Workforce Development Conducting Success in ... - Project ARRIBA

martencrushInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

8 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

158 εμφανίσεις


134




















Workforce Development

Conducting Success in the Southwest:
Bringing Economic ‘Energy’ to the El Paso Region


















Community Scholars
First Year Interns
Presented: July 2008
Published: January 2009

135




Authors:
Rudy Alarcón, Burges High School
Claudia Gándara, Canutillo High School
David López, Montwood High School
Serita Smith, Mission Early College High School

Supervisor:
Gilbert Rodríguez, Baylor University

Staff:
Sofía Larkin, Executive Director
Kwadwo Achampong, Program Coordinator
Linda Amaro, Administrative Assistant




Community Scholars is a non-profit corporation based in El Paso, Texas
that develops regional community leaders. Its summer internship program
cultivates leadership skills in youth through public policy and economic
development research projects. This and other reports can be found at
www.communityscholars.org or copies can be obtained at:



Community Scholars
200 N. Ochoa
El Paso, TX 79901
915.533.6200 (P)
915.533.6207 (F)
www.communityscholars.org


136
Conducting Success in the Southwest:

Bringing Economic ‘Energy’ to the El Paso Region


Fifty years ago, El Paso was one of the wealthier communities in the nation, but
somewhere along the line it fell behind. Some El Paso leaders attribute the lapse due to
increased competition for low-wage jobs instead of concentrating on increasing educational
attainment like the rest of the nation.
500
By the 1960’s, El Paso’s economy was viewed as a
low-wage and low education one. The local economy also suffered high unemployment, and
high underemployment, where individuals were forced to take positions they were overqualified
for due to a lack of opportunities. In 1994, El Paso also suffered increased unemployment due
to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Recently however, local El Paso leaders have begun to work on changing the image of
the “low-wage capital of the United States.” In fact, El Paso is currently ranked the fifth most
economically active border between Mexico and the United States.
501
With a developing military
base and healthcare sector, El Paso is on route to closing the educational gap and reducing its
poverty level.

Community Scholars used various websites, personal interviews, public records, and
agency reports in order to support these findings. This report will analyze the major economic
drivers that are developing this community currently, and also attempt to evaluate and define
the surge of so called “energies” that could transform the borderland into an economic
metropolis.

State of El Paso’s Current Economy


Community Scholars researched and analyzed the recent history of El Paso, in order to
fully understand how and to what level El Paso’s economy is improving and advancing.
Community Scholars evaluated past economic performance, beginning with the effects of the
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

NAFTA and the Maquiladora Industry

NAFTA was initiated on January 1, 1994. This agreement was set up to remove any of
trade barriers that existed between the United States, Mexico and Canada, such as tariffs.
502

The treaty has brought both negative and positive effects to the border community in its 14
years of existence.

Harmful Effects

NAFTA’s removal of trade tariffs meant that companies were able to pay lower wages in
El Paso’s Mexican sister city, Ciudad-Juárez for the same production that would have otherwise
been more expensive in the United States.
503
From a business point of view, this of course
saved companies money. For example, companies could cut jobs that paid American workers
$400 a week and increase jobs that paid Mexican workers $40 a week. As a result, many of the


500
Shapleigh, Eliot. Personal interview. 27 June 2008. District 29 Texas Senator.
501
"El Paso, Texas - Land Gateway." Research and Innovative Technology Administration
. U.S Department of
Transportation. 13 June 2008.
<http://www.bts.gov/publications/americas_freight_transportation_gateways/highlights_of_top_25_freight_ga
teways_by_shipment_value/port_of_el_paso/ index.html>.
502
"Fact Sheet." North American Free Trade Agreement
. 1 Jan. 2008. 18 June 2008
<http://www.fas.usda.gov/info/factsheets/NAFTA.asp>.
503
“Southwest Economy.” Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
. Dec. 1999. 9 June 2008 <http://www.dallasfed.org/
research/swe/1999/swe9906.html>.


137
maquiladoras or manufacturing plants in El Paso moved across the border, at the cost of
displacing American factory workers. In fact, the 1994 migration displaced approximately
14,000 workers in El Paso.
504
That year, unemployment in El Paso peaked at 12.3%.

Across the border in Ciudad-Juárez, the NAFTA scenario was a bit different. By 1998,
the maquiladora industry in Mexico had grown and reached almost a total of 3,000 factories,
which provided jobs for over one million people in Mexico. At one point, the maquiladoras
accounted for 57% of the jobs in Mexico.
505


Beneficial Effects

Despite the increased amount of unemployed American workers, the lower labor costs
allowed U.S companies to stay in business, leading to increased competitive prices in the
U.S.
506
And while most unskilled workers were displaced by the treaty, approximately 3,100 El
Pasoans found jobs as plant managers, engineers, or other professional positions in the
factories across the border.
507
Employees that work in Ciudad-Juárez and live on the U.S. side
of the border produce an annual payroll of $247.8 million.
508
Also, 30,000 indirect jobs were
created in El Paso because of the maquiladora industry in Ciudad-Juárez.
509



El Paso’s economy lags behind the rest of Texas and the United States. While NAFTA
provided economic gain for the United States through increased trade, El Paso is little more
than a land bridge for this trade. El Paso is in need of economic stimulators in order to combat
high underemployment, poverty, and low educational attainment. These obstacles will be
discussed in the following section.

Employment & Poverty Status

The County of El Paso has an estimated population of 736,310 people.
510
As previously
discussed, El Paso has traditionally suffered from a high unemployment rate, especially after
the implementation of NAFTA. Underemployment is another issue that the community faces,
where people take jobs that require less skill and education than what they possess.
511
Texas
State Senator Elliot Shapleigh (D-El Paso) attributes this high underemployment to the city’s old
mission of attracting low-wage jobs, instead of bringing in higher paying jobs.
512
Another issue
that has emerged out of the low-wage capital is a high poverty rate, especially when compared
the national average. Most individuals that live in poverty live without certain or all necessities
of life; for instance food, a place to live and health care.
513
The following graph compares the El
Paso rate of poverty to that of the United States.



504
Mauleon, Victoria, and Clarence Ting. "EL PASO: Texas Colonias." UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism
.
10 June 2008 <http://journalism.berkeley.edu/projects/border/elpasocolonias.html>.
505
"Southwest Economy." Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
. Dec. 1999. 9 June 2008
<http://www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/1999/swe9906.html>.
506
"Southwest Economy." Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
. Dec. 1999. 9 June 2008
<http://www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/1999/swe9906.html>.
,
507
Cook, Bob. Ensuring Homeland Security
. 15 Dec. 2007. 20 June 2008
<http://homeland.house.gov/SiteDocuments/20080103121323-54405.pdf>.

508
Hunt, Harold. "The Lay of the Land in El Paso p.21." Texas Real Estate Teachers Association
. 9
Jan.2006. 16 June 2008 <http://recenter.tamu.edu/speeches/REEC06Hunt.pdf>.
509
Cook, Bob. Ensuring Homeland Security
. 15 Dec. 2007. 20 June 2008
<http://homeland.house.gov/SiteDocuments/20080103121323-54405.pdf>.
510
"El Paso County, TX." U.S. Census Bureau
. 2 Jan. 2008. 19 June 2008
<http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/48/48141.html>.
511
Answers.com
. 3 July 2008 <http://www.answers.com/topic/underemployed?cat=biz-fin>.
512
Shapleigh, Eliot. Personal interview. 27 June 2008. District 29 Texas Senator
513
Info Please
. 3 July 2008 <http://www.infoplease.com/cig/economics/poverty.html>.

138
Graph 5.1


United States & El Paso Poverty Rates

0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
30.00%
Individuals Families
El Paso
United States

Source: 2006 American Community Survey

In 2007, the ratio of individuals living in poverty was one in every three, making El Paso the 3
rd

poorest county in the nation.
514
According to Roman Ortiz, Chief Executive Officer of Project
ARRIBA, an uneducated person, with a family of four, working two minimum wage jobs will
remain in poverty, “living pay check to pay check.”
515


This section has painted a somewhat grim economic outlook for the area, due to the
troubling issues with employment. However, future developments and revitalizations have been
predicted to cause significant economic growth. These drivers will be discussed in the following
section.

Job Growth

Referencing back to the earlier in the report, it was stated that low-wages were
something which plagued the community. In a recent interview with Bob Cook, President of the
El Paso Regional Economic Development Corporation (REDCo), he stated that there were two
ways for the area to increase wages. The first was to attract industries that simply offered
higher wages, and the second was to increase competition in the job market by creating more
jobs. Increased competition allows the simple market principles of “supply and demand” to
occur, which will increase local wages.
516
As the business sector grows, the amount of long-
term high-wage jobs should also be expected to increase. In fact, Forbes.com complied a list of
U.S. cities predicted to have high job growth; El Paso was 3
rd
on the list.
517




514
Carlsen, Laura. "Standing Up to NAFTA." Americas Program Congressional Briefing
. 11 June 2008
<http://americas.irc-online.org/am/4830>.
515
Ortiz, Roman. Personal interview. 19 June 2008. Project ARRIBA Chief Executive Officer.
516
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008. Regional Economic Development Corporation President.
517
Kirdahy, Matthew. "Best Cities for Jobs in 2008." Forbes.com
. 8 Jan. 2008. 11 June 2008
<http://www.forbes.com/2008/01/11/ jobs-economy-growth-lead-careers-cx_mk_0110cities_table_7.html>.

139
Despite this, the city still maintains the “low-wage capital” reputation. In order to reverse
the perception, El Paso has begun to explore ways to effectively market itself, and its new
commitment to attracting high-end jobs of tomorrow, instead of low-wage jobs of the past. The
following section will discuss these efforts. El Paso’s marketing campaign advertises El Paso’s
recognizable features such as: the Franklin Mountains, the culture, and the historical
buildings.
518
Safety and happiness have also been “selling points” for the City of El Paso as well
as its potential job growth. In 2008, Morgan Quitno Press, a state and city ranking publication,
announced that El Paso was named the 2nd safest city in America with a population of 500,000
or more.
519
In 2005, Men’s Health Magazine ranked El Paso as the 2
nd
happiest city in
America.
520


Economic Drivers


There are three economic drivers that are predicted to positively impact the local
economy by creating new jobs and large amount of private and public investment. The most
prominent of these drivers have been identified by Community Scholars as:

• Downtown & Dyer Revitalizations
• Base Realignment and Closure Act of 2005
• Fostering an Educational Community

These three areas are all examples of long-term planning, which has not been the norm
in El Paso. In an interview with Morris Pittle, Creative Director of Two Ton Creativity, he stated
that El Paso had been the “victim to short-term plans.” He added that El Paso needed long-
term dynamic change “that accommodates our cultural knowledge.”
521
This desire for a long-
term scope was confirmed by a recent report from the Institute for Policy and Economic
Development from the University of Texas at El Paso. The report stated that 88.5% of El
Pasoans stressed the importance of master planning.
522


These drivers have been said to be the future “energy” of the predicted economic boom.
Yet, despite the large amount of discussion about energy, there is little discussion as to what
this energy literally refers to. In light of this, Community Scholars set out to develop a definition
for the term through research and personal interviews, and has concluded that the future energy
of El Paso is the people of the region who will fuel the economic drivers. In other words, these
drivers will be relying on the work and support of people in order to be successful, be it through
reassignment to Fort Bliss, or through private investment a downtown high-rise. The next
section will discuss the job growth the area will soon experience.

