Sai Kung as a Sustainable Community

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SOSC562

Sustainable Development



Sai Kung as a Sustainable Community

District Cooling System within Sai Kung Sea Food Restaurant





Prepared by:

Wesley Sin (02814895)

Lee Hau Ming (99809830)





January 28, 2004



2

Content

CONTENT

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............

2

1.

INTRODUCTION
................................
................................
................................
.........................

3

2.

BASELINE CONDITIONS

................................
................................
................................
..........

4

2.1

E
STIMATION OF
E
LECTRICITY
P
OWER
C
ONSUMPTION AND
T
ARIFF
C
HARGE

..........................

4

2.2

S
AI
K
UNG
R
ESTAURANT

................................
................................
................................
.........

4

2.3

E
XISTING
A
IR
C
ONDITIONI
NG
S
YSTEM

................................
................................
...................

5

2.4

E
STIMATION OF
E
LECTRICITY
T
ARIFF
C
HARGE FOR
A
IR
C
ONDITIONING
S
YSTEM
...................

6

2.5

I
MPACTS TO THE
E
NVIRONMENT

................................
................................
.............................

6

3.

STAKEHOLDERS, AWAREN
ESS & CAPACITIES

................................
................................

7

3.1

R
ESTAURANTS OWNERS
................................
................................
................................
..........

7

3.2

G
OVERNMENT

................................
................................
................................
........................

8

3.3

C
USTOMERS

................................
................................
................................
...........................

8

3.4

C
HINA
L
IGHT AND
P
OWER

................................
................................
................................
......

9

4.

ISSUE AND GAP ANALYS
IS

................................
................................
................................
......

9

4.1

P
OWER
C
ONSUMPTION
C
ONCERNS

................................
................................
.........................

9

4.2

E
NVIRONMENTAL
C
ONCERNS

................................
................................
...............................

10

4.3

O
THER CONCERNS

................................
................................
................................
................

10

4.4

B
ENCHMARKING

................................
................................
................................
..................

10

5.

ALTERNATIVE GENERATI
ONS

................................
................................
............................

11

5.
1

B
ASIC
C
ENTRAL
C
HILLER
P
LANT
C
ONCEPT

................................
................................
.........

11

5.2

A
DVANTAGE OF THE CENT
RAL
C
HILLER PLANT

................................
................................
....

12

5.3

C
OST
S
AVING BY THE CENTRAL

CHILLER PLANT

................................
................................
...

12

5.4

H
OW FINANCIALLY ACHIE
VABLE

................................
................................
..........................

13

5.5

F
URTHER STUDY REQUIRE

FOR IMPLEMENTATION
.

................................
................................

14

6.

STAKEHOLDER FEEDBACK

................................
................................
................................
.

15

7.

INDICATORS & MONITOR
ING SYSTEM

................................
................................
............

15

8.

INTEGRATION WITH COM
MUNITY
................................
................................
...................

16

9.

APPENDIX

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

17

REFERENCES

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

25


3

1.

Introduction

Sai Kung is one of the important recreational areas for the Hong Kong resi
dents as
well as one of the major overseas tourist attractions in Hong Kong. The attractions of
Sai Kung comprise scenic coastline, beautiful rural landscape and a wide range of
recreational and tourist resorts. Sai Kung Town is planned as a "Tourism Gatew
ay" for
promoting tourism and recreation in Hong Kong. In addition, Sai Kung Town will
continue to play the role as a central area for the provision of commercial, recreational,
transport and services to the district as a whole, as well as the gateway to t
he
countryside and coastal recreation areas.


Hong Kong has been well known for cuisine. There are over ten thousand different
kinds of restaurant, especially seafood restaurants, which are mainly located in three
places (Aberdeen, Lei Yue Mun & Sai Kung).

The scene and the environment of Sai
Kung craft it the most popular among the three. Sai Kung seafood restaurants have
been well known for their seafood cuisine for decades; Quiet and beautiful sceneries
attract tourists. Once people think of seafood cuis
ines, they will think of Sai Kung.
To gain higher popularity among tourists, more and more restaurants in Sai Kung start
offering alfresco dining to let diners exploit to the striking outdoor scenery.


