Widening the space of memory -outsourcing museum's mission ...

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14 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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MANAGEMENT OF VOLUNTEER
PROGRAMS IN MUSEUMS


-
outsourcing museum’s mission through
volunteer programs
-


MA
Vi
šnja Kisić,
Marketing and Management of Museums,
City Museum Novi Sad,

25.
0
5.
2011.

Key words:


volunteers



strategic planning



museum’s outreach



local communities



sustainable development


Rethinking museum’s mission


CORE MISSION:

1.

in the service of society and its development



METHODS:

1.
acquiring

2.
conserving

3.
researching

4.
communicating

5.
exhibiting




facilitates responsible growth and improvement of community


corrective and counter
-
active mechanism in dealing with current
issues

Second vs Third generation museum


education


knowledge/treasure temple


presentation


one directional information


Image


Ode and pride



Museum space =
musem
building, display and collection



(life long) learning


Meeting point


Animation, mediation


Communication, interpretation


Identity safeguard


Development



=
network of people who
produce, participate in or
consume museum
-
featured
memory







Second Generation Museum

Third Generation Museum

Museum network


museum employees and they expertise



nongovernmental organizations


Freelancers


community unions


Business sector


small and medium enterprises


Tourist sector


Educational sector


Museums friends


Donors


foundations


volunteers

Volunteering...



an activity undertaken out of a person’s free will,
choice and motivation without concern for financial
gain in an organised setting with the aim to benefit to
someone other than the volunteer and to society at
large, contributing to values of general interest



Volunteers...


whoever is ready to help


diverse backgrounds


more in common with the person being served (age,
race, economic background or experience)



Motivation (to learn more, get closer to culture feel
useful, make new friendships...)


volunteers as “mobile, living spaces of memory”



Volunteers...


unique role


common factor for museum employees, museum
audience and wider community


act as a bridge among them


spreading the influence of museum and its mission

Five capitals of volunteering*


Museum


Volunteers


Visitors/audience


Communitiy groups


Phisical


Human


Economic


Social


Cultural


Key groups:

Key capitals:

Phisical capital


Museums

=
product
/
output achieved through volunteer effort
:


1.
increase in the number

of services:
guided tours, new programs, information
services, educational workshops, data collected, documented and
digitalized, objects conserved, etc;

2.
increase in the quality

of services
:

more enthusiastic visitor reception,
museum guards which are always present in the gallery, regular site
security checking, services in cafeteria and museum shop, tours available
for different target groups, better collection management through use of
volunteers who knows to work with new technology, or better community
outreach through use of volunteers in marketing and public relations for
specific groups similar to volunteers profile, etc;

3.
increased degree of innovation

in services
:

digitalization of collection,
administrating museum’s website and providing it with online collections
and

exhibitions, providing museum shop with new products and souvenirs,
etc.



Phisical capital


Volun
teers =
tangible benefits they have from volunteer involvement

1.
number of training courses

attended

2.

certificates

received

3.
social events

they participated in




Audience= tangible improvments in museum services

1.
enhanced quality

of services

2.
enhanced quantity of services



Wider community =
direct and indirect way

1.
New

community outreach services

2.
better quality of life created within the community

3.
expansion of tourist industry

-

local business related to tourism


Human capital


acquisition of skills and personal development
:
raising
the competencies of all key groups affected


Museum:

1.
introduction of very specific professional skills

2.
diversification of workforce in terms of age, ethnicity,
ability or social background

3.
intercultural and intergenerational
sensibilization

of
museum staff

4.
creation of a more tolerant environment and mutual
understanding

Human capital


Volunteers:

1.
sensibility and understanding of different people

2.
increased confidence and self
-
esteem

3.
new vocational skills acquired
:

IT literacy, team work,
public speaking etc, skills and knowledge related to
specific museum jobs

4.
acquire practical skills, qualifications and specific training

5.
enhance their study and increase their employability


physical and mental health

of volunteers

6.
feeling of being useful, needed and integrated in the
community


Human capital


Audience and community:

1.
better delivery of education and learning

2.
improvement of the access to culture and social
inclusion of particularly vulnerable groups of
society

3.
developed feeling of solidarity within the
community

4.
increased tolerance and supported intercultural
cooperation


Economic capital


market value of the work done by volunteers and financial
and economic effects which result from volunteering



Museum =
value of volunteering minus the cost of
volunteering



Volunteers:
individual value of volunteering minus individual
costs of volunteering



Audience:
access to services which would have to be paid
for



Community:
enhanced value for money in public services



Social capital


creating a more cohesive community through building relationships, networks
and bonds of trust between people


Museum:

1.
increased status and reputation of museum in the community

2.
enhanced recruitment and retention of staff and volunteers


Volunteers:

1.
increased trust in museum, its staff and other volunteers

2.
increased participation in public affairs

3.
raise
d

social awareness

4.
expanded social intelligence

5.
enjoyment in social interactions

6.
increase
d

feeling of relatedness and companionship

7.
b
uil
t
social connections and ties
,
expand
ed

networks

of people

Social capital


audience and wider

community

1.
e
nhanced

trust in museums and participation in its
activities

2.
inter
-
connection of museum and local community

3.
promotion of social coexistence of diverse
identities and interests

4.
support in overcoming cultural inequality and
social exclusion

Cultural capital


assets such as a shared sense of cultural, religious, ethnic,
national or local identity


Museum:

1.
existence of services more reflective of cultural diversity
within community

2.
creation of an open, inclusive and diverse organizational
culture

3.
Empower
ed
intercultural and intergenerational
cooperation, mutual tolerance and respect

4.
b
rought

new perspectives and insights to museum
(
elderly
volunteers
as
transfer of knowledge, memories and
perished tradition
)


Cultural capital


Volunteers:

1.
attachment to cultural identity

2.
appreciation and respect for their own and others’ culture

3.
increased awareness of their own and others’ heritage

4.
broader access to values and knowledge surrounding
museum artefacts

5.
new cultural insights and knowledge in interaction with
other volunteers


Audience and community:

1.
appreciation and understanding of other people’s and
their own culture

2.
identity
-
building

I a nutshell
...


implies sustainable development, community participation,
democratization, access to culture, education, life
-
long
learning, raising competencies of the community, social
inclusion, cultural diversity and upraise of the overall quality
of life of one community


cultivates a broader base of supporters for the agency and
its mission


helps museum and community merge and transforms museum
into an institution which contributes to the contemporary
society and lives with its community


more democratic and
deetatisized

and able to communicate
ideas and spread its mission in the current time, while at the
same time preserving the common heritage for the future


What affects management and impact of
volunteering in museums?


cultures of volunteering existing in different
countries and regions



legal frameworks



differences in mission, organizational culture, level
of openness, policies and management practices of
different museums

Steps for successful volunteer programs
management

1.
Planning volunteer program as a part of overall strategic planning

2.
Creating clear guidelines about volunteers' integration into current museum
management policies

3.
Defining volunteers’ tasks

4.
Calculating volunteer related expenses

5.
Securing finances

6.
Creating recruitment strategy and recruitment

7.
Training volunteers

8.
Creating a system of motivation and support

9.
Record keeping and evaluation

10.
Updating and making changes based on feedback

11.
Continuously advocating for support to volunteer programs





1. Plan VP as a part of overall strategic planning!



examine organizational mission and objectives


whether and in which ways volunteer program can contribute to
these objectives


examine organizational structure to see where and how volunteers
would fit the best in it


examine available resources (both human and financial) in order to
be able to define the scope of the program


Based on this write down aims of the overall VP and detailed
objectives of each of the aims


WHY?
To assure that volunteer program will be in harmony with
museum’s management plan, which is a primary precondition for
having satisfied staff and volunteers