Downtown Revitalization


In a personal interview with El Paso City Council Representative Susie Byrd (District 2),
she stated that El Paso’s downtown “had lost its vitality,” adding that “significant revitalization
[needed] to begin in our core.”
523
This effort is underway. El Paso’s City Plan Commission
approved a Downtown Revitalization Plan on October 31, 2006, aiming to have the entire


518
Pittle, Morris. Personal interview. 30 June 2008. President/Creative Director of Two Ton Creativity Inc.
519
"America's Safest Cities." Statestats.com
. Morgan Quitno Press. 23 June 2008
<http://www.statestats.com/cit05pop.htm>.
520
"Quality of Life." Elpasoredco.org
. 23 June 2008 <http://www.elpasoredco.com/ ElPaso-QualityofLife.aspx>.
521
Pittle, Morris. Personal interview. 30 June 2008. President/Creative Director of Two Ton Creativity Inc.
522
Olmedo, Carlos, et al. "2008 City of El Paso Citizen Survey." University of Texas at El Paso
. Jan. 2008. Institute
for Policy and Economic Development. 19 June 2008
<http://www.elpasotexas.gov/omb/_documents/2008%20El%20Paso%20Citizen%20Survey%20-
%20Report_IPED01-2008.pdf>.
523
Byrd, Susie. Personal interview. 25 June 2008. District 2 City Representative

140
downtown completed by 2015.
524
The purpose of the Downtown Plan is to execute the following
eight objectives:

• Increase the city’s tax base
• Create a dynamic, mixed land use downtown
• Develop high quality housing for area residents
• Introduce new investments that are catalysts for all of downtown
• Enhance city’s cultural and historic heritage
• Build on El Paso’s strengths
• Create opportunities for private investment
• Create jobs for El Pasoans
525


In order to create a successful plan, El Paso highlighted previous revitalization plans in
cities such as: San Diego, Fort Worth, San Antonio, Columbus, and Santa Fe due to their
successful downtown revitalizations.
526
However, according to Veronica Rosales-Soto, the
city’s Redevelopment Manager for the Department of Economic Development, even though the
city looked at other revitalizations, the El Paso Downtown Plan is unique and crafted to El
Paso.
527


Looking to Other Cities

Each city that El Paso looked at, such as San Diego or Columbus, has “built-in assets
that the revitalization plans took advantage of. San Diego, California has “built-in assets such
as San Diego’s ocean, naval base, and resort spot”.
528
San Diego reinvented its core into an
urban metropolis that retains business and continues to grow due to its redevelopment efforts.
Since the redevelopment, San Diego’s core has seen $964 million in public investment and
$9.57 billion in private investments.
529
San Diego’s revitalization has produced:

• 75,000 workers in the downtown area
• Homes for over 30,000 people
530

• 14,800 new homes
• 6.9 million square feet of office and retail space
531


Another example of a successful revitalized downtown is Columbus, Ohio, which created
a redevelopment area known as the “Arena District” which includes the Bottom Nationwide
Arena. An arena provides a location for concerts, sporting events, and other public events.
The Arena District has produced retail, entertainment, restaurants, and hotels that attract over
2.7 million visitors per year. Ohio’s redevelopment has inspired El Paso’s leaders to consider
the option of potentially having an arena. The proposed arena would seat a-maximum capacity
of 18,000 people and would occupy six acres of land.
532
After analyzing previous revitalizations


524
"El Paso Downtown Revitalization." City of El Paso
. 25 Apr. 2008. 17 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/econdev/tedc.pdf>.
525
"Final Downtown 2015 Plan." City of El Paso
. 26 Nov. 2006. Paso Del Norte Group Foundation. 19 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/_documents/ El_Paso_Report_061129.pdf>.
526
"Final Downtown 2015 Plan." City of El Paso
. 26 Nov. 2006. Paso Del Norte Group Foundation. 19 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/_documents/ El_Paso_Report_061129.pdf>.
527
Rosales-Soto, Veronica. Personal interview. 23 June 2008. City of El Paso’s Economic Development Department.
528
Pittle, Morris. Personal interview. 30 June 2008. President/Creative Director of Two Ton Creativity Inc.
529
"Downtown Today San Diego 2008." Ccdc.com
. Spring 2008. 20 June 2008
<http://www.ccdc.com/resources/resource_files/ Downtown_Today_2008_WinterSpring.pdf>.
530
Centre City Development Corporation." Ccdc.com
. 19 June 2008
<http://www.ccdc.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/aboutCCDC.home>.
531
"Downtown Today San Diego 2008." Ccdc.com
. Spring 2008. 20 June 2008
<http://www.ccdc.com/resources/resource_files/ Downtown_Today_2008_WinterSpring.pdf>.
532
"Final Downtown 2015 Plan." City of El Paso
. 26 Nov. 2006. Paso Del Norte Group Foundation. 19 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/_documents/ El_Paso_Report_061129.pdf>.

141
of other cities, El Paso’s Downtown Plan developed its own unique objectives, which were
previously mentioned and will now be discussed in further detail.

Funding and Tax Development

One of the first objectives of the Downtown Plan is to develop a way to ease the tax
burden on residential properties outside of downtown. This can be done by increasing the
share of taxes on business properties. The city often cites examples of businesses in
downtown that are not paying their fair share of taxes. Some downtown buildings even pay less
in taxes than medium sized homes in El Paso”.
533
In order to lessen the residential tax burden,
the plan has turned to a Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) company.

Real Estate Investment Trust

A Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) company is a company that owns/operates
income producing real estate such as apartments or shopping centers. This building allows for
small investment through the purchase of equity. In other words, just as shareholders of a
company benefit by owning stock in that company, the stockholders of a REIT share the
economic benefits derived from the income-producing real-estate.
534
The Borderplex REIT has
already sprouted this activity by its purchase of two of the largest office buildings in the El Paso
Downtown.
535
The Downtown revitalization objective is to ease our tax base, but the plan itself
will also be funded by the city’s Tax Increment Reinvestment Zone (TIRZ).

TIRZ

A Tax Increment Reinvestment Zone (TIRZ) was adopted for the Downtown Plan on
December 19, 2006.
536
Under Chapter 311 of the Texas Tax Code, a TIRZ will pay for costs of
improvements to a specified area through future tax revenue.
537
A TIRZ works by setting a city
tax’s “base year”, which is the year the TIRZ is adopted; El Paso’s base year is 2006. For the
next year, 2007, the 2006 downtown taxes are accumulated, but the additional revenue after the
base year goes into a TIRZ account to help fund the Downtown Plan. For example, if the 2006
tax base was $100 million, and the 2007 tax base was $150 million, only $100 million would be
taxable by the city. The increased $50 million would also be taxed, but would go directly to the
TIRZ account to fund public infrastructure and amenities including traffic lights and public park
planning and improvement.
538
Now that the funding aspect has been discussed, one of the
plan’s major goals is to utilize mixed land use, which will be discussed next.

Mixed Land Use

There are two types of mixed land use: vertical and horizontal. Vertical take a mid to
high-rise building and incorporates different uses within the same building, such as retail on the
ground level, office space in the middle levels, and housing on the top. This provides all the
elements of a self-sustaining community (live, work, shop and play) and encourages pedestrian
traffic instead of vehicular. This becomes a more viable development alternative as the
expense of suburbs increase: commute times and land values.



533
Dodson, Kathryn. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. Director of Department of Economic Development.
534
"Real Estate Investment Trust." City of El Paso
. 16 June 2008
<httphttp://www.ci.el-
paso.tx.us/downtownplan/_documents/factsheets_downtown/DT%20Fact%20Sheet%20REIT.pdf >.
535
Dodson, Kathy. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. Director of Department of Economic Development.
536
"El Paso Downtown Revitalization." City of El Paso
. 25 Apr. 2008. 17 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/econdev/tedc.pdf>.
537
"Tax Increment Financing." City of El Paso
. 16 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/_documents/factsheets_downtown/ DT%20Fact%20Sheet,%20TIF.pdf>.
538
Dodson, Kathy. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. Director of Department of Economic Development.

142
The second type is Horizontal Mixed Land Use which “separates lows intensity uses
from high intensity uses through a medium intensity, generally single story or low-rise multi-story
buildings with a single use”. Currently, El Paso is made up of Horizontal Mixed Land Use.
539

The mixed land use objective is to increase population density however, which lines up with
vertical mixed land use principles.

Value of Vertical Land Use

According to Smartgrowth.org, mixed land use can create higher property values that
raise local tax revenue.
540
Smart Growth is growth that generates more revenue from real
estate taxes than the actual municipal costs and services the city provides.
541
In order to raise
tax revenues with less municipal services, a denser population must be achieved, as opposed
to a suburban area, for example. Having denser populations will increase the demand for faster
more efficient methods of transportation. The following sections will discuss Bus Rapid Transit
and the potential planning for a light rail system in El Paso.

Light Rail and Bus Systems

To prepare and plan for a larger and denser Downtown, a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) will
be implemented in the area. The BRT will allow commuters to have efficient transportation with
specific “Dedicated Commuter Lanes”. Bus Rapid Transit is beneficial to large cities with dense
urban populations. One of the city’s first plans for a BRT lane will be implemented beginning of
2009, and will connect downtown to the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) through Mesa
Street.
542


Another transportation possibility is a light rail system that would stem from the city’s Bus
Rapid Transit (BRT) plan. Light rail is an expensive transportation alternative and if the City of
El Paso chooses to create a light rail system, it must prove it has the market demand for it.
543
A
successful BRT can lead to the implementation of a light rail.
544
However, according to the
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis “the public provision of light-rail services cost more than
consumers are willing to pay”.
545


To create a dense population and transportation opportunities for people in downtown,
housing and job opportunities will be important. The Downtown Plan will link six catalyst
projects to bring people, business, and housing, which will include mixed land use, to the area.

The Catalyst Projects

The Catalyst Projects are intended to attract higher paying businesses to the area, but at
the same time retain El Paso’s border retail business with Mexico’s shoppers. The objective of
the Catalysts Projects is to create the “framework for a series of major investments that bring
significant commercial energy downtown”.
546




539
Sapp, Gary. Personal interview. 24 June 2008. Hunt Building Corporation.
540
"Principles of Smart Growth ." Smartgrowth.org
. 10 July 2008
<http://www.smartgrowth.org/about/principles/principles.asp?res=1024>. Mixed Land Uses
541
Sapp, Gary. Personal interview. 24 June 2008. Hunt Building Corporation.
542
Dodson, Kathy. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. Director of Department of Economic Development.
543
Rosales-Soto, Veronica. Personal interview. 23 June 2008. City of El Paso's Economic Development Department.
544
Dodson, Kathy. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. Director of Department of Economic Development.
545
Castelazo, Molly D., and Thomas A Garrett. "Light Rail: Boon or Boondoggle?" Stlouisfed.org
. 23 July 2008
<http://www.stlouisfed.org/ publications/re/2004/c/pages/light_rail.html>.
546
"Final Downtown 2015 Plan." City of El Paso
. 26 Nov. 2006. Paso Del Norte Group Foundation. 19 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/_documents/ El_Paso_Report_061129.pdf>.

143
Figure 5.1


The Downtown Districts or Catalyst Projects


Source: City of El Paso Downtown 2015 Plan Boundary Districts

The following are the Catalyst Projects/Areas of Development in the Downtown Plan:

• Mercado District
• Border Retail District
• Mixed Use/ Residential District
• Historic Incentive District
• Entertainment District
• Lifestyle Retail District
547


All the districts or Catalyst Projects have similar goals including: to improve the
neighborhoods of Downtown, create a more pedestrian accessible Downtown, and incorporate
entertainment and retail opportunities.

The Mercado District is inspired by major city markets in Mexico and Central America.
The Mercado District is situated in the Oregon/Mesa Street area and will incorporate mixed
income housing as well as small retail and local art. The Mercado District will draw from the
current vitality of the Segundo Barrio.

The Border Retail District will be adjacent to the border and Rio Grande and will
include large retail stores. The Border Retail District will be the “southern anchor for the
Downtown Plan and start the north-south Bi-National Arts Walk”.

The Mixed Use/ Residential District will encompass 67 acres. This district will
encourage integrated commercial ground floors and encourages residential upper floors in the
Magoffin/San Antonio neighborhood. It is proposed to have a concentrated amount of housing in


547
"El Paso Downtown 2015 Plan Boundary and Use Districts." City of El Paso
. 16 June 2008
<http://www.ci.elpaso.tx.us/_documents/DowntownMap.pdf>.

144
the district which will link people to other districts. The Mixed Use/ Residential District is
recommended to have “affordable and market rate housing” while preserving The Magoffin
Historic District.

The Historic Incentive District includes 175 acres of Downtown’s many “important
architectural buildings”. The Historic Incentive District encompasses the area of San Jacinto
Plaza and has been established to “promote renovations on existing buildings”.

The Entertainment District, located in the Santa Fe Street area, will bring a large
venue arena to the west downtown area producing “new street energy” and will allow El Paso to
“host national sporting events, trade shows, national conventions, and blockbuster shows”. The
Plan envisions a large arena with seating for 15,000 -18,000 people to be situated in Downtown
by taking the example from Columbus, Ohio’s Bottom Nationwide Arena.