The waterfront area with the alfresco dining to capit
alize on the attractions of the
thriving seafood restaurants is an interesting landmark in the town to promote the
image of Sai Kung. However, the townscape around the waterfront area is not match
with the surrounding Sai Kung scenic coastline. This is mai
nly due to the
inappropriate management of the restaurant owners causing low energy efficiency and
inadequate use of public utilities. To continue on it only benefit, the restaurant
owners should not to keep their businesses only, they should think of kee
ping the
environment sustainable.


Cooling systems or air conditioning systems are going to be in detail description in
the following report not only because of their high energy consumptions; these
systems also have huge impacts on the surrounding environ
ment. A rational use or
choice with a potential energy saving plan should be considered in order to make the
development sustainable so that a harmony between restaurants and Sai Kung
environment could be formed.



4

2.

Baseline Conditions

2.1

Estimation of
Electricity Power Consumption and Tariff Charge

Sai Kung has a high standard of services such as water supply, electricity, and town
gas. The restaurants major energy end
-
use
is

HVAC, lighting, equipment, hot water,
and processes. In Hong Kong, electricity

and town gas are the major forms of energy.
About 59% of electricity and 44% of town gas are used by commercials. The most
dominant are the air
-
conditioning and the lighting which consummating almost 65%
of its electricity cost.
1


From CLP COP CP215, t
he

estimated demand of the
premise

is approximate
0.32kVA/m
2
.


For air conditioning installation consumption is
approximate

45% of
the total demand
.
2


Based on the above assumption the estimated electricity loading could be up to
4080kW. If we based on CLP G
eneral
Service

tariff (96.8cents/unit) and assumed the
restaurants working 8 hours per day the monthly tariff charge can be up to
HK$940,000. Therefore tariff charge for solely air conditioning consumption can be
up to HK$
451
,
630
. (See appendix
9.3
for cal
culations)


2.2

Sai Kung Restaurant

Sai Kung seafood restaurants with alfresco dining mainly locate at the waterfront area
(Sai Kung Hoi Pong Street, Man Nin Street & Sai Kung Hoi Pong Square) because of
their potential coastal scenic view. Unfortunately,

this area was developed long time
ago and it seems to be
in
an old town style. The housing blocks within Sai Kung
Hoi Pong Street & Man Nin Street have already been stood up for around 30 years
and with a range of 1 to 3
storeys
.
3

The sooty exterior wal
ls of the building are
caused by the chillers and exhaust fans from the restaurants which are all located at
the ground floor. At the Sai Kung Hoi Pong Square area, there are two 10 storey
buildings (Siu Yat Building) which have been developed around 25 y
ears ago. There



1

Energy Efficiency Office, EMSD, HKSARG

2

CLP COP215, 1983

3

Buildings Department, HKSA
RG


5

are 3 seafood restaurants with alfresco dining in this region; it seems that they are
highly developed with a sidewalk for pedestrians. The
numbers

of restaurants
around this area is approximate
50 numbers and totally
1
5,000m
2

restaurants

area
s.


From the South East New Territories Development Strategy, Sai Kung will continue
its potentials to attract overseas tourists to Hong Kong. Sai Kung Town is going to
play a significance role as the core of the overall Sai Kung district. The streets
cape or
townscape around the waterfront area will become the major landmark or attractive
point for the tourists not only is the scenic coastline view, also is the famous seafood
restaurants located in here.
4


2.3

Existing Air Conditioning System

Majority
of
restaurants around the district are
using small
split type
air conditioning
units
,
and some small
package type air
-
cooling chiller unit and
some
water cool

chiller
(using cooling tower as the
heat rejection

unit)
.
These devices are mainly
located on th
e top of the restaurants like the podium at the Sai Kung Hoi Pong Square
which just next to the Siu Yat Building. Trusting the air conditioning installation is
own by the restaurants owner and of cause maintain by the restaurant owner. That is
obvious do
not have proper maintenance and create adverse effect to the district. The
followings are the primary observation:




Excessive Energy Consumed



Aesthetical effect

o

Expose refrigerant pipe

o

Expose equipment like cooling tower and split unit.