2. Creating clear guidelines about volunteers'
integration into current museum management policies



Internal lobbying and careful consultations and communication
with the staff, in order to convince them in the importance of
volunteer program for museum, gain their trust and support
and motivate them in joining their resources and skills and thus
contribute to successfulness of program



Trust and support of museum staff is precondition for good
volunteer program (they welcome, support and train volunteers
or create conflicts with them if felt threatened and not asked
for opinion



2. Creating clear guidelines about volunteers'
integration into current museum management policies



Include museum staff in the process from the very beginning


They should

1.

make requests for volunteers needed in their departments

2.

write job descriptions for volunteers within their departments

3.

require specific and specialized skills of volunteers for certain
positions


Think of a volunteer coordinator position:

1.
person deployed for this position specifically (on honorary basis or
as volunteer)

2.
a person from museum staff to act as a volunteer coordinator.
(from educational department, project manager or PR, or any
curator willing to do coordination of volunteers in whole museum,
not only his/her department)



2. Creating clear guidelines about volunteers'
integration into current museum management policies



create policies and procedures related to volunteers

1.
codes of behavior

2.
responsibilities

3.
obligations

4.
rights

5.
guidelines

6.
reimbursement


WHY?

1.
It defines what staff has to do in relation to volunteers and what
are specificities of being a volunteer

2.
prevent conflicts of interests among volunteers, museum staff,
museum management and visitors



Define volunteers’ tasks and scope of
involvment



on basis on set aims and objectives of the program,
management plan, and requests from museum staff


on basis of task descriptions calculate number of
volunteers/volunteer hours needed


defined tasks will indicate resources needed :
coordinator’s time, training, supervision, finances, access
to literature, space, administrative procedures...


calculate the cost of volunteer hour (all costs of
volunteering divided by number of volunteer hours) and
see whether program can be sustainable from
beginning until the end


Calculate the cost of VP


all costs museum have had related to volunteers (cost of staff’s
working hours needed for coordination of volunteers, cost of
training, travel and food expenses, rewards, parties or events
organized for volunteers, gifts, certificates, pocket money, insurance


Monthly cost of staff’s working hours equals total number of working
hours spent on volunteer program multiplied by a market value of a
working hour


Economic value of volunteering equals number of volunteer hours per
week multiplied with number of weeks multiplied with a market
value of a working hour (average national monthly wage divided by
number of working hours in a month).


Total economic capital of volunteering equals the
value of
volunteering minus the cost of volunteering
.


Secure finances


Depending on target groups and beneficiaries of
volunteer program (search for Ministries, regional, local
and municipal authorities and local, national and
international donors, associations and foundations)


Sponsoring such program can be interesting for private
sector, since its outreach is much larger than when
sponsoring an exhibition


As program develops, it might be a good strategy for
attracting funds because it creates a broader network
of supporters (both financial and motivational)



Create recruitment strategy and
recruit volunteers:



know

who

the

group

to

target

is

and

how

many

volunteers

are

needed


this

will

depend

upon

the

skills

and

profile

needed

for

performing

particular

volunteer

tasks


provide

good

and

detailed

description

and

information

in

order

to

decrease

selecting

procedure
:

majority

of

volunteers

will

select

themselves


on

basis

of

all

this

select

appropriate

advertising

media

for

attracting

volunteers


Recruitment channels:

1.
Sign
-
posting call for volunteers in museum and on museum’s website

2.
Cooperate with local and national volunteer centers

3.
Cooperate with relevant local non
-
governmental organizations

4.
Connect with formal education institutions (schools, high
-
schools,
universities and student organizations) for promoting the practice as
significant informal learning opportunity

5.
Connect and cooperate with organizations, associations and unions of the
elderly (Syndicate Independence, Union of retired people, Third Age
University,
Gerontologial

Institute)