The Lifestyle Retail District will be a “pedestrian oriented retail street” centered around
the extended First Street. The objective of the Lifestyle Retail District is to attract visitors from
Mexico and New Mexico to the nine block area of retail.
548


Arts, Culture, and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment provide a fun, hip, culturally enriching commodity that attract
people from within the city as well as from away. In an Institute for Policy and Economic
Development (IPED) survey of UTEP students’ concerns about El Paso, most would like to
change El Paso’s retail, restaurant, and entertainment choices. Where the students would most
like to see the change take place is in the downtown area.
549


Morris Pittle, President/Creative Director of Two Ton Creativity Inc. stated, “People are
engaged by a cities culture; we need to display it. The El Paso Downtown Plan is good but it
doesn’t take full advantage of the area’s culture.”
550
One organization working to address this
issue is the Museums and Cultural Affairs Department (MCAD). In 2005, MCAD was revamped
to better provide El Paso's citizens and visitors with opportunities to experience the region's
unique artistic and cultural heritage. MCAD has worked to promote cultural/heritage tourism,
public art, historic preservation, and arts education in El Paso.
551
Kathy Dodson, Director of the
City’s Economic Development Department, said, “Our culture and arts are very important to El
Paso’s success, they give people a sense of place.”
552
That sense of place is what retains El
Pasoans and attracts tourists from abroad. El Paso currently has unique programs and
activities that can be developed upon and expanded in the future. Some of these activities are:

• Alfresco Fridays
• Music Under the Stars
• El Paso Symphony Orchestra
• Viva! El Paso
553


Alfresco Fridays along with Music Under the Stars are free open air concerts. The El
Paso Symphony Orchestra offers an exceptional venue into the classical musical arts, and Viva!


548
“Final Downtown 2015 Plan." City of El Paso
. 26 Nov. 2006. Paso Del Norte Group Foundation. 19 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/_documents/ El_Paso_Report_061129.pdf>.
549
Quinones, Daniel J., and Dennis L. Soden. "Generation Next UTEP Student Body Survey." University of Texas at
El Paso
. 2007. Institute for Policy and Economic Development. 24 June 2008
<http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1068&context=iped_techrep>.
550
Pittle, Morris. Personal interview. 30 June 2008. President/Creative Director of Two Ton Creativity Inc.
551
Alameda, Yolanda R. "Directors Message." Elpasotexas
. Museums and Cultural Affairs Department. 3 July 2008
<http://www.elpasotexas.gov/mcad/ about.asp>.
552
Dodson, Kathy. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. Director of Department of Economic Development.
553
"Music Under the Stars and Alfresco Fridays." Elpasotexas.gov
. Museums and Cultural Affairs Department. 24
July 2008 <http://www.elpasotexas.gov/mcad/summerprograms.asp>.

145
El Paso shows a great interpretation of El Paso’s rich culture and history though music, dance,
and theater. These attractions provide a place for El Pasoans and many others to get out and
engage in city activities.

‘Flight of the Creative Class’

One book El Paso leaders have taken keen interest in is Economist Richard Florida’s
book, Flight of the Creative Class
. This book has captured their interest because of its ability to
inspire a city’s image and excite its economy. In his book, Florida states, “By supporting
lifestyle and cultural institutions like a cutting-edge music scene or a vibrant artistic community,
it helps to attract and stimulate those who create in business and technology.” Key factors that
attract the creative class are

• Lifestyle
• Environmental quality
• A vibrant music and arts scene
• Natural and outdoor Amenities
554


In our research, Community Scholars learned that individuals enjoy what El Paso has to
offer when they find out about it, but most attractions are not concentrated, properly invested in,
or marketed enough. According to Veronica Rosales-Soto, City Redevelopment Manager,
“When attracting people, you must improve the cities overall quality of life; more choice and
expansion of retail/entertainment, open air spaces, and recreation centers are what we are
looking into.”
555
In regards to the “Creative Class”, Kathy Dodson stated that, “We’re starting to
really change the way the city thinks…lets take advantage of all our assets.”
556


In order to attract and create this “Creative Class”, El Paso will require private investors
who are willing to help better the community along with assistance from the city creating public
and private partnerships.

Public and Private Partnership

Within El Paso’s Downtown Plan, the private sector has been a significant support to
the restoration. Private investors appeal to consumers while the city assists private investors.
A recent example of a private and public partnership comes from the work being done by Paul
Foster, Chief Executive Officer of Western Refining Company, and Jim Scherr, El Paso attorney
and businessman.
557


Paul Foster Partnership

Paul Foster’s Mills Plaza Properties own the Anson-Mills Building and the Plaza Hotel
located downtown. Both will be renovated to resemble their classic state. Recently, work has
begun on a pedestrian promenade in close proximity to both buildings. The walkway will include
access to both buildings, and also the recently renovated Plaza Theater and the Centre
building. This pedestrian quarter will allow people to access many historic buildings in
Downtown.
558




554
Edmonson, Susan. "The Arts Industry." Beevradenburgfoundation
. 2003. 3 July 2008
<http://www.beevradenburgfoundation.org/A&E&Biz.ppt#262,7,Arts & the Workforce>.
555
Rosales-Soto, Veronica. Personal interview. 23 June 2008. City of El Paso’s Economic Development Department.
556
Dodson, Kathy. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. Director of Department of Economic Development.
557
Leon, Rene. "Revival Plans for the plaza, Mills, and Centre Buildings." Newspapertree.com
. 8 Mar. 2008. 18 June
2008 <http://newspapertree.com/news/ 2174-revival-plans-for-the-plaza-mills-and-centre-buildings>.
558
Leon, Rene. "Revival Plans for the plaza, Mills, and Centre Buildings." Newspapertree.com
. 8 Mar. 2008. 18 June
2008 <http://newspapertree.com/news/ 2174-revival-plans-for-the-plaza-mills-and-centre-buildings>.

146
Foster has also been involved with other renovation projects throughout the city and has
contributed to the efforts of enticing new businesses to El Paso. For example, the abandoned
Farah Manufacturing building located in East-Central El Paso was once a large clothing and
apparel manufacturing center has recently become an area poised for future development. Paul
Foster and Regency Centers, a national development company, recently announced their bid to
transform the Farah site into a shopping complex. However, Foster and Regency Centers have
asked the El Paso City Council to grant a tax rebate of $12 million in order to begin with their
plans to renovate the old Farah building into a multi-million dollar lifestyle center.
559


Hilton Double Tree Hotel

Another example of the city and private investors working together is businessman and
attorney Jim Scherr’s redevelopment of the International Hotel. The abandoned International
Hotel had become an eyesore to El Paso’s redeveloping downtown area, but due to public and
private partnership, the building will be part of the area’s economic development. Jim Scherr
bought the International Hotel and will begin renovations to turn it into a Hilton Double Tree
Hotel. In order to generate a commercial hotel, the City of El Paso granted Scherr tax
abatement on his property, and will also make payment to him for the use of the hotel’s parking
facilities.
560


Housing and Cultural Concerns

One of the major concerns of the Downtown Plan is the potential displacement of
residents. This concern does not necessarily stem from fear of eminent domain, but rather from
increasing rental rates. As the downtown area grows, rents will rise which may force people
with fixed incomes to leave in search of more affordable arrangements. City Representative for
District 8, which includes the Downtown area, Beto O’Rourke stated that “the city is aware of
this problem and is creating a sufficient supply of affordable housing.”
561
Another housing
concern is the significant challenge in providing housing in the downtown area. The adaptive
reuse and rehabilitation of old buildings in Downtown is often more expensive than tearing the
existing building down and replacing it with a new building.
562


When considering the cultural aspects of the plan, Representative O’Rourke went on to
add that the downtown area “might lose the character that makes it unique”. In order to retain
Downtown El Paso’s uniqueness, O’Rourke believes that encouraging investment in existing
structures is the answer.
563
Another area of the city that is expecting a facelift is one of El
Paso’s major traffic corridors, Dyer Street. The following section will discuss this initiative.

Dyer Revitalization


According to City Representative Susie Byrd (District 2), the redevelopment of El Paso’s
urban core will make lower Dyer more accessible, which should in turn also bring more
investment to the area, and thus revitalization.
564
The area has been chosen to be the sight of
redevelopment also due to its close proximity to Fort Bliss (which will be experiencing growth to
be discussed later in this report) and because of the active Central Neighborhood Association,
which is asking for it.
565



559
Crowder, David. "The Pitch is in for the Farah Site." NewspaperTree.com
. 11 June 2008. 12 June 2008
<http://newspapertree.com/news/ 2545-the-pitch-officially-is-in-but-long-way-to-go-for-foster-regency-and-
the-farah-site>.
560
"Languishing Eye Sore to Become Luxury Hotel." Newspapertree.com
. 22 Mar. 2007. 23 June 2008
<http://newspapertree.com/news/ 1238-languishing-eyesore-to-become-luxury-hotel>.
561
O'Rourke, Beto. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. District 8 City Representative.
562
Sapp, Gary. Personal interview. 24 June 2008. Hunt Building Corporation.
563
O'Rourke, Beto. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. District 8 City Representative.
564
Byrd, Susie. Personal interview. 25 June 2008. District 2 City Representative.
565
Byrd, Susie. Personal interview. 25 June 2008. District 2 City Representative.

147

“The purpose of the Dyer Revitalization is to create more value, a higher producing tax
base, pride, and to get people excited about the neighborhood”, stated Representative Byrd.
The revitalization in the Dyer area is in part due to the natural demands of Fort Bliss.
566
The
Community Based Development Organization (CBDO) has been created to improve and
oversee the lower Dyer Neighborhood Revitalization.
567


Challenges

Lower Dyer faces the challenge of expansion. The dilemma is that the area is
encompassed by already developed areas which include the William Beaumont Army Medical
Center, Fort Bliss Housing, and the Patriot Freeway, which act as barriers for growth.
568

Another problem lower Dyer is facing is that many landowners do not want to improve on
properties due to the risk of having to pay higher taxes. As a result there are “absent landlords,”
individuals who are choosing to not improve on property in order to not pay higher property
taxes.

The entire corridor of Dyer is under a “Neighborhood Empowerment Zone”, which grants
a five year rebate program that gives landowners an opportunity to fix properties. The city
would rebate the portion of the investment, and the rebate itself would not be subject to
taxation.
569


Issues to Address

Along with implementing a rebate program, the city is also addressing the roadway
concerns in the Dyer area. Only one traffic light is located in lower Dyer at the intersection of
Dyer and Fillmore, which creates a dangerous pedestrian walkway for the remainder of the
street.
570
Other issues concern narrow and few sidewalks and the absence of medians along
the road for pedestrian traffic.
571


To begin revitalizing Dyer, the City of El Paso’s Community and Human Development
Department conducted a neighborhood cleanup effort and health fair on April 12, 2008. The
cleanup process was done to rejuvenate the façade of senior citizens’ homes with the suppot of
a local Home Depot. The health fair component was held to provide citizens with a free health
screening in order to increase health awareness.
572
The neighborhoods surrounding Dyer are
some of the city’s older areas, and Representative Byrd stated that as new neighborhoods
around the city were built, there was a lack of commitment to continue investment in older
areas, such as Dyer. The result was that individuals left these areas in search of new
neighborhoods; a trend that the city is currently trying to reverse.
573




566
Byrd, Susie. Personal interview. 25 June 2008. District 2 City Representative.
567
“Lower Dyer Neighborhood Revitalization Strategy." City of El Paso
. 20 Nov. 2007. Community and Human
Department Neighborhood Services. 16 June 2008
<http://www.ci.elpaso.tx.us/development_services/meetings/cpc1206071330/ lower%20dyer%20draft.pdf>.
568
"Lower Dyer Neighborhood Revitalization Strategy." City of El Paso
. 20 Nov. 2007. Community and Human
Department Neighborhood Services. 16 June 2008 <http://www.ci.el-
paso.tx.us/development_services/meetings/cpc1206071330/ lower%20dyer%20draft.pdf>.
569
Byrd, Susie. Personal interview. 25 June 2008. District 2 City Representative.
570
"Lower Dyer Neighborhood Revitalization Strategy." City of El Paso
. 20 Nov. 2007. Community and Human
Department Neighborhood Services. 16 June 2008 <http://www.ci.el-
paso.tx.us/development_services/meetings/cpc1206071330/ lower%20dyer%20draft.pdf>.
571
Byrd, Susie. Personal interview. 25 June 2008. District 2 City Representative
572
"Lower Dyer Neighborhood Revitalization Strategy." City of El Paso
. 20 Nov. 2007. Community and Human
Department Neighborhood Services. 16 June 2008 <http://www.ci.el-
paso.tx.us/development_services/meetings/cpc1206071330/ lower%20dyer%20draft.pdf>.
573
Byrd, Susie. Personal interview. 25 June 2008. District 2 City Representative.