Lake of maintenan
ce leading:

o

Water leakage affecting hygienic.

o

Cooling Tower Legionaries Disease

o

Leakage of refrigerant create Ozone depletion



Generate noise annoyance residents.


You may refer to Appendix

9.6


9.9

for photos indicate the aforesaid issues.





4

Planning Department, HKSARG


6

2.4

Estim
ation of
Electricity
Tariff
Charge for
A
ir
C
onditioning
S
ystem

In above Baseline condition
section has

already mentioned the rough estimation of
tariff charge by CLP based data from CLP CP215 is approximate HK$
451
,
630

per
month.


Another calculation was do
ne by means of Cooling Load Estimation converted to
electricity input to estimate the tariff charge. This calculation shows that the
approximate tariff charge per month for solely air conditioning installation could be
up to HK$47
8
,
923
. (See appendix
9.3
for calculation) The different (
6
%) between the
two estimations is fairly explainable because
the

Cooling Loading estimation
s

are
generally used for

prediction of the cooling plant capacity
and CLP

s COP215 are
base on statistical data
Nevertheless
, both
v
alue is useful for compare the saving of
our proposal and will be elaborate further in the following sections.


2.5

Impacts to the
Environment

The existing
installations

found i
nstalled and maintain by those individual owners
for
many years
and are

obvious

that those
installations

do not have
sufficient
routine
maintenance.


If the plant do not maintain properly would create the followings environmental
issues:





T
he air conditioning systems are v
ery
often
found
leakage of refrigerant. The
leakage of
refrig
erant

(CFC) is harmful to the environment
because this

is
one of the major gases contribute the
global

warming and ozone
depletion
.




Some air conditioning system using cooling towers as the heat rejection
system. These installations found support grows o
f
legionaries’

disease and
should maintain dosing

chemical so as to avoid generate legionaries disease.
No grantee for the existing small installation
of maintenance and therefore
could be
harmful to the near
residents
.



7



For hygienic issues, the water leak
age from the existing system would create
a lot of problems
, such as humid environment would supports grows of
bacteria
.


The noise produced by the air
conditioner

outside those
restaurants

does

not have any
control. Obviously affecting those near
residen
tial

because those
restaurants

are
operate from the afternoon
until

mid night and many residential buildings found
located close to those
restaurants
.


The existing air conditioning installations are consuming excessive energy. If
adopting much energy effi
cient installation could beneficial to the environment and
much cost effective, i.e. assists sustain the restaurants business. The following
sections had recommended an alternative installation to improve the energy
efficiency.


The other impact or concern
s is the appearances of the townscape, at the Sai Kung
Sea Food
Restaurants

will be the landmark of the South East New Territories
Development.

3.

Stakeholders, Awareness & Capacities

The existing air conditioning system can be improved by construct some new
cooling
plant serving those restaurants, such plant should be well maintained. By doing so,
require to
invest a lot of money. However, it does not mean that it is not possible to
implement. For any kind of development with in the district should have suffi
cient
support from the stakeholders.
B
efore we go into detail of suggested improvement
on
air conditioning installation and how it can be implement. Considerations from
different stakeholder’s point of views
briefly
described below.


3.1

Restaurants

owners

The
restaurant

owners
should be the

one who install those

existing
air conditioning
systems but they
do not have sufficient awareness on
those problems created by the
existing air conditioning installation and they may not willing to spend money to
mainta
in their air conditioning installation.



8

The concern of them at most should be their business
development
. By improve the
air conditioning installation may help to attack customers as it can improve the
surrounding environment. In addition,
if new install
ation can enhance e
nergy

saving

can improve

their competitive

because lesser expenses on energy
. However, the
capital cost for the new plant is the prime restriction on improv
ement
.


If the new plant can be built and operate by a private developer, which c
an provide
saving on energy cost to the restaurants owners the restaurant owners should support
the improvement project.