6.
Cooperate with National Employment Biro in terms of having a pool of
unemployed people willing to volunteer

7.
Advertise call for volunteers in cultural magazines and newspapers

8.
Advertise the call on local radio or television

9.
Use European Volunteer Service scheme



Train and enable volunteers



Implement

an

introductory

training

for

all

volunteers



through

which

volunteers

would

get

familiar

with

museum’s

mission

and

vision,

basics

of

its

history

and

development

and

policies

(behavioral,

security,

dress

code,

etc)



Short

training

on

security

and

health

policies

and

procedures



Good

practice

is

to

have

a

Volunteer

Handbook/Manual

which

will

include

basic

polices

procedures

and

expectations

related

to

volunteers
.




This

is

the

task

of

volunteer

coordinator

and

in

the

future

it

can

be

passed

on

to

more

experienced

volunteers



Staff

forum



Train and enable volunteers



Based on the tasks they will perform volunteers should pass through training
session, designed to enable them to do the job



This can be:

1.

on
-
the
-
job guidance with person delegated as supervisor

2.
formal training which lasts for specific time
-
period

3.
“Old volunteers” tour


training for docents should include tips related to public speaking, control
of the audience in the gallery space, and similar technicalities


good practice is to have a Docent Manual for each exhibition which
volunteers will interpret. This manual should include much more data and
context related to exhibition, than those which can be found in the
catalogue.


Design “professional development program” for volunteers with lectures
they can attend from time to time


Ensure good communication channels, coordination and
supervision


Communicate with volunteers which sort of support/supervision
museum offers and who to contact for what issue


Mailing list


List of museum staff names with email addresses, department and
position


List of volunteers with email addresses and phone numbers


Primary communication should go through volunteer coordinator and
he/she should be always informed about future delegation of
volunteers tasks and positions


Daily and weekly schedules with volunteers’ names, time on duty and
position/task put on information board and send through mailing list


Volunteer information board


Coordinator regularly checks quality of volunteer performance


Create a system of motivation and support for volunteers



Understanding and capitalizing motivational drivers of volunteers is a way
to increase their number, morale and effectiveness and lower the rate of
those who quit


Make volunteers feel valued and appreciated


Extrinsic motivational incentives:

1.
certificates, diplomas

2.
presents

3.
greeting cards

4.

newsletters

5.
discounts in museum shop

6.
free entry for the family

7.
reimbursement policy

8.
access to museum events and celebrations

9.
excursions for volunteers


Create a system of motivation and support for volunteers


Intrinsic motivational incentives:

1.
meaningful tasks

2.
good volunteer management

3.
welcoming attitude of museum staff

4.
smooth communication and coordination

5.
support through supervision

6.
advance in responsibilities

7.
asking for opinion and suggestions

8.
volunteer meetings: expressing gratefulness


For short
-
term volunteer programs: nurture contacts with volunteers



Record keeping and evaluation



Shows whether objectives of the program have been reached,
whether all sides included are satisfied with it and what can be
done in order to improve the program and its impacts


Can be done through:

1.

informal chats with volunteers, staff and audience

2.
through more formal ways such as short anonymous questionnaires

3.
give questionnaires or talk with those who do not want to
participate in program anymore (volunteers who have stopped
volunteering and staff who does not want to cooperate and work
with volunteers anymore) because it can give an insight into
shortcomings of the practice which are maybe affecting others as
well but are not that strong motivational factor for quitting




Reacting to the feedback


update

and

make

changes

in

volunteer

program

based

on

evaluation,

feedback

and

other

new

inputs



when

impossible

to

respond

to

suggestions

and

feedbacks

explain

to

volunteers

and

staff

reasons

and

restrictions

due

to

which

it

is

not

possible

to

realize

these


Advocate for support to volunteer programs



improvement of the conditions and support for volunteering is not
likely to be done top
-
down (from the state level to organizations
and volunteers)


volunteering is specific form of civic participation, and fights for its
recognition and building of infrastructure should simultaneously go
“bottom
-
up”


overtake the role of promoter and advocate of volunteering


network and cooperate with other museums, cultural institutions,
youth offices, civic sector and other stakeholder in raising awareness
about potentials of volunteering


take active part in suggesting changes in legislation, funding policies
and training needs to the Ministry of Culture


Do it by “the power of example”!