148
As previously stated, one of the main reasons for this revitalization is due to the
proximity of Fort Bliss. After the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC) round, Fort
Bliss’ 3
rd
armored Calvary left the region, that led to economic slow down not only for the city,
but for Dyer as well.
574
However, the recent BRAC round is predicted to be one of the region’s
most intense economic drivers, and will be discussed next.

Base Realignment and Closure Act of 2005


In 2005, the Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC) designated Fort Bliss to be one
of four military bases in the United States to gain posts, along with Fort Knox, Fort Bragg, and
Fort Riley. The Department of Defense used BRAC to strengthen the nation’s military bases
and ensure posts work as efficiently as possible.
575
Along with relocating troops, BRAC closed
fifteen military bases, facilities, and medical centers around the country. The services the
closed facilities provided are going to be transported to other army bases throughout the
nation.
576
Fort Bliss will be losing its Army Air Defense Artillery School, but will also be gaining
many different posts and service facilities. Fort Bliss will become the top employer of the Paso
Del Norte region.
577
BRAC will cause an economic boom that will allow El Paso to expand its
job base and attract higher paying jobs to the region, such as engineers, technology specialists,
and high-tech contractors.
578
Fort Bliss was chosen to be expanded by the army due to:

• the vast training ranges
• federal ownership of land and air space
• the distance to the White Sands Missile Range and the Holloman Air Force Base
• it’s room to expand housing and administration facilities
579


Fort Bliss has the biggest maneuver area in the army at 550 square miles. The military
base also has the longest continuous tract of unrestricted airspace in the Continental United
States at 1,500 square miles.
580
Fort Bliss, the White Sands Missile Range, and the Holloman
Air Force Base are slightly smaller than the size of Connecticut, and are the only military
properties where every Army weapons system, such as the Patriot Air Defense Missile, can be
fired.
581
As of now, Fort Bliss is currently home/going to be the future home of:

• The 32
nd
Army Air and Missile Defense Command
• The 1
st
Armored Division
• The Joint Task Force North
582

• The United States Army Air Defense Artillery School (Pending relocation to Fort Sill)
583

• The Garrison Command
• The Sergeants Major Academy
• The Training and Doctrine Command
• The U.S. Army Forces Command


574
McElroy, Mathew. Personal interview. 3 July 2008. Deputy Director of Development Services.
575
Benitez, Andrew, Maria del Carmen Hernandez, and Jonathan Sanchez. “Breaking Down BRAC: An Analysis of
Regional Preparedness for Military Transformation.” 10 June 2008 <http://www.communityscholars.org/files/
reports66.pdf >.
576
U.S. Department of Defense
. Donna Miles. "Commission Wraps Up BRAC Decision." American Forces Press
Services. 29 Aug. 2005. 17 June 2008 <http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=16775>.
577
Window on State Government
. 12 June 2008 <http://www.window.state.tx.us/ comptrol/fnotes/fn0612/blissful.html
>.
578
Acosta, Fermin, et al. “Development of PSB Lands in Northeast El Paso, Texas.” Elpasowaterutilities.com.
15 Oct.
2006. 17 June 2008 <http://www.epwu.org/public_info/rfq_ne1006.pdf>.
579
"Local Health Officials are Ready for Additions." El Paso Times
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.elpasotimes.com/
ci_5115605?IADID=Search-www.elpasotimes.com-www.elpasotimes.com >.
580
Military: Fort Bliss
. 17 June 2008 <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/fort-bliss.htm >.
581
Shapleigh, Eliot. The Five M's
. 2005. Economic Development in El Paso.
582
Fort Bliss, Texas
. 3 July 2008 <https://www.bliss.army.mil/>.
583
Global Security
. 17 June 2008 <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/fort-bliss.htm>.

149
• The MEDCOM
584


People

After BRAC, the population of El Paso is expected to increase from 736,310 people in
the year 2006 to 884,454 people by the year 2011.
585
There are 27,954 predicted soldiers along
with incoming families coming to the Paso Del Norte region due to BRAC. The total number of
families and troops will be an estimated total of 65,636 people.
586
These troops are not only
coming from domestic bases, but also from U.S. bases aboard. For example, both Fort Bliss
and White Sands Missile Range will be expecting 3,500 troops each from a German base in
2012 and 2013, respectively.
587
Once the soldiers arrive, healthcare officials are expecting a
baby boom over the next five years. The expectation is that the number of births will grow from
100 births to 225 births every month. With more births, will come more stress on the William
Beaumont Army Medical Center. As a result, there is a need to build more hospitals and make
room for additional beds at the military medical center.
588
The following section will discuss
preparations in further detail.

Influx Preparations

BRAC is going to affect education, public health, workforce, infrastructure, and mental
health agencies.
589
In order to prepare for the growth, the city is creating a profile of military
personnel. The profile shows the amount of students that are expected to come in, the housing
demand, and the type of work needed in the labor market. However, the main guide in all the
preparations is to know when the soldiers and their families are to arrive.
590
In order to
accommodate the growth, the city is currently working on a to-do list to improve the quality of life
in El Paso. The drawing board plans are:

• Large Shopping Complex
• Commissaries
• Post Exchange (PX)
• Small Shops
• Medical, Child Care, and Recreational Facilities
591


Fort Bliss is expecting a major impact on the population.
592
The City of El Paso and the
U.S. Army are preparing for the influx by implementing two projects that have been designed in
response to the incoming troops. One is the inland desalination plant that supports the water
supply for both Fort Bliss and the City of El Paso. The second project is the Spur 601 (Inner


584
Fort Bliss, Texas
. 3 July 2008 <https://www.bliss.army.mil/>.
585
Community Profile
. 16 June 2008 <http://www.oea.gov/OEAWeb.nsf/70B0533B76ACB348852573AD0050A88
C/$File/Ft%20Bliss%20Profile%20Final_with%20community%20review.pdf >.

586
The City of El Paso. "Initiatives and Challenges in Growth, Economic Development, Education, Housing,
Healthcare, Workforce and Infrastructure Needs." Inform El Paso
.
587
"Army Expansion Plans Outlined." Military.com
. 11 June 2008
<http://www.military.com/NewsContent/0,13319,158690,00.html>.
588
"Local Health Officials are Ready for Additions." El Paso Times
. 11 June 2008
<http://www.elpasotimes.com/ ci_5115605?IADID=Search-www.elpasotimes.com-www.elpasotimes.com >.
589
"Fort Bliss will Change El Paso." Newspaper Tree
. 17 June 2008
<http://www.newspapertree.com/opinion/ 2437-fort-bliss-will-change-el-paso>.
590
Workforce Innovations
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.workforceinnovations.org/ speaker_docs/TMarkham%20-
BRAC%20workshop.pdf >.
591
Window on State Government
. 12 June 2008 <http://www.window.state.tx.us/ comptrol/fnotes/fn0612/blissful.html
>.
592
"Stateside Bases Prepare for Influx." Stars and Stripes
. 18 June 2008
<http://www.stripes.com/article.asp?section=104&article=54363&archive=true >.

150
Loop Project), which will help ease the road congestion that will be caused once the soldiers
arrive.
593


The Kay Bailey Hutchison Desalination Plant

The Kay Bailey Hutchison Desalination Plant is the world’s largest inland desalination
plant. It is a partnership between the El Paso Water Utilities (EPWU) and the U.S. Army/Fort
Bliss. The $87 million desalination plant has the capacity to produce 27.5 million gallons of
drinking water daily. The expenses to produce the water will only be about $1.65 per 1,000
gallons of water produced.
594
The plant is designed to clean the brackish (salty) groundwater
supply, thus extending the city’s water supply by fifty years.
595
According to Gary Sapp,
President of Hunt Development Group’s Southwest Division, the desalination plant will attract
more businesses to the city because there is enough water to support future development.
596


Spur 601 (Inner Loop Project)

The El Paso Spur 601 (Inner Loop Project) will connect US-54 to the Purple Heart
Memorial Highway (Loop 375), and will cost a total of $367 million. Spur 601 will address the
traffic issues in Northeast El Paso and the Biggs Army airfield that will be caused by the
incoming soldiers and their families. The project will not only help military personnel move to
Fort Bliss more smoothly, but will also address the current issues of road congestion that El
Paso has been facing for years.
597
Currently, the Inner Loop is 85% designed, and construction
has already begun.
598
The entire project is schedule for completion by October 30, 2011 and is
expected to receive about 50,000 cars daily.
599


Social Impacts

BRAC’s social impact will encompass the housing market as well as the school districts.
Once the thousands of soldiers come into the area, the demand for housing and quality
teachers will increase in the El Paso region. Soldiers want to make sure that their children are
getting a good education and make sure that they have housing that falls in their price range. In
the following sections, Community Scholars analyzes the education impact and the military
housing demand of BRAC.

Education

School districts in the region are starting to make preparations for the influx of students
they are going to receive. One of the military families’ concerns is whether or not the schools
are prepared with good teachers for their students.
600
The military says the number of school
aged children arriving with the soldiers will be 13,525 by 2012.
601
The most affected school


593
"Two Thoughts on Fort Bliss Growth." Newspaper Tree
. 16 June 2008
<http://newspapertree.com/opinion/2440-two-thoughts-on-fort-bliss-growth>.
594
"El Paso Desalination Plant Opens up after 15 years of Planning." The Daily Texan
. 20 June 2008
<http://www.dailytexanonline.com/home/ index.cfm?event=displayArticle&ustory_id=e39bde7f-56fe-49fa-
9d17-dc88dd21108c>.
595
El Paso Public Water Service
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.epwu.org/water/ desal_info.html >.
596
Sapp, Gary. Personal interview. 24 June 2008. Hunt Building Corporation.
597
"El Paso Spur 601 Project Accelerated with Private Funding." Keep Texas Moving
. 11 June 2008
<http://www.keeptexasmoving.com/index.php/news/
El_Paso_Spur_601_Project_Accelerated_with_Private_Funding >.
598
“Work Begins on Spur 601." El Paso Times
. 17 June 2008
<http://www.elpasotimes.com/neighborhoods/ci_9595938 >.
599
“Work Begins on Spur 601." El Paso Times
. 17 June 2008
<http://www.elpasotimes.com/neighborhoods/ci_9595938 >.
600
Ortiz, Roman. Personal interview. 19 June 2008. Project ARRIBA Chief Executive Officer.
601
The City of El Paso. "Initiatives and Challenges in Growth, Economic Development, Education, Housing,
Healthcare, Workforce and Infrastructure Needs." Inform El Paso
.

151
district in the area is going to be the El Paso Independent School District (EPISD). Out of these
13,525 students, EPISD is expected to receive roughly 10,100 students.
602


To be prepared for this influx, the schools need 547 new teachers in the next six
years.
603
In order to prepare for this impact, school districts are asking for more bonds to build
supplementary buildings and schools around the Fort Bliss area. Ysleta Independent School
District (YISD) has even offered to bus students from Fort Bliss to their schools in order to
relieve EPISD.
604
A 2007 EPISD bond totaling $230 million passed that will cover the costs of
new facilities as well as expanding and renovating existing buildings. Of the entire bond, 40%
or about $100 million will be spent to prepare for the military students coming due to BRAC.
605


The Socorro Independent School District (SISD) is one of the fastest growing school
districts in the state.
606
SISD is expected to receive about 20% of the incoming military
students, which is about 1,255 students.
607
Ysleta Independent School District (YISD), the
second largest school district in the city, has a predicted amount of 1,000 students coming into
the schools due to BRAC. However, YISD has the capacity to accommodate 3,000 to 4,000
students if the number of incoming students due to the military influx rises. On Fort Bliss two
new schools, a new middle school in Biggs Field and a new elementary school at Logan Heights
were built to accommodate the influx.
608
These schools will receive the students who live on the
base and provide relief to EPISD, YISD, and SISD schools.

