

Proceedings of Mobile Internet Workshop Informatik 2002, Dartmund,
Germany, Oct 2002.

6.
S. Zhong, J. Chen, and Y. R. Yang
“Sprite: A Simple Cheat
-
Proof, Credit Based System for Mobile Ad
hoc Networks”
, in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2003.

7.
S. Buchegger and J. L. Boudec
“IBM Research Report: the Selfish Node Increasing Routing Security in
Mobile Ad hoc Networks”
, 2001.

8.
S. Buchegger and J. L. Boudec
“Nodes Bearing Grudges Towards Routing Security, Fairness and
Robustness in Mobile Ad hoc Networks”

Proceedings of Tenth Euromicro on Parallel, Distributed and
Network
-
based Processing” pp 403
-

410 Canary Islands, Spain, Jan 2002. IEEE Computer Society.

9.
S. Buchegger and J. L. Boudec
“Performance Analysis of CONFIDANT Protocol: Cooperation of Nodes
-

Fairness in Dynamic Ad hoc Networks”

Proceedings of IEEE/ACM Symposium on Mobile Ad hoc
Networks and Computing (MobiHOC), Laissane, CH, June 2002.

10.
P. Michiardi and R. Molva
“CORE a Collaborative Reputation Mechanism to Enforce Node Cooperation in
Mobile Ad hoc Networks”

Sixth IFIP Conference on Security Communications and Mulitimedia,
Porotoroz, Solvania, 2002.

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