Respecting the law on volunteering


regulates basic terms related with volunteering,
principles of volunteering, contract on volunteering,
rights and obligations of volunteers and organizer of
volunteering and supervision of implementation of this
Law


volunteering is to be promoted as activity of public
interest for Republic of Serbia which contributes to
active involvement of citizens in social processes and
development of more human and democratic society of
equal opportunities, as well as to improvement of
quality of life of all citizens (
acta

5).

Respecting the law on volunteering


volunteer can be any private subject, citizen of
Serbia or a foreign citizen


organizer of volunteering can be any non profit
legal subject, state, province, regional, local and
municipal authorities but also business and public
company if volunteering is not aimed at their
generation of profit.


the law prohibits volunteering which subsidizes work
of paid staff as prescribed by labor regulations.
(
acta

8)


Respecting the law on volunteering

1.
“Ad hoc” volunteering: actions which last up to 10
hours per week for no longer than 30 days with or
without break within one year


2.
Short term volunteering: lasts for up to 10 hours
per week for up to three months


3.
Long term volunteering lasts for more than 10
hours per week for at least three months without
break



Respecting the law on volunteering


“Ad hoc”


Not under procedures and regulations of Law!


Short term


Contract only if volunteer is juvenile, foreign citizen or on the request of volunteer,
organizer or beneficiary of volunteering(
acta

15)


organizer is obliged to provide a volunteer with security insurance in the case of injury
or professional disease during volunteering only if it is specified in the contract. (
acta

27.)


Long term


written contract between the organizer of volunteering and a volunteer


organizer of volunteering is obliged to provide a volunteer with security
insurance in the case of injury or professional disease during volunteering


pocket money given to volunteer is not considered as material gain This pocket
money can be up to 30% of minimal net monthly salary for full time job





Respecting the law on volunteering


remuneration of expenses related to volunteer job is
desirable


Organizer of volunteering has to guarantee for volunteer’s
security and health during performing of volunteer services
and activities, give confirmation of volunteer activity if
requested by volunteer, secure resources for performing
volunteer services and activities, secure secrecy of personal
data of volunteer and privacy protection and secure other
conditions for volunteering and rights of volunteer
prescribed by this law and volunteer contract. (act 25.)


volunteer has a volunteer booklet with records of all of his

volunteer engagements


Respecting the law on volunteering


first time when organizing volunteer activity, the organizer of
volunteering is obliged to apply to the Ministry of Labor who keeps
record on volunteering and thus be inscribed as organization which
has the right to organize volunteering



Every business or public company who is the organizer of
volunteering has to give description of volunteer program and other
necessary documentation to the Ministry of
Labour

every time when
it organizes volunteer actions in order to get the approval for the
program (
acta

15).



Organizer is obliged to keep a record on volunteer program from
the starting until the ending day of volunteer program


Respecting the law on volunteering



Organizer is obliged to give report on all volunteer programs it
have been organizing during passing year until the 31 March of
following year. (
acta

29)




Record for long term volunteering contains description of volunteer
program, duration of volunteering, number of volunteers engaged in
volunteer program, data about the user of volunteering, personal
data of volunteers, data about volunteer training and other data of
important for volunteering.



Record for short term volunteering contains only description of
volunteer program, duration of volunteering, number of volunteers
engaged in volunteer program. (act 28).


Museum’s little helpers...

Audience or volunteers?

HVALA NA PA
ŽNJI!

THANK YOU FOR THE
ATTENTION!



PITANJA?/QUESTIONS?

MA Višnja Kisić, Spaces of Memory: architecture, heritage, art

Belgrade, 13.04.2011. vikac986
@
gmail.com