The
improvement

project should be possible to implement as the saving could come
from the
improve
plant efficiency and the discounted
tariff rate offer by CLP when
under bulk and large consumption. The restaurants can be served by a central cooling
plant so that the consumption of the plant
can

be apply the bulk or larger tariff so as to
achieve cost saving.


3.2

G
overnment

The governme
nt may introduce policy that could encourage private sect
or

to involve
the improvement project such as Private Public Partnering (PPP).


Private sector involvement in providing municipal services and infrastructure is not a
new concept. The following Alter
native Generation section described the
improvement

project brief
ly

and suggested to
adopt

the PPP concept so that the
government can
use

private sector expertise and resources to address the public sector
needs.


3.3

Customers

Customers are not just enjoy
ing foods but also the environment of the district. The
restaurants there can enjoy the water front leisure environment, local culture sampan
and finish man boat are all the particulars that cannot found anywhere else except in
Sai Kung. However, buildings

services installations around the area are not pleasant.
The air conditioning installation installed randomly with
out

planning creates the most
adverse effect to the environment. Customers are hates to see such cooling towers, air
ducts and pipe works att
ached to the building. Customers should happy to see

9

improvement on the environment so that attraction on broadens range of customer
could be achieved.


3.4

China Light and Power

China light and power
is the sole

electricity power suppl
ier.

A
ll air conditi
oning
installations are consuming electricity power.

The implement of energy saving air
conditioning installation
could

reduce the tariff charge

and seems not
beneficial

to
CLP
. However, in the long run if the restaurants sustains develop within the distri
ct
without implement any energy efficient scheme than the power supply plant require
developing to suit. By the energy efficient air conditioning plant could beneficial to
the power supply company as it can optimize the consumptions to minimize the

require

power supply plant capacity.


Actually, the tariff scheme offers by the CLP are to encourage their customers to
consider improve the loading profile

i.e. to optimize CLP

s power plant capacity.


4.

Issue and Gap Analysis

4.1

Power Consumption Concerns

Th
e power consumed by the existing air
-
conditioning plant does not achieve the best
energy efficiency. Besides, the existing installation does not have sufficient
maintenance would further reduce the efficiency. The restaurants can reduce the
energy consumpt
ion by construct a cooling plant to cool the water and deliver the
chilled water to the restaurants as the cooling media (see conceptual drawing in
Appendix

9.5
). General speaking the central chiller plant having higher performance
in terms of efficiency t
herefore save energy and electricity charge. The saving of
electricity charge would definitely help the development of the restaurants business.


The next section describe further the central chiller plant advantage in other aspect
and how such concept cou
ld be implement and suggested what further consideration
and study will be required.



10

4.2

Environmental C
o
ncern
s

To due with the environmental problems that
previously mentioned
, central chiller
plant would help compare to the existing individual installat
ions.


T
he
refrigerant

for air conditioning
system

can centralized in the central chiller plant.
Leakage of refrigerant can be monitor by the central chiller plant operator and
appropriate action can be
taking

at right time once leakage found.


Those exist
ing cooling towers, split units etc. can be removed, which improved the
Aesthetical effects.


The

central chiller plant can centralize the noise equipment and appropriate treatment
can solve the noise problem.


Therefore, the central chiller plant idea con
siders
as

solution
for

air conditioning
improvement

within
the district.


4.3

Other concerns

The existing air conditioning installation affecting the sustainable development of the
restaurants business within the district because if increase the numbers of

restaurant
means more
split units,
cooling tower etc

to be installed
around

the district and further
worsen the
appearance

of the district
.
T
h
os
e restaurant
s

become

less attractive.


Also the more the individual air conditioning installation would affect

the residents
more

that
increasing
the
conflict between the restaurants and the residents. Eventually
the residents may restrict the development of the restaurants.


4.4

Benchmarking

The CLP have provided a discount on bulk tariff and large tariff custome
rs because of
their high power consumptions. The customer that consumed not high enough power
cannot enjoy such discount rate. Many large developments had successfully adopted
such discount tariff s
cheme like New TVB city in TKO.