However, natural growth now coupled with increased military students has indeed
placed a huge strain on the local districts. If the school districts follow through on all their
construction plans and increase their capacities before the arrival of the military students, they
will be prepared.

Real Estate

The President of the Greater El Paso Association of Realtors, Dan Olivas, stated “El
Paso’s housing market is rather vibrant”.
609
The U.S. housing market has seen a decline in
home buying and a rise in foreclosure rates which have affected the national economy. On a
local level, El Paso’s housing market has seen a reverse trend which will benefit the community
in preparations for BRAC and the Texas Tech Medical School. “El Paso has always been
different from the nation”, says Olivas who has seen an increase in the appreciation of homes
within the last year.
610


Currently, Fort Bliss and El Paso are not able to provide housing for the incoming
soldiers. An estimated 70% of the incoming soldiers are going to want to live off base, which
would be about 20,000 soldiers along with their families.
611
The city has made plans to provide


602
"EPISD bond plan projects $230 million." El Paso Times
. 20 June 2008
<http://www.episd.org/_2007bond/pdf/EPISD-bond-plan-projects.pdf>.
603
"EPISD bond plan projects $230 million." El Paso Times
. 20 June 2008
<http://www.episd.org/_2007bond/pdf/EPISD-bond-plan-projects.pdf>.
604
"Taxes May Fall Despite Projected Troop Influx." El Paso Times
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.elpasotimes.com/
ci_5108851?IADID=Search-www.elpasotimes.com-www.elpasotimes.com>.
605
"EPISD: largest growth in 40 years." El Paso Inc.
20 June 2008
<http://www.elpasoinc.com/showArticle.asp?articleId=1075>.
606
Benitez, Andrew, Maria del Carmen Hernandez, and Jonathan Sanchez. “Breaking Down BRAC: An Analysis of
Regional Preparedness for Military Transformation.” 10 June 2008 <http://www.communityscholars.org/files/
reports66.pdf >.
607
Status of 2004 Bond Program
. 23 June 2008
<http://www.sisd.net/dmdocuments/2004_bond/oversight_meeting_minutes/07/July_18_07.pdf>.
608
Benitez, Andrew, Maria del Carmen Hernandez, and Jonathan Sanchez. “Breaking Down BRAC: An Analysis of
Regional Preparedness for Military Transformation.” 10 June 2008 <http://www.communityscholars.org/files/
reports66.pdf >.
609
Olivas, Dan. Personal interview. 18 June 2008. Greater El Paso Association of Realtors.
610
Olivas, Dan. Personal interview. 18 June 2008. Greater El Paso Association of Realtors.
611
RedCo: Regional Military Growth
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.elpasoredco.com/ TargetInd-MilitaryGrowth.aspx>.

152
these 20,000 units, but still requires the development community to respond and actually build
the units.
612
There are also plans to build 1,659 homes on undeveloped land and to renovate
1,163 existing homes including 206 historic properties.
613


According to a report by the Institute for Policy and Economic Development (IPED), “the
timing for housing is bad because of the sub-prime mess, money is getting harder to get.” The
report goes on to explain that obtaining permits for construction is becoming harder and that
houses being built are more expensive than lower ranked soldiers can afford to pay.
614

Depending on position, a soldier can earn as little as $800 a month for housing.
615
Monthly
mortgage payments in El Paso range from $850-$900.
616
However, soldiers can choose to
spend more than the $800 for living conditions and build up their assets by making an
investment on their property.
617


If military personnel buy a home for their family, they need to remember that their family
is on a lifecycle plan, which calls for them only to stay in the area for three years. When they
purchase a home, it is critical that they think of the resale value of it in the upcoming years.
618

To accommodate the soldiers, the military is considering offering five-year leases on property
using lease points, which was effective at Fort Drum, New York. If there is sufficient housing
stock in El Paso and there is an appropriate level of demand, the army will lease local homes for
five years, and allow military families to occupy these homes. The lease is to the army, and not
the family, which allows the family to move at the end of their three-year assignment to the
base. At that point, another family could move into the home for the remainder of the lease, that
would still be the responsibility of the U.S. Army.
619


Economic Impact


By 2013, expansion at Ft Bliss will help attract new companies into the city, increase the
local tax base, and help create many new spin-off jobs in El Paso. The incoming troops will also
have a consistent and lasting effect on the local economy, because it is anticipated that the
Army will not deploy more than one brigade at any single point in time (a heavy brigade typically
represents about 3,800 active duty personnel).
620
Fort Bliss is becoming a growing economic
driver in El Paso, and is helping to change the economy. Some of the prominent economic
impacts that BRAC will have on El Paso are:

• Direct $6.3 billion impact from incoming troops
621

• 37% of future El Paso companies will be defense/military related
622

• 24,000 jobs, ranging from service to high-wage, are coming into the area
623

• $2.5 billion will come in new labor income
624

• 4
th
Brigade and 1
st
Calvary Division will generate $500 million/year
625



612
McElroy, Mathew. Personal interview. 3 July 2008. Deputy Director of Development Services.
613
Benitez, Andrew, Maria del Carmen Hernandez, and Jonathan Sanchez. “Breaking Down BRAC: An Analysis of
Regional Preparedness for Military Transformation.” 10 June 2008 <http://www.communityscholars.org/files/
reports66.pdf >.
614
IPED Instructor Leads Fort Bliss-El Paso Growth Management
. 11 June 2008
<http://organizations.utep.edu/Default.aspx?alias=organizations.utep.edu/ iped>.
615
Q&A with Toni Hedstrom
. 20 June 2008 <http://www.elpasoinc.com/ showArticle.asp?articleId=2624>.
616
ACORN Housing
. 26 June 2008 <http://www.acornhousing.org/index.php>.
617
McElroy, Mathew. Personal interview. 3 July 2008. Deputy Director of Development Services.
618
Q&A with Toni Hedstrom
. 20 June 2008 <http://www.elpasoinc.com/ showArticle.asp?articleId=2624>.
619
McElroy, Mathew. Personal interview. 3 July 2008. Deputy Director of Development Services.
620
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008. Regional Economic Development Corporation President
621
Cook, Bob. "Recruiting High Tech Jobs to the El Paso/Juarez Borderplex." 27 May 2008.
622
Cook, Bob. "Recruiting High Tech Jobs to the El Paso/Juarez Borderplex." 27 May 2008.
623
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008. Regional Economic Development Corporation President.
624
REDCo and IPED. "Impacts." Economic Impact of Growth at Fort Bliss
.
625
"Texas Community Gets its Soldiers Back." Army Times
. 11 June 2008
<http://www.armytimes.com/legacy/new/0-ARMYPAPER-1502168.php>.

153
• 1
st
Armored Division will provide $3-4 billion to local economy
626


In the following sections, Community Scholars analyzed how the Fort Bliss expansion is
going to impact the taxpayers, the companies BRAC is bringing into the area, and the
employment that will be in high demand once the expansion is completed.

Tax Base

If Fort Bliss is to grow at the expected rate it will cost El Pasoans and school districts
more than $270 million in taxes. The taxes that are collected are going to be used to fulfill the
city’s plans to build schools and housing for the incoming soldiers near the Fort Bliss area.
627

The Fort Bliss expansion was an investment for El Paso; the city wanted the troops in order to
receive the benefits the influx will have on the economy and the job market.
628


Mathew McElroy, Deputy Director of Development Services of El Paso, explains that
taxes may go up because the value of homes are increasing. The area must continue to pay
taxes in order to ensure that jobs created by the expansion remain in El Paso. He went on to
add that the net benefit of the new revenue outweighs any increase of the effective tax rate.
629

Current economic impact studies indicate that the community should see a 50% increase in
annual property tax growth and a 100% increase in annual sales tax growth between now and
2013.
630


Jobs

The jobs that are going to be produced by BRAC will require professional employees
with high levels of education. Currently, the are would struggle with providing the labor for these
high-wage jobs. That being the case, it is expected that the engineering, telecommunications
and other technical assistant positions jobs will be attracting individuals from outside the local
area.
631


Hospitals will also be in need of employees once the soldiers have settled into the city.
The William Beaumont Medical Center, a Department of Defense hospital that provides
healthcare for military personnel and beneficiaries, will be in need of physicians, nurses, nurse
practitioners, physician’s assistants, and other staff needs.
632
An estimated 900 military and
civilian personnel will be hired by the Medical Center in order to keep up with the troop influx.
633

By 2017, there will be a demand of 615 physicians and 2,289 nurses in the entire region.
634
The
need at the hospitals is going to help the city recruit and retain individuals with increased levels
of education due to the prospect of stable jobs.
635




626
"Texas Community Gets its Soldiers Back." Army Times
. 11 June 2008
<http://www.armytimes.com/legacy/new/0-ARMYPAPER-1502168.php>.
627
"Taxes May Fall Despite Projected Troop Influx." El Paso Times
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.elpasotimes.com/
ci_5108851?IADID=Search-www.elpasotimes.com-www.elpasotimes.com>.
628
McElroy, Mathew. Personal interview. 3 July 2008. Deputy Director of Development Services.
629
McElroy, Mathew. Personal interview. 3 July 2008. Deputy Director of Development Services.
630
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008. Regional Economic Development Corporation President.
631
Benitez, Andrew, Maria del Carmen Hernandez, and Jonathan Sanchez. “Breaking Down BRAC: An Analysis of
Regional Preparedness for Military Transformation.” 10 June 2008 <http://www.communityscholars.org/files/
reports66.pdf >.
632
William Beaumont Army Medical Center
. 18 June 2008
<http://www.wbamc.amedd.army.mil/>.
633
"Local Health Officials are Ready for Additions." El Paso Times
. 11 June 2008
<http://www.elpasotimes.com/>.
634
The City of El Paso. "Initiatives and Challenges in Growth, Economic Development, Education, Housing,
Healthcare, Workforce and Infrastructure Needs." Inform El Paso
.
635
"El Paso Needs the Rebirth of Cool." Newspaper Tree
. 19 June 2008
<http://newspapertree.com/opinion/2408>.

154
Local Businesses

Current economic impact analysis projects show that 24,000 spin-off jobs will be created
in El Paso as a result of the growth at Ft Bliss. These jobs will range from retail, to service, to
construction to high-wage production and maintenance positions.
636
The increased number of
businesses would mean that the city would have a pool of skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled
jobs for locals in the area.
637
It has been said that a community that is performing well in job-
creation will have a variety of jobs with varying skill levels, that pay wages commensurate to
their skill levels.
638


An example of a company that was brought to El Paso is the Boeing Company, the
world’s largest manufacturer of military aircrafts. Boeing is said to bring about 300 high-wage,
high-tech jobs in support of weapons research that will be based at Fort Bliss.
639
The Fort Bliss
expansion will also be bringing the Army Evaluation Task Force (AETF) program, which is
coming to utilize The Fort Bliss Training Complex, which includes McGregor Range, Doña Ana
Range, Meyer Small Arms Range, SHORAD Range, Orogrande Range, the Main Cantonment
Area, and the North and South Training Areas for their research.
640


The AETF is composed of 1,000 soldiers whose sole responsibility is to test new
technologies for the Army and to provide feedback to the Future Force Integration Directorate
(FFID) (approximately 300 additional personnel) and private contractors who manufacture these
technologies. Companies which are considering El Paso today as a result of AETF/FFID
activities include those involved in modeling and simulation, manufacturing, research and
development, engineering support, test support, and maintenance. These companies typically
receive contracts directly from the Department of Defense to conduct these activities.
641


The army has also selected Ft Bliss to be the final integrated test site for Army’s major
technology transformation program title Future Combat System (FCS). The FCS program is
trying to achieve true interoperability of systems with the ultimate goal of linking legacy
technologies (tanks, weapon systems, communications, etc.) with new technologies (unmanned
aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, robots, sensors, etc) into a single functioning
system in battle. The program has the potential to create local jobs for graduates from the
University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) College of Engineering.
642


Will El Paso Be Prepared?

