Automated Systems and Industrial Applications

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Automated Systems and
Industrial Applications

Standard Grade

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

What is an automated System?

An Automated system is a system where


the
user

provides the
input



the
computer

carries out the
process
defined by the program


the
computer

then provides the user
with the
output


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Examples of Automated Systems


Automatic washing machine


Microwave oven


Digital camera


Video recorder


Car manufacture


Bread making


….


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Why use an Automated System?


are
faster

than humans


can be programmed to do
repetitive

tasks


are more
efficient

than humans (can work
accurately

and
continuously

with no need
for rest/meal breaks).


can be used in
dangerous/harmful

places


are
adaptable



can be reprogrammed to
carry out different tasks.


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

How do they work?


All automated systems are controlled by
a
program


Most systems use
sensors

to provide
feedback



this allows the program to
react to it’s working environment


The motion of an automated system is
usually performed by a
motor

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Example of feedback

Picking up an egg.


If the gripper goes too far,

it breaks the egg.

If the gripper does not go far enough, it
doesn’t pick the egg up.

If the gripper ”can feel” when it touches the
egg, it can pick the egg up every time.

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Other examples


Washing machine


Traffic lights


Automatic lifts


Digital cameras (speed/aperture
settings and focus)


…..

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Sensors


Pressure


Heat


Light


Magnetic


Infrared


…….

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Robots


Robots can be
stationary

or
mobile


The direction of the movement of a
mobile robot can be controlled by
magnetic

or
light

guides

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Robot parts


Some robot parts resemble human
limbs.


Their components are called :


Waist, Shoulder, Arm, Elbow, Wrist


The end of a robot arm can have a tool
attached to do certain tasks:


gripper, spray can, suction cup, …

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

More Robots


Guided robots (autonomous guided
vehicles
-

AGV)


autonomous


works on it’s own


types of guides/sensors


Remotely operated vehicles
-

ROV


E.g. bomb disposal, deep sea vehicle


Intelligent

robot


Incorporates an
expert system
.

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

The Interface

Automated systems work in the real
world performing real tasks that have to
be linked in some way to a computer
system. The meeting point between a
computer and something or (someone)
outside of it is called the
interface
. The
biggest problem the interface has to cope
with is the difference between two types
of signal
-

analogue

and
digital

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Analogue

An analogue signal is one which is
continuously

variable

between two limits.

That means it can have any value (within
limits) at any time.


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Digital

An digital signal is one which is changes in
discrete

steps

between two limits.

That means it can only have certain values
at certain times.


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Analogue/Digital Conversion

The big problem is the real world is
essentially analogue and computers work
digitally. So we need to convert



from
analogue to digital



to get data into the computer.



from
digital to analogue



to get information out of the computer.

This is one of the tasks carried out by the
interface

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Programs


Automated systems are controlled by
programs
.


A program is usually a list of
instructions
.


The program can be in


A
high level

language


A

control

language


The program can be


held in
ROM


part of an
embedded

system


The program will work in
real time
.

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Programming

Programs can be entered


through the keyboard


by
lead
-
through

programming,
sometimes called
programming by
example.


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Simulation

Simulation


a computer version of a real
-
life situation


use of a computer
-
based
model

to predict
the behaviour of a system.


a representation of a situation or problem
with a similar but simpler model or a more
easily manipulated model in order to
determine experimental results.


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Examples of simulation


flying a plane


driving a car


designing an office block


designing a bridge


weather prediction





Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

3D modelling and Virtual Reality


3D modelling


A 3
-
dimensional representation on a
computer screen


Virtual reality


A 3
-
dimensional representation in which
the user is
immersed
. Usually involves
the use of headsets, gloves, …

Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

CAD/CAM


The use of CAD and CAM is very
important in industry


CAD
-

Computer Aided Design


CAM
-

Computer Aided Manufacture


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Technical (safety) implications


Must make sure moving parts of machines
are covered


Sensors fitted to robots to avoid collisions


Robots/vehicles programmed to move
about slowly so workers are not injured


Robots programmed to work only when in
position



Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Workplace implications

In cases of
industrial automation

we must
consider:


design of workplace


modern factory


need for
systems analysis



Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Social implications


Loss of those jobs where computers can
do tasks faster and cheaper


Re
-
training of staff


People’s skills will change


More leisure time for society


More people will work from home with
increased use of networks


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Economic implications


High initial cost


System analysis



design of workplace


hardware


software


Training


Replacement costs


Long term savings


no wages or facilities to be supplied


increased productivity


Standard Grade Automated
Systems and Industrial
Applications

Automated Systems and
Industrial Applications

End of presentation

Standard Grade