11

The small restaurants cann
ot enjoy such benefit because they may not have sufficient
consumptions. If we can convert the energy from electricity to cooling and deliver to
those restaurants the central plant electricity consumption should be able to adopt
such discount tariff.


Jus
t similar to those large shopping mall, those retails have their own electricity meter
counting for the consumption other than air conditioning installation but in the rental
fee or management fee have including so call “air conditioning” fee. That means t
he
landlord supply them the cooling effect and such cooling effect was generated by
electricity and the electricity cost is charge to those retails. In that case the landlord
can enjoy the bulk tariff discount.

5.

Alternative generations

As mentioned on th
e above sections Central
C
hiller
P
lant installation could
solve

the
problems generated by the existing air
-
conditioning installations. The following
s

described further
:


1)
T
he concept, 2) The advantage, 3) How financially achievable, 4) What further
study

require for implementation.

5.1

Basic
C
entral Chiller Plant

C
oncept

Since Sai Kung restaurants are located at waterfront and the best energy efficient
cooling system is water cool chiller plant. The idea is to construct a seawater pump
house pumping water

to the central chiller plant than the Central chiller plant use
seawater as the cooling media to chill the water. The chiller

water
will be delivered to
those
restaurants

as the air
-
conditioning cooling

media
. The location of the plant
should be closer to

the
waterfront

and the restaurants to minimize the pipe line losses
to achieve the best
benefit
.


By adopting the central chiller plant those air conditioning equipments inside the
restaurants should be retrofit to match
with

the chiller plant cooling me
dia. The new
installation should be well coordinate with the restaurants existing decorations.


One possible additional consideration for further improve the plant cost efficiency is
to implement the thermal storage system. In simple works this system are
used to
store energy by produce ice at night time and release the cooling effect by the ice at

12

day time.


The plant operate at night to produce ice can enjoy cheaper tariff charge offered by
CLP because at nighttime the unit energy charge is cheaper than
at daytime. Further
reduction of
energy
cost
could be achieved,

as the maximum demand charge reduced.
Such thermal storage
plant requires

higher plant capital cost and more spatial
requirement
. Further
studies require

to sees if
feasible

to be implement.


5.2

Advantage of the central Chiller plant

The chiller plant can deliver the following
benefit
.




Reduce the tariff charge for air conditioning installation as the central plant can
apply for the bulk or large tariff charge offered by the electricity supply

company.



The
central

plant can provide treatment for the noise in a centralized
location
.



The central plant design
could

cater for the future expansion of restaurant
business within the district. On top of the
restaurants,

other retails can be serve
by th
is plant depends on the development of the district.



The central chiller plant can be well
maintained

to avoid the leakage of
refrigerant
, avoid water leakage so as to improve the environment.



The central
plant requires

permanent employment for plant opera
tor and
maintenance worker,
trusting

create job
opportunity
.


5.3

Cost Saving by the central chiller plant

For instant, if consider the existing demand by the
restaurants

the plant design was
estimated to be 1421ton say 1500Ton chiller plant to be constru
cted. The power
consumption is approximate 1250kW (see appendix
9.4
for detail calculation).


With this new
installation,

the air conditioning tariff charge (bulk tariff) estimated to
be
approximate

HK$300K per month the anticipated saving per year can be
up to
HK$1,200K per year, which was estimated base on the simple life cycle costing
concept.


The estimated capital
costs for the system
estimated to be
HK$10Million
. The pay

13

back time will be at

year10
th
. The plant
year 15
th

the cost saying will be around

HK$6million
.

(Please
refer

to the Appendix for detail estimations.)


To reduce the plant capacity and

possibly

shorten the cost
recovering

time, thermal
storage installation may suggested if the space and capital cost
could

allowed for such
installation.