With 28,000 soldiers and their families coming into the region, El Paso will have a growth
that it has never seen before.
643
Bob Cook, president of the Regional Economic Development
Company (REDCo), explains that we didn’t need to make a large investment in services such as
water, sewer, and gas because we already have existing infrastructure. What El Paso needs to
invest in are services that people use constantly such as hospitals, schools, and daycare
centers.
644




636
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008. Regional Economic Development Corporation President.
637
Benitez, Andrew, Maria del Carmen Hernandez, and Jonathan Sanchez. “Breaking Down BRAC: An Analysis of
Regional Preparedness for Military Transformation.” 10 June 2008 <http://www.communityscholars.org/files/
reports66.pdf >.
638
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008. Regional Economic Development Corporation President.
639
"El Paso Braces for Explosive Growth." KFOXTV.com
. 12 June 2008
<http://www.kfoxtv.com/military/7383858/detail.html >.
640
Military: Fort Bliss
. 17 June 2008 <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ facility/fort-bliss.htm >.
641
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008. Regional Economic Development Corporation President.
642
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008. Regional Economic Development Corporation President.
643
"El Paso Braces for Explosive Growth." KFOXTV.com
. 12 June 2008
<http://www.kfoxtv.com/military/7383858/detail.html >.
644
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008.

155
One aspect that has gone unnoticed is the impact that the arriving soldiers will have on
the local culture. El Pasoans find value in the community that is perhaps not seen by the
current veterans/soldiers we have. With the influx of troops, our city’s cultural and civic life is
going to be impacted, and cultural tensions may arise.
645


Fostering an Educational Community


Education in El Paso is the key to producing well qualified workers to accommodate the
needs of our growing city. Our ability to graduate and retain the talent and skill of our own
students could have great economic impacts.
646
Chief Executive Officer of Project ARRIBA,
Roman Ortiz stated, “When you have skilled workers but no jobs, the workers leave, and when
you have the jobs but no skilled workers, the companies leave. Jobs and the talent of the
workforce should grow together.”
647
The purpose of this section is to demonstrate how the
growth we have discussed thus far can be coupled with educational growth.

Last year, the Texas economy lost $32.1 billion in additional wages due to over 123,600
students who failed to complete their high-school education.
648
Now El Paso stands with a
78.3% graduation rate, which is above the graduation rates of the San Antonio, Dallas, and
Houston regions.
649
Raising the educational attainment in El Paso has become a significant
issue seeing as how more high skill jobs are coming into El Paso through the various economic
drivers mentioned thus far.

In 2007, 31% of people in El Paso over 25 did not have a high school diploma and only
18% had obtained a college bachelors degree or higher. There is a significant gap that exists
between the skills demanded by the coming jobs in the fields of engineering, science, and
physicians, and the skills of the approximate 237,000 people who fall under the recommended
skill sets required for the higher wage jobs.
650
As previously stated, graduates in the city have
problems with math, writing, and English proficiency skills, which cause El Paso to bring in
outside workers for the high-wage jobs.
651
If El Paso does not act to raise the skills of the local
labor force to the levels demanded by the coming high-wage job market, El Paso will miss out
on millions of dollars.
652
Listed below is a comparison of the numbers and percentages for each
respected level of educational attainment in El Paso in the years 2000 and 2007.



645
Byrd, Susie. Personal interview. 25 June 2008. District 2 City Representative.
646
Fullerton, Thomas M. "Secondary Education Its Impact on Border Income." Dallasfed
. June 2001. Federal
Reserve Bank of Dallas. 12 June 2008 <http://www.dallasfed.org/research/border/tbe_fullerton.pdf>.
647
Ortiz, Roman. Personal interview. 19 June 2008. Project ARRIBA Chief Executive Officer.
648
Perryman, Ray M. "Class of '07 dropouts to cost U.S. $350 billion." El Paso Times
15 June 2008: 1E.
649
"Educational Attainment." Elpasoredco
. May 2008. Regional Economic and Development Corporation. 26 June
2008 <http://www.elpasoredco.com/ElPaso-EducationalAttainment.aspx>.
650
"Educational Attainment." Elpasoredco
. May 2008. Regional Economic and Development Corporation. 26 June
2008 <http://www.elpasoredco.com/ElPaso-EducationalAttainment.aspx>.
651
Base Realignment and Closure Impact on Industry in El Paso
. 23 June 2008
<http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?article=1073&context=iped_techrep>.
652
Fullerton, Thomas M. "Educational Attainment and Border Income Performance." Dallasfed
. 2001. Federal
Reserve Bank of Dallas. 20 June 2008 <http://www.dallasfed.org/research/efr/2001/efr0103a.pdf>.

156
Table 5.1


Educational Attainment in El Paso

Population 25 years and over 2000 2007
Less than 9th grade 83,821 21.40% 77,587 18.20%
9th to 12th grade, no diploma 50,187 12.80% 52,256 12.30%
High School graduate (including equivalency) 88,256 22.50% 107,211 25.20%
Some college, no degree 84,712 21.60% 83,515 19.60%
Associate degree 19,538 5.00% 29,314 6.90%
Bachelor's degree 43,262 11.00% 51,036 12.00%
Graduate or professional degree 21,764 5.60% 24,482 5.80%
Percent high school graduate or higher - 65.80% - 69.50%
Percent bachelor’s degree or higher - 16.60% - 17.80%
Source: Regional Economic Development Corporation

As you can see here, El Paso is slightly improving its educational attainment with higher
percentages of high school graduates and college degree earners. In fact, President of the El
Paso Regional Economic Development Corporation (REDCo), Bob Cook said, “Historical data
shows that El Paso’s median family incomes have a direct correlation to the community’s
education attainment levels. If we continue to elevate educational attainment levels in the
coming years, the image of El Paso will greatly improve, bringing new companies, jobs and
high-wages to the region.”
653


El Paso needs to hold on to its graduates and locally raise the skill level of its existing
workforce to fill in the coming high tech jobs being brought to El Paso by the expansion of Fort
Bliss and the growing City of El Paso itself. A few of the major programs and institutions
working to address this issue include:

• University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP)
• Paul L. Foster School of Medicine at Texas Tech
• El Paso Community College (EPCC)
• Project ARRIBA

University of Texas at El Paso

The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has a total of 20,154 students and graduates
an average of 2,850 students each year. UTEP has been a major economic driver to the city
since it was founded in 1914. UTEP contributes up to $375 million to local related business
volume, and is attributable to 6,123 related jobs in the region. As UTEP graduates more and
more students, it adds more skilled workers out into the world and the Paso Del Norte Region.
According to the Institute for Policy and Economic Development (IPED) report on the economic
effects of UTEP, the relevant values for UTEP graduates remaining in the El Paso region are
$1.169 billion per every graduating class, or $410 thousand per graduate, a $1/ $16.4 cost to
benefit ratio.
654


However, many graduates are leaving this region for jobs and opportunities elsewhere.
According to an IPED survey which polled a total of 2,595 UTEP students, 1/3 of the students
did not see themselves living in El Paso in 10 years. A lack of job opportunities in their area of


653
Cook, Bob. Personal interview. 26 June 2008. Regional Economic Development Corporation President.
654
Shauer, David A. McElroy, Mathew. "2006 economic impact of University of Texas at El Paso." Digitalcommons
.
2007. Institute for Policy and Economic Development. 19 June 2008
<http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1061&context=iped_techrep>.

157
interest and low pay were the primary reasons they planned to leave El Paso.
655
In an interview
with UTEP President Diana S. Natalicio, she stated that she was working “hard to move people
from seeing El Paso as having a low-wage, poorly skilled workforce.” She added that part of
this is letting it be known that there is a talented pool of skilled workers to be had through local
UTEP graduates.
656


Paul L. Foster School of Medicine

at Texas Tech


The newest of El Paso’s higher education facilities, opening to its first class in 2009, is
the Paul L. Foster School of Medicine at Texas Tech. The Texas Tech Medical School has
been predicated to have the biggest economic impact on El Paso in the long run.
657
With the
expansion of the institution from a 2 year satellite school to a 4 year independent school of
medicine, the city will attract more people and money into the region.
658
Again, this brings up
the idea of bringing an influx of people into the region, which is what Community Scholars has
identified as being the “energy” of economic growth.

The school will hold upwards of 460 students and is expected to have a $1.3 billion
impact on the economy by 2013. Most of the economic impact will come from approximately
5,000 new jobs that will be made directly through faculty, staff, and indirectly through local
businesses brought by the medical center.
659
In the following table below you can see the
predicted incremental effects on the local economy.

Table 5.2


Local Incremental Economic Impacts (In Millions of $): 2009-2013


2009 With
Expansion
2010 With
Expansion
2011 With
Expansion
2012 With
Expansion
2013 With
Expansion
Local Business
Volume
$226.55

$273.85

$316.31

$269.28

$269.28

Local Business
Property

$71.49

$86.42

$99.81

$84.97

$84.97

Credit Base
Expansion

$1.22

$1.82

$1.82

$1.82

$1.82

Household
Income

$4.00

$98.28

$109.55

$97.07

$97.07

Source: Institute for Policy and Economic Development


The expansion of the Texas Tech Medical School has set forth the development of the
Medical Center of the Americas (MCA), a network linking medical facilities, industries, and
institutions in the area working in sync with each other.
660
Listed below are the seven anchor
institutions which will make up the MCA. The Anchor Institutions are:



655
Dodson, Kathy. "Stoping the 'Brain Drain.'" Elpasotexas
. July 2007. El Paso Economic Development. 23 June
2008 <http://www.elpasotexas.gov/econdev/ed_update_july_2007.asp?print=true>.
656
Kuh, George D. "Forging a New Direction: How UTEP Created Its Own Brand of Excellence." Cpr.iub
. Dec. 2004.
20 June 2008
<http://cpr.iub.edu/uploads/Kuh%20UTEP%20president%20About%20Campus%20article.pdf>.
657
Dodson, Kathryn. "Growing El Paso's Economy Through Job Creation and
Revitalization." YISD Central Office. 27 May 2008.
658
Alvarez, Pablo, et al. "Healthcare." Communityscholars
. Nov. 2007. 16 June 2008
<http://communityscholars.org/files/reports84.pdf>.
659
Shauer, David A., Dennis L. Soden, and David Coronado. "The Expansion of Texas Tech University."
Digitalcommons
. 2004. 17 June 2008 <http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/cgi/
viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=iped_techrep>.
660
Alvarez, Pablo, et al. "Healthcare." Communityscholars
. Nov. 2007. 16 June 2008
<http://communityscholars.org/files/reports84.pdf>.

158
• Paul L. Foster School of Medicine
• R.E. Thomason General Hospital
• Texas Department of Human Services
• Silva Health Magnet High School
• El Paso Psychiatric Center
• Regional Poison Center
• County Forensic Lab
661


It is estimated that the MCA will eventually combine 15 to 18 medical institutions,
creating 10,000 to 30,000 jobs in the city.
662
One similar model to the MCA is the South Texas
Medical Center in San Antonio (STMC).

The STMC has about 27,000 employees and has a
direct economic impact of about $14.5 billion yearly. Because the STMC has similar
demographics and goals as El Paso’s MCA, it provides a common model for visualizing the
MCA’s growth.
663


Each component of the MCA will need high skilled jobs, such as doctors, scientists, and
pharmacists. The MCA Foundation’s Executive Director Emma Schwartz suggested in a past
interview that the community needs to begin building local talent as well as bring in new talent to
support the demand for the medical and technical professionals that the medical school will
create.
664
Dean at the Texas Tech Medical School, Jose Manuel De La Rosa stated, “The
medical school will provide great opportunities for El Paso’s youth and help bring and retain high
paying jobs to the area, especially for those graduating from college and working up the
workforce ladder.”
665


El Paso Community College

The El Paso Community College (EPCC) has over 35,000 students enrolled and
graduates approximately 2,300 students a year.
666
EPCC has played a key role in raising the
income and educational attainment of the region. According to a study of the economic impacts
EPCC has on the regional economy, the average student at EPCC will see an increase in their
annual income by an average of $81 for every credit completed. As many as 70% of these
graduates stay in the region and contribute to the local economy. This clearly makes EPCC an,
“engine of economic growth”, annually generating $72.2 million into the economy.
667


Project ARRIBA

Project ARRIBA is an economic workforce development program that educates, guides,
supports, and raises the skill levels of people who are living off an insufficient wage to a
practical living wage of at least $11.00 an hour with benefits and a career path.