5.4

How financially achievable

The
effects after the investment are

difficult to
quanti
fy such as the
improve
ment of
the
Aesthetic, appearance.
How such
investment

could justify? However, one thing
that confirm

is the
district

can become more attractive
after such investment.
Nevertheless,

to have the best benefit to the Government and all other stakeholders
may implement the
idea of
Public
Private

Partnering

Scheme.
As mentioned above
,

this
system

can make use of resource from the private sector.
However
, if all the
capital

cost to be finance by private sector may not be
attractive from the private
sector point of view
. The following
conceptual

scheme may be consider but subject to
further marketing
research and consultation.




The plant cost to be share b
y Government and Private Sector. From the Appendix
you can see if the Government share half of the investment capital cost the pay
back time will become year 5
th

i.e. more attractive.




To attract the
restaurant

owners to contribute the improvement project
the cost
saving after the
first

payback year to return a
portion

to the
restaurants

owner are
suggested.
Therefore,

the pay back will be share by the
restaurant
s owners and
the private sector who involve in the project.




The private sector or the Governmen
t should
confirm

the saving amount after an
appropriate

study period, which shall be use as a guideline for necessary
improvement

and may be form part of the contract
liability
. Any further saving
improvement

exceeding the confirm amount due
to
value
engin
eering will

be the
private sector
benefit
. This is to
encourage

the private to think if any further
saving can be achieved.



14

5.5

F
urther study require for implementation.

Further study on existing energy consumption to
yields

accurate data is required.
Aft
er detail
energy

consumption study the
preliminary plant

design shall be figure out
so that detail plant life cycle cost study can be done. These study help to
confirm

the
plant saving as it is the focus of the
improvement

project. The detail energy
consum
ption study will included the following
founding
:


1.

Accurate air conditioning

system design criteria.

2.

Accurate year round cooling load estimations
.

3.

Accurate year round power consumed by the existing
air
-
conditioning

installation and
others electricity

appli
ances
. Maximum power consumption
period through out the year
.

4.

Minimum power consumption period through out the year
.

5.

What tariff scheme to be adopted to deliver best benefit.


To yields the
above

require to visits all restaurants and to take necessary meas
urement.
With the above
information
, the building services engineers should be able to design
the preliminary plant schematic and estimate more
accurate

price require for
construction.


Besides, other
technical

consideration such as the best location of t
he central chiller
plant and space
requirement

are also affecting the
capital
/ running cost of the
project

therefore
require

further study to found out the best location and what will be the
space
requirement
.


A detail consultation with those stakeholders

such as restaurants owners to lean their
opinion and to convince them with express the benefit of the improvement project is

required
. In addition, what will be the
restaurant

owners expectations on anticipate
saving are important information to yields.


To consult if any private sector might
interest in
provide service to this kind of
improvement

project by adopting PPP.
In addition,

what
will be

the possible shares

between Government and Private Sector? Those are
essential information to
write up
the spe
cification and tender documents
for
implementation of
such project.



15

6.

Stakeholder Feedback

The major concerns of business owners to deal with are money issues. Most of their
feedbacks would be asking about the cost as well as the benefits of the system.
They
have fewer concerns about the environment or the townscape. They are interested in
the idea and they are willing to afford the maintenances and other operation costs if
the government agrees to construct the system for them. Nonetheless, business owne
rs
oppose the system construct by CLP or other business. Owners believe that those
companies would run the system for profit.


Business owners are interested in the reduction in electricity tariffs and power
consumption from the implementation of the syste
m. However, business owners
concerns about their benefits or money saved from this implementation. In addition,
who will be responsible for the construction since this will affect how much they
would pay for using the system. The residents welcome the syst
em since it would
improve their living environments as well as the townscape. However, they concern
about the construction would obstruct their livings.


7.

Indicators & Monitoring System

Most of the environmental indicators for the air
-
cooling chillers an
d
some
water
cooling

chiller
s are already existed. These indicators are monitoring by the
environmental protection department (for air, noise, sewage) and the food and
environment hygiene department (for leakage). After the construction, these
monitoring
system or indicators can be located near the plant “and also be monitored
be the plant since” there should be people operated.


For the electricity power and tariff, it will depend on the CLP since they are the main
provider.



16

8.

Integration with Communit
y

Sai Kung sits along the coast of Inner Port Shelter (Sai Kung Hoi). This
geographic
benefit
ma
de

Sai Kung be a fishing village
;

large number of f
reshly caught fishes
were

unloaded here
. The abundant of fish supply shaped Sai Kung to be a center for
seafo
od cuisine.

Sai Kung’s seafood cuisine attracts tourist. Tourism in Sai Kung
flouishs as more and more tourist came for seafood.


The waterfront area with the alfresco dining to capitalise on the attractions of the
thriving seafood restaurants is an intere
sting landmark in the town to promote the
image of Sai Kung. To continuous on this benefit, the restaurants owner not only to
keep it business but also to sustain the
environment
.


Using a central chiller plant is one of the main propose. The advantages
on that are
the energy cost can be rapidly reduced accounting to the “large power tariff” and
“ice
-
storage air
-
conditioning tariff” suggested by CLP Power, and the noise of the
chiller plant could be central in one area.


The development of the restaurants

in Sai Kung should retain its character and
identity. The energy efficiency suggested here is the first target for the restaurants to
become a high quality urban design, integration with the local vernacular and not to
result in detrimental effects to th
e local landscape.


17

9.

Appendix

9.1

Restaurants Cooling Load Estimations:

Assumptions:

Restaurant area = 15000m
2

Restaurant area require air conditioning = 15000 x
3
2
= 1000m
2

Cooling load per m
2

= 0.5kW



(
This cooling load per meter s
quare only b
y general rule of thumb
which only

good
for prelim planning purpose. Accurate cooling load
estimation for plan design
require
ment

should go through further study and calculation)




kW
d
Coolingloa
5000
5
.
0
10000



9.2

Existing air conditioning tariff c
harge estimations:

The estimations herein after base on two different methods:


1.

Based on estimated cooling load

2.

Based on
power
consumed by air conditioning compare to total power
consumption.

9.3

Based on estimated cooling load

Assumptions:

Split unit Coe
fficient of performance (COP) = 2.4

(Extract from Code of Practice of Energy Efficiency of air conditioning installation E&MSD)


Restaurants running air conditioning for
8

hours per day

Tariff charge = 96.8 cents (CLP general tariff 1kw/hr)

Conversion fac
tors:

1kW (cooling capacity) = 3412 Btu

1Ton (cooling capacity) = 12000Btu


18

Total Power input required by the split units = cooling load/ coefficient of
performance

Total Power input required by the split unit =
4
.
2
5000

= 2083kW

Approximate

tariff charge per month by split unit air con. =

Power input x Tariff charge per unit power (1kw/hr.) x hours operate per day x 30days

Approximate tariff charge per month by split unit air con. =

2083 x 0.968 x 8 x 30 =
HK$478,923

Based on percentage of

air
-
conditioning consumption compare to total power
consumption


Assumptions:

Power consumption per meter square = 0.32 kVA/ m
2

(include air conditioning)

(Extracted from CLP COP215)

Restaurant area = 15000m2

Power factor = 0.9

Total power consumptions =
0.32 x 0.9 x 15000m2 = 4320kW

If 45% of power consumed by air conditioning installation therefore:

Air conditioning consumption = 4320 x 0.45 =1944kW

Tariff charge per month by air conditionings = 1944 x 8 x .968 x 30 =
HK$451,630

9.4

Suggested New Air Con
ditioning Installation tariff estimation

Assumptions:

Central Chiller Coefficient of Performance = 5.2

(Extract from Code of Practice of Energy Efficiency of air conditioning installation E&MSD)


The airside equipment and power losses due to chiller water

pipe assumed 30%
of the total cooling load.