Current living
wage, in-demand careers in El Paso include Healthcare-Nursing, Information Technology, and
Education-Teacher career paths.
668
Chief Executive Officer of Project ARRIBA, Roman Ortiz,
distinguished five other possible “high demand job industries” that are predicted to grow in El
Paso. These industries are:


661
Alvarez, Pablo, et al. "Healthcare." Communityscholars
. Nov. 2007. 16 June 2008
<http://communityscholars.org/files/reports84.pdf>.
662
Alvarez, Pablo, et al. "Healthcare." Communityscholars
. Nov. 2007. 16 June 2008
<http://communityscholars.org/files/reports84.pdf>.
663
Alvarez, Pablo, et al. "Healthcare." Communityscholars
. Nov. 2007. 16 June 2008
<http://communityscholars.org/files/reports84.pdf>.
664
Schwartz, Emma. Executive Director: Medical Center of the Americas Foundation. Interview. 28 June 2007.
665
De La Rosa, Jose Manuel. Personal interview. 1 July 2008. Texas Tech Medical School Dean.
666
"Higher Education." Elpasoredco
. Regional Economic Development Corporation. 27 June 2008
<http://www.elpasoredco.com/ElPaso-HigherEducation.aspx>.
667
"Economic Impact Of El Paso Community College." EPCC
. 12 June 2006. CCbenefits, inc. 24 June 2008
<http://epcc.edu/ LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Kk3kNSq6p7c%3D&tabid=2140&mid=3440&language=en-US>.
668
"Home." ProjectARRIBA
. 2008. 19 June 2008 <http://www.projectarriba.org/>.

159

• Diesel Mechanics
• Electricians
• Trade jobs
• Bio-Technology
• Nanotechnology
669


Ortiz stated, “As skill levels go up, El Pasoans can better fill in the high-tech in demand
jobs that are being brought forth by the rapid growth of the region.”
670
In the years between,
1999 and 2006, Project ARRIBA has graduated 427 participants who have come into the
program with an average wage of $7,100 a year, and completed the program as contributors to
the workforce earning an average salary of $33,100 a year with employer benefits. These
numbers have a great economic impact on our region. According to the Institute for Policy and
Economic Development (IPED), in 2006 Project ARRIBA had a cost/benefit ratio of $1/ $16 and
brought over $185.3 million in incremental earnings to the region of El Paso in its lifetime.
671
To
insure that the “participants” in Project ARRIBA maintain success and stay in the region, Roman
Ortiz said, “We follow up with our participants monthly and yearly, as well as with their
employers yearly, to monitor their progress.”
672


These learning centers in El Paso have provided and are still working to produce a
greater talent and skill base in El Paso, giving off a positive message to those companies
considering locating to the region. As El Paso heads forward into this time of change and
competitiveness, taking action to progress the city’s image to not only others from abroad but to
itself can hold many positive results. Attracting productive businesses, becoming even greater
partners with Fort Bliss, producing a local workforce that can meet the demand of a high skill job
market, and promoting El Paso’s unique identity will help serve the greater El Paso region and
conduct a greater roadmap for El Paso’s success.

Conclusions


1. The location of El Paso on an active border with Ciudad-Juárez, Mexico is a
beneficial feature to the region. El Paso cannot be separated from it neighboring city,
but must be seen as a large Metropolitan Statistical Area that encompasses El Paso,
Ciudad-Juárez, and Southern New Mexico. This regional attribute strengthens El Paso’s
economy because of Ciudad-Juárez’s maquiladora industry and cross-border shoppers.
NAFTA created a beneficial relationship to the region by allowing maquiladoras to retain
business and competitive production sharing between Mexico and the U.S.
2. Long term planning and master plans are in the best interest for El Paso’s
economic long run. In the past, El Paso has implemented short-term planning that has
not resulted in economic growth such as attracting low-wage jobs instead of investing in
education. Planning for the future will have a positive impact on the regional economy
including the creation of a reliable job pool, improving under-producing neighborhoods,
and attracting businesses. The El Paso/Ciudad-Juárez region is growing in population
and size and will need to master plan its communities which should also include a
creative method of transportation.
3. The Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC) will be a major economic
contributor that will benefit the Paso Del Norte Region. BRAC will bring 24,000 jobs


669
Ortiz, Roman. Personal interview. 19 June 2008. Project ARRIBA Chief Executive Officer.
670
Ortiz, Roman. Personal interview. 19 June 2008. Project ARRIBA Chief Executive Officer.
671
Shauer, David A., and Mathew McElroy. "The Economic Impact of Project ARRIBA on El Paso, Texas."
Digitalcommonsq
. 2007. Institute for Policy and Economic Development. 18 June 2008
<http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1058&context=iped_techrep>.
672
Ortiz, Roman. Personal interview. 19 June 2008. Project ARRIBA Chief Executive Officer.

160
to the region that will provide employment for people of all skill levels and will pump over
$6 billion into the regional economy. With more people coming into the city, the housing
market will increase and the local sales and property tax base will be expanded. Our
economy will grow, employment will rise, and more businesses will relocate to El Paso.
4. El Paso lags behind the nation and state in statistical data, but with raising
educational attainments, El Paso can attract outside investment. Median
household income levels, poverty levels, and educational attainment levels are areas
where El Paso is underperforming. Historically El Paso has had a low educational
attainment reputation, attracting low-wage service jobs and losing graduates to other
cities who can provide higher wage jobs. However, the economic drivers such as:
Downtown and Dyer Revitalizations, BRAC, and the Texas Tech Medical School are
going to change El Paso’s negative data results and close the gap between El Paso and
the national trends.
5. El Paso’s art, culture, and entertainment have been greatly underutilized. To many
in the workforce, quality of life plays an integral role when choosing a location to live,
work, and play. El Paso has lacked significant investments in the arts and entertainment
resulting in the city ignoring its cultural identity. In El Paso, there is tremendous potential
to exploit the city’s historical attributes and artistic wealth, ultimately bringing new activity
and businesses into the region.
Recommendations

1. The El Paso Del Norte region must improve the job opportunities, salaries, and
educational opportunities to create a productive, valuable, and stronger
workforce. The solution is to start with education on a student and adult level.
Education for students should envelope essential skills that will equip them for higher
education and the labor-force with less focus on minimum standardized curriculums. On
the adult level, El Paso should have access to organizations such as Project ARRIBA
that invest in human capital and work to create a talented workforce. The last step is for
El Paso to reach out to other industries to widen job opportunities as education in El
Paso increases in order to retain more graduates.
2. El Paso must begin to incorporate mixed land use in our communities and reverse
the urban sprawl. The benefits of living in closer proximity and living in multi-unit
housing is the decrease in demand for municipal services, the creation of 24-hour urban
communities, and larger tax revenues on multi-level housing. The city must implement a
starting point to encourage its citizens to adapt to an urban style of living. A starting
point would be for the city to create a role model outside the Downtown Plan in order to
convince citizens of the benefits of mixed land use.
3. El Paso needs to effectively advertise itself to people and businesses by creating
a city wide marketing campaign that will share a universal slogan. El Paso has
tremendous potential energy in tourism and business investments, but without strategic
coordination, these marketing tools will not be as effective. The City of El Paso, REDCo,
and other organizations must have a cohesive marketing slogan, campaign, and
message that will target businesses, creative classes, and tourism combined.
4. El Paso should focus more on capitalizing on its culture by supporting its
traditional activities. Culture in the city is not utilized to its full potential; we have the
art in El Paso but we don’t effectively display it. Making the Bi-National Arts Walk will
allow local artists to display their talent and work. The city should invest more money in
cultural programs such as The Museums of Cultural Affairs Department, and sustain
existing as well as create new programs like Alfresco Fridays and Music Under the

161
Stars. If we do, we can create a vibrant cultural core that will attract many to engage in
the city’s unique spirit.
5. Neighborhoods of El Paso must be revitalized and not fall into decay through
active neighborhood associations and city development programs. Older
neighborhoods suffer from economic neglect because newer neighborhoods sprout.
Citizens must become more active in their neighborhood associations and invest time
and money into the older neighborhoods of El Paso. The city should implement a city-
wide campaign to revitalize older neighborhoods in order for them to be economically
productive and historically attractive.
6.
El Paso needs to raise civic responsibility and involvement in the region. The city
needs to actively take a role in getting people to love their region before we start
attracting new people. Effective advertising and access to information of city elections
and local events throughout El Paso will help to engage the “dormant” lifestyle of the
city. When comparing El Paso to successful cities, Community Scholars determined that
El Paso needs to have our elected officials create a universal plan of change that will
require the participation of citizens to generate civic responsibility.


162
Works Cited


ACORN Housing
. 26 June 2008 <http://www.acornhousing.org/index.php>.
Acosta, Fermin, et al. “Development of PSB Lands in Northeast El Paso, Texas.”
Elpasowaterutilities.com
. 15 Oct. 2006. 17 June 2008 <http://www.epwu.org/public_info/
rfq_ne1006.pdf>.
Alameda, Yolanda R. “Directors Message.” Elpasotexas
. Museums and Cultural Affairs
Department. 3 July 2008 < http://www.elpasotexas.gov/mcad/about.asp >.
Alvarez, Pablo, et al. “Healthcare.” Communityscholars
. Nov. 2007. 16 June 2008
< http://communityscholars.org/files/reports84.pdf >.
“America’s Safest Cities.” Statestats.com
. Morgan Quinto Press. 23 June 2008
<http://www.statestats.com/pop.htm>.
Answers.com
. 3 July 2008 <http://www.answers.com/topic/underemployed?cat=biz-fin>.
“Army Expansion Plans Outlined.” Military.com
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.military.com/
NewsContent/0,13319,158690,00.html>.
Base Realignment and Closure Impact on Industry in El Paso. 23 June 2008
<http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/
cgiviewcontent.cgi?article=1073&context=iped_techrep>.
Benitez, Andrew, Maria del Carmen Hernandez, and Jonathan Sanchez. “Breaking Down
BRAC: An Analysis of Regional Preparedness for Military Transformation.” 10 June
2008 <http://www.communityscholars.org/files/reports66.pdf >.
Byrd, Susie. Personal interview. 25 June 2008. District 2 City Representative.
Carlsen, Laura. “Standing Up to NAFTA.” Americas Program Congressional Briefing
. 11 June
2008 <http://americas.irc-online.org/am/4830>.
Castelazo, Molly D., and Thomas A Garrett. "Light Rail: Boon or Boondoggle?" Stlouisfed.org
.
23 July 2008 <http://www.stlouisfed.org/ publications/re/2004/c/pages/light_rail.html>.
“Centre City Development Corporation.” Ccdc.com
. 19 June 2008 <http://www.ccdc.com/
index.cfm//.home>.
Community Profile
. 16 June 2008 <http://www.oea.gov/OEAWeb.nsf/
70B0533B76ACB348852573AD0050A88C/$File/
Ft%20Bliss%20Profile%20Final_with%20community%20review.pdf >.
Cook, Bob. Ensuring Homeland Security
. 15 Dec. 2007. 20 June 2008
<http://homeland.house.gov/SiteDocuments/20080103121323-54405.pdf>.

Personal interview. 26 June 2008. El Paso Regional Economic Development
Corporation President

“Recruiting High Tech Jobs to the El Paso/Borderplex.” Ysleta ISD Complex. 27 May
2008.

163
Crowder, David. “The Pitch is in for the Farah Site.” NewspaperTree.com
. 11 June 2008. 12
June 2008 <http://newspapertree.com//-the-pitch-officially-is-in-but-long-way-to-go-for-
foster-regency-and-the-farah-site>.
Dodson, Kathryn. "Growing El Paso's Economy Through Job Creation and
Revitalization." YISD Central Office. 27 May 2008.