Therefore:


Power input to the central chiller plant =


2
.
5
3
.
1
5000
= 1250kW

Tariff Charge:

Assumed Bulk Tariffs rate (on peak period) offer by CLP:

Maximum demand Change:

Each of the first 650kVA


un
it cost HK$66.5

Each kVA over 650kVA


unit cost HK63.5


19

Energy Charge:

Each of the first 200,000units

unit cost HK$0.694

Each unit over 200,000units


unit cost HK$0.679

Therefore Maximum demand charge
=



5
.
66
9
.
0
1250

=
HK$92,361


Energy Charge =

1250 x 8 x 30 = 300,000 units

200,000 x 0.694 + 100,000 x 0.679 = HK$206,700

Therefore total tariff charge per month is

206,700+92,361 = HK$299,061


The above results
relieves

that the suggested new installation could reduce the
tariff charge from approx
imate HK$450k to HK$300k say if the plant
maintenance cost HK$40k per month and the investment of the plant is required
HK$10Million (see breakdown below)


5000kw plant = (5000 x 3412)/ 12000 = 1421Ton


Recent a
pproximate

figure for

chiller plant includin
g air side equipment for new
installation requirement HK$3000 per ton therefore for 1500ton plant HK$4,500K

Dismantle

the existing
air conditioning

installation say HK$2,000K

Civil works for dig up and reinstate traffic road and pavement say HK3
, 000K

Tota
l
investment

require

4,500 + 2,000 + 3,000 = HK$9.5Million say HK10Million

9.5

Rough estimation for pay back time:

Net saving per year = (150,000


50000) x 12 = HK$1,200,000

Assumed 5% interest:

Investment = HK$10Million


20

New Plant Payback Estimation
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Year
HK$ In Million
Investment after interest
New plant tariff saving (after
interest)
Net Saving
At year tenth payback
start


Investment 10
10
Million (HKD)
Year
interest
rate
investment
after interest
New plant tariff
saving after
interest
Year end net
saving
1
1.05
10.50
1.20
-9.30
2
1.05
11.03
2.52
-8.51
3
1.05
11.58
3.91
-7.67
4
1.05
12.16
5.36
-6.79
5
1.05
12.76
6.89
-5.87
6
1.05
13.40
8.49
-4.91
7
1.05
14.07
10.18
-3.89
8
1.05
14.77
11.95
-2.83
9
1.05
15.51
13.80
-1.71
10
1.05
16.29
15.76
-0.53
11
1.05
17.10
17.80
0.70
12
1.05
17.96
19.95
1.99
13
1.05
18.86
22.21
3.35
14
1.05
19.80
24.58
4.78
15
1.05
20.79
27.07
6.28


The above table estimated the
approximate

figure of the New plant saving and the
investment increment based on 5% interest rate per year, which relieve that if
implement the plant would be pay back at year 10
th

.


If
implement

the
PPP scheme and if the government invest 50% the plant cost than the

21

private sector can earn money starting from year 5
th

(see the following chart)


New Plant Payback Estimation With PPP consideration say 50% by
government and 50% by Private sector
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Year
HK$ In Million
Investment after interest
New plant tariff saving (after
interest)
Net Saving
At year 5th
payback start










22

9.6

Hoi Pang Square







23

9.7

Hoi Pong St





24

9.8

Man Nin St



9.9

sai kung market



25

References

[1]

Environment Protection Department

http://www.epd.gov.hk

[2]

Planning Department

http://www.info.gov.hk/planning

[3]

Food and Environmental Hygiene Department

http://www.fehd.gov.hk

[4]

Green Restaurant

http://www
.greenrestaurant
-
hk.org

[5]

City Planning Consultants Ltd.


http://www.info.gov.hk/planning

[6]

Study on South East New Territories Development Strategy Review

http://www.info.gov.hk/planning/p_study/comp_s/sent/sent
-
es/content.htm

[7]

Sustainability in the Built Environment


http://www.arch.hku.hk

[8]

Sai Kung District Development Foundation Ltd.

Sai Kung tourism & recreation development plan: summary report

G155.C55 S35 1996

Sai Kung tourism & re
creation development plan: technical report

G155.C55 S34 1996

[9]

China Light and Power, Code of

practice 215, issue 1983

[10]

Electrical and Mechanical Services Department, HKSARG..,

Code of practice for Energy Efficiency of Air Conditioning Installation
1998 Edition