Personal interview. 2 July 2008. Director of Department of Economic Development

“Stoping the ‘Brain Drain.’” Elpasotexas
. July 2007. El Paso Economic Development. 23
June 2008 <http://www.elpasotexas.gov//_update_july_2007.asp?print=true>.
“Downtown Today San Diego 2008.” Ccdc.com
. Spring 2008. 20 June 2008
<http://www.ccdc.com//_files/Downtown_Today_2008_WinterSpring.pdf>.
“Economic Impact Of El Paso Community College.” EPCC
. 12 June 2006. CCbenefits, inc. 24
June 2008 <http://epcc.edu/
LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Kk3kNSq6p7c%3D&tabid=2140&mid=3440&language=en-
US>.
Edmonson, Susan. “The Arts Industry.” Beevradenburgfoundation
. 2003. 3 July 2008
<http://www.beevradenburgfoundation.org/&E&Biz.ppt#262,7,Arts & the Workforce>.
“Educational Attainment.” Elpasoredco
. May 2008. Regional Economic and Development
Corporation. 26 June 2008 <http://www.elpasoredco.com/ElPaso-
EducationalAttainment.aspx>.
“El Paso Braces for Explosive Growth.” KFOXTV.com
. 12 June 2008 <http://www.kfoxtv.com/
military/7383858/detail.html >.
"El Paso County, TX." U.S. Census Bureau
. 2 Jan. 2008. 19 June 2008
<http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/48/48141.html>.
“El Paso Desalination Plant Opens up after 15 years of Planning.” The Daily Texan
. 20 June
2008 <http://www.dailytexanonline.com/home/
index.cfm?event=displayArticle&ustory_id=e39bde7f-56fe-49fa-9d17-dc88dd21108c>.
“El Paso Downtown Revitalization.” City of El Paso
. 25 Apr. 2008. 17 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us//.pdf>.
“El Paso Downtown 2015 Plan Boundary and Use Districts.” City of El Paso
. 16 June 2008
<http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/_documents/.pdf>.
“El Paso Needs the Rebirth of Cool.” Newspaper Tree
. 19 June 2008
<http://newspapertree.com/opinion/2408>.
El Paso Public Water Service
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.epwu.org/water/desal_info.html >.
"El Paso, Texas - Land Gateway." Research and Innovative Technology Administration
. U.S
Department of Transportation. 13 June 2008.
<http://www.bts.gov/publications/americas_freight_transportation_gateways/highlights_o
f_top_25_freight_gateways_by_shipment_value/port_of_el_paso/ index.html>.

164
“El Paso Spur 601 Project Accelerated with Private Funding.” Keep Texas Moving
. 11 June
2008 <http://www.keeptexasmoving.com/index.php/news/
El_Paso_Spur_601_Project_Accelerated_with_Private_Funding >.
“EPISD bond plan projects $230 million.” El Paso Times
. 20 June 2008 <http://www.episd.org/
_2007bond/pdf/EPISD-bond-plan-projects.pdf>.
“EPISD: largest growth in 40 years.” El Paso Inc.
20 June 2008 <http://www.elpasoinc.com/
showArticle.asp?articleId=1075>.
“Fact Sheet.” North American Free Trade Agreement
. 1 Jan. 2008. 18 June 2008
<http://www.fas.usda.gov/info/factsheets/NAFTA.asp>.
“Final Downtown 2015 Plan.” City of El Paso
. 26 Nov. 2006. Paso Del Norte Group Foundation.
19 June 2008 <http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/_documents/_Paso_Report_061129.pdf>.
Fort Bliss, Texas
. 3 July 2008 <https://www.bliss.army.mil/>.
“Fort Bliss will Change El Paso.” Newspaper Tree
. 17 June 2008
<http://www.newspapertree.com/opinion/2437-fort-bliss-will-change-el-paso>.
Fullerton, Thomas M. “Educational Attainment and Border Income Performance.” Dallasfed
.
2001. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. 20 June 2008 <http://www.dallasfed.org///
/a.pdf>.

“Secondary Education Its Impact on Border Income.” Dallasfed
. June 2001. Federal
Reserve Bank of Dallas. 12 June 2008 <http://www.dallasfed.org///_fullerton.pdf>.
Global Security
. 17 June 2008 <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/fort-bliss.htm>.
“Higher Education.” Elpasoredco
. Regional Economic Development Corporation. 27 June 2008
<http://www.elpasoredco.com/HigherEducation.aspx>.
“Home.” ProjectARRIBA
. 2008. 19 June 2008 <http://www.projectarriba.org/>.
Hunt, Harold. “The Lay of the Land in El Paso p.21.” Texas Real Estate Teachers
. 9 Jan. 2006.
16 June 2008 <http://recenter.tamu.edu/speeches/REEC06Hunt.pdf>.
Info Please
. 3 July 2008 <http://www.infoplease.com/cig/economics/poverty.html>.
IPED Instructor Leads Fort Bliss-El Paso Growth Management
. 11 June 2008
<http://organizations.utep.edu/Default.aspx?alias=organizations.utep.edu/iped>.
Kirdahy, Matthew. "Best Cities for Jobs in 2008." Forbes.com
. 8 Jan. 2008. 11 June 2008
<http://www.forbes.com/2008/01/11/ jobs-economy-growth-lead-careers-
cx_mk_0110cities_table_7.html>.
Kuh, George D. “Forging a New Direction: How UTEP Created Its Own Brand of Excellence .”
Cpr.iub
. Dec. 2004. 20 June 2008
<http://cpr.iub.edu//%20UTEP%20president%20About%20Campus%20article.pdf>.
“Languishing Eye Sore to Become Luxury Hotel.” Newspapertree.com
. 22 Mar. 2007. 23 June
2008 <http://newspapertree.com//-languishing-eyesore-to-become-luxury-hotel>.

165
Leon, Rene. “Revival Plans for the plaza, Mills, and Centre Buildings.” Newspapertree.com
. 8
Mar. 2008. 18 June 2008 <http://newspapertree.com//-revival-plans-for-the-plaza-mills-
and-centre-buildings>.
“Local Health Officials are Ready for Additions.” El Paso Times
. 11 June 2008
<http://www.elpasotimes.com/ci_5115605?IADID=Search-www.elpasotimes.com-
www.elpasotimes.com>.
“Lower Dyer Neighborhood Revitalization Strategy.” City of El Paso
. 20 Nov. 2007. Community
and Human Department Neighborhood Services. 16 June 2008 <http://www.ci.el-
paso.tx.us/_services///lower%20dyer%20draft.pdf>.
Mauleon, Victoria, and Clarence Ting. “EL PASO: Texas Colonias.” UC Berkeley Graduate
School of Journalism
. 10 June 2008 <http://journalism.berkeley.edu/projects/border/
elpasocolonias.html>.
McElroy, Mathew. Personal interview. 3 July 2008. Deputy Director of Development Services
Military: Fort Bliss
. 17 June 2008 <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/
facility/fort-bliss.htm >.
"Music Under the Stars and Alfresco Fridays." Elpasotexas.gov
. Museums and Cultural Affairs
Department. 24 July 2008 <http://www.elpasotexas.gov/mcad/summerprograms.asp>.
Olivas, Dan. Personal interview. 18 June 2008. Greater El Paso Association of Realtors
Olmedo, Carlos, et al. “2008 City of El Paso Citizen Survey.” University of Texas at El Paso
.
Jan. 2008. Institute for Policy and Economic Development. 19 June 2008
<http://www.elpasotexas.gov//_documents/%20El%20Paso%20Citizen%20Survey%20-
%20Report_IPED01-2008.pdf>.
O’Rourke, Beto. Personal interview. 2 July 2008. District 8 City Representative.
Ortiz, Roman. Personal interview. 19 June 2008. Project ARRIBA Chief Executive Officer.
Pittle, Morris. Personal interview. 30 June 2008. President/Creative Director of Two Ton
Creativity Inc.
Perryman, Ray M. “Class of ‘07 dropouts to cost U.S. $350 billion .” El Paso Times
15 June
2008: 1E.
"Principles of Smart Growth ." Smartgrowth.org
. 10 July 2008
<http://www.smartgrowth.org/about/principles/principles.asp?res=1024>. Mixed Land
Uses
Q&A with Toni Hedstrom
. 20 June 2008 <http://www.elpasoinc.com/
showArticle.asp?articleId=2624>.
“Quality of Life.” Elpasoredco.org
. 23 June 2008 <http://www.elpasoredco.com/ElPaso-
QualityofLife.aspx>.
Quinones, Daniel J., and Dennis L. Soden. “Generation Next UTEP Student Body Survey.”
University of Texas at El Paso
. 11 Aug. 2007. Institute for Policy and Economic
Development. 26 June 2008
<http://digitalcommons.utep.edu//.cgi?article=1068&context=iped_techrep>.

166
“Real Estate Investment Trust.” City of El Paso
. 16 June 2008 <http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/
_documents/_downtown/%20Fact%20Sheet%20REIT.pdf>.
REDCo and IPED. “Impacts.” Economic Impact of Growth at Fort Bliss
.
RedCo: Regional Military Growth
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.elpasoredco.com/TargetInd-
MilitaryGrowth.aspx>.
Rosales-Soto, Veronica. Personal interview. 23 June 2008. City of El Paso’s Economic
Development Department.
Sapp, Gary. Personal interview. 24 June 2008. Hunt Building Corporation.
Schwartz, Emma. Executive Director: Medical Center of the Americas Foundation. Interview. 28
June 2007.
Shapleigh, Eliot. The Five M's
. 2005. Economic Development in El Paso.

Personal interview. 27 June 2008. District 29 Texas Senator.
Shauer, David A., and Mathew McElroy. “The Economic Impact of Project ARRIBA on El Paso,
Texas.” Digitalcommonsq
. 2007. Institute for Policy and Economic Development. 18
June 2008 <http://digitalcommons.utep.edu//.cgi?article=1058&context=iped_techrep>.

“2006 economic impact of University of Texas at El Paso.” Digitalcommons
. 2007.
Institute for Policy and Economic Development. 19 June 2008
<http://digitalcommons.utep.edu//.cgi?article=1061&context=iped_techrep>.
Shauer, David A. and Dennis L. Soden, and David Coronado. “The Expansion of Texas Tech
University.” Digitalcommons
. 2004. 17 June 2008
<http://digitalcommons.utep.edu//.cgi?article=1036&context=iped_techrep>.
“Southwest Economy.” Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
. Dec. 1999. 9 June 2008
<http://www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/1999/swe9906.html>.
“Stateside Bases Prepare for Influx.” Stars and Stripes
. 18 June 2008 <http://www.stripes.com/
article.asp?section=104&article=54363&archive=true >.
Status of 2004 Bond Program
. 23 June 2008 <http://www.sisd.net/dmdocuments/2004_bond/
oversight_meeting_minutes/07/July_18_07.pdf>.
“Tax Increment Financing.” City of El Paso
. 16 June 2008 <http://www.ci.el-paso.tx.us/
_documents/_downtown/%20Fact%20Sheet,%20TIF.pdf>.
“Taxes May Fall Despite Projected Troop Influx.” El Paso Times
. 11 June 2008
<http://www.elpasotimes.com/ci_5108851?IADID=Search-www.elpasotimes.com-
www.elpasotimes.com>.
“Texas Community Gets its Soldiers Back.” Army Times
. 11 June 2008
<http://www.armytimes.com/legacy/new/0-ARMYPAPER-1502168.php>.
The City of El Paso. “Initiatives and Challenges in Growth, Economic Development, Education,
Housing, Healthcare, Workforce and Infrastructure Needs.” Inform El Paso
.
“Two Thoughts on Fort Bliss Growth.” Newspaper Tree
. 16 June 2008
<http://newspapertree.com/opinion/2440-two-thoughts-on-fort-bliss-growth>.

167
U.S. Department of Defense
. Donna Miles. “Commission Wraps Up BRAC Decision.” American
Forces Press Services 29 August 2005.17 June 2008 <http://www.defenselink.mil/news/
newsarticle.aspx?id=16775>.
William Beaumont Army Medical Center
. 18 June 2008 <http://www.wbamc.amedd.army.mil/>.
Window on State Government
. 12 June 2008 <http://www.window.state.tx.us/comptrol/fnotes/
fn0612/blissful.html >.
“Work Begins on Spur 601.” El Paso Times
. 17 June 2008 <http://www.elpasotimes.com/
neighborhoods/ci_9595938 >.
Workforce Innovations
. 11 June 2008 <http://www.workforceinnovations.org/speaker_docs/
TMarkham%20-BRAC%20workshop.pdf >.