Oswego Update Project V2

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“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

1



Oswego Update Project



V2

“Bluebook”


A Graduate Research Project

Updating a

Course Outline

in
Middle School
Technology Education


June 2006


“Technology Systems



In collaboration with:



Developer
s
:


Daniel Bennett
, Format Editor


Carri
-
Ann Brittai
n
, Copy Editor

S
heldon Cox




Craig Cowell

Michael Elliot
t
, Bibliography Editor

Michael Fry





Philip Meaney




Benjamin Mitchell

Luke Morse





Tyrell Musch



Anthony S
c
hepis




Kyle Syck

Ryan Terpening




Daniel Western



Project Directors:


Dr. Willi
am Waite, Professor, SUNY
-
Oswego,
waite@oswego.edu


Mr. Er
ic Suhr, Liaison, NYS

Education Department,
esuhr@mail.nysed.gov








Digitally available at

www.oswego.edu/~waite


“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

2

Forward


The “Oswego Update Project



V2
” is
a collaboration

between SUNY Oswego and the
NYS Education Department to refresh and modernize
the
existing Technology
Education
middle school course outline
. New Y
ork State Learning Standards will be
identified and organized. The original work was a NYSED initiative during the
transformation from Industrial Arts to Technology Educa
tion in 1986. This course has

proven to be very popular and mo
st durable for the prof
ession.



Hundreds of sections are offered in New York

S
tate each year, according to the Basic
Educational Data System (BEDS). However, the objectives need to be revisited with a
current eye, successful teaching strategies need to be surveyed in the fiel
d,
bibliographies should be updated, and Internet resources added, as they were
unavailable during the original project.


It is hoped that this graduate
-
level research endeavor will accomplish the following:




provide a solid graduate research project for t
he developers involved (learning by
doing)
.




involve known, successful teachers as consultants to the process through a
common interview template
.




honor the work and dedication of the original writing teams
.




refresh course objectives and teaching strateg
ies
.




update the bibliography of the

course to reflect the last ten years of literature
review
.




include Internet resources both useful as general professional tools, and as
specific content enhancement




develop an index showing how NYS M/S/T standards are

accomplished for each
course objective
.


The result will be an enhancement for graduate students at S
UNY
-
Oswego,
the
first
use of NYSED
standards

for the middle school mandate
, and
electronic use

(rather than only print)

by
Technology Education teachers i
n New York

S
tate. The
course outline

will be digitally reproduced and made available through appropriate
Internet and electronic media.








Dr. William Waite, Professor







SUNY Oswego, Dept. of Technology







School of Education



“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

3

Overview of the C
ourse



Course
Rationale

and Goals


Technology has been an integral part of human existence since prehistoric
times. It continues to be more and more pervasive in daily routines, and must
therefore
be managed and manipulated by an ed
ucated citizenry. Stu
dents need
to

develop skills ranging

from small home repairs on up to revolutionary ideas
such as alternative fuels and
bio
-
engineered food. The “
Technology

Systems

course offers a wide
-
ranging template of learning about the processes and
systems of tech
nology. Technological literacy is no longer the jargon of
engineers

and architects, but a necessary ingredient

for all aspects of life.


This course content is presented in a unique, laboratory
-
based setting that
focuses on the following:




Hands
-
on
proble
m solving skills using design and inquiry, offering
confidence to students
which

other academic settings

cannot achieve
.




The practical and active application of all school subjects usin
g
authentic tasks, reinforcing

an interdisciplinary approach to learni
ng
.




Use of critical thinking and organizational skills, including group
process, teamwork, and leadership opportunities
.




Expand the understanding of universal technologies though the study
of interrelationships in technology systems, process
es, and
envir
onmental concerns.




Study of t
he use and control of technological solutions to human
problems
.




An economic orientation to technical knowledge with a pre
-
vocational
exploratio
n of business and industry that

uses a global workforce
.




Impacts of technology o
n social, political, and economic outcomes of
our society
.



Technology

Systems

is therefore

a necessary

contribution to the
student’s future and also

to the advancement of society.
While offering current
viewpoints on the subject of technology, the cours
e prepares participants for the
future, and simultaneously teaches about the evolution of society’s technical
means.

Through this approach, individuals learn to fuse ideas and concepts from
many subject areas while relating to their own interests and backg
rounds. This

“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

4

encourages students to become flexible and engaged learners; attributes they
will use throughout their academic, personal, and social lives.


Respectfully submitted by:

Daniel Bennett

Carri
-
Ann Brittain

Sheldon Cox




Craig
Craig
Cowell

Mich
ael Elliot
t

Michael Fry

Philip Meaney

Benjamin Mitchell

Luke Morse

Tyrell Musch

Anthony S
c
hepis

Kyle Syck

Ryan Terpening

William Waite

Daniel Wester
n



Original developers of the 1986 “Introduction to Technology” curriculum:


Patricia Ash, Tom Barrowman,
Douglas Beard, Clagett Boehner, John Boronkay,
Jack Brueckman, Thomas Curtis, Frank Darzano, Michael Doyle, Peter Fish,
Marvin Fisher, John Gagliardo, Richard Gifford, Rodney Gould, Clark Greene,
Marshall Hahn, Henry Harms, William Hasenstab, Donald Hefner
, Wayne
Hendrix, Patricia Hutchinson, Joseph Iacuzzi, Barry Johnston, Robert Jones,
David Kelsey, William Krolikowski, Dennis Kroon, Thomas LeClair, Robert Laux,
Arthur Levitt, Glen Listar, Anthony LoCascio, James Mooney, Ralph Nicolson,
Stephen Poydock, D
ebra Prouix
-
Batcher, John Riley, Robert Sanders, Frank
Sepa, Gary Shelhamer, Robert Silverman, Sandra Sommer, Frank Spor, Neal
Swernofsky, Ronald Todd, Gordon Turner, William Wilson, and Wally Yelverton.









“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

5

Course Description



This is a

mandated, in
troductory course in the study of technology
, using a
problem
-
solving approach in a hands
-
on laboratory setting. Students will be
engaged in a variety of learning activities that involve design and inquiry using
the processes and systems of technology.


½ year

7
th

grade


Mod
ule
s T1
-
T
5

(no prerequisite)

½ year 8
th

grade


Mod
ule
s T6
-
T
10

(prerequ
isite of 7th grade Tech Systems



Mod
ule
s T1
-
5)


NOTE: The degree has not been set for these intended learning outcomes (ILOs)
as it would be based on the technic
al problem presented to the students.



Course Skills, K
nowledge, and Behaviors to

be D
eveloped



Module T1


Technology and Society


The students will be able to:



T1
-

1

Comprehend the importance of problem solving. resources, systems,
and environmental respon
sibility in the current and future technology.


T1
-

2

Identify t
he difference between human

need
s

and wants.


T1
-

3

Outline the evolution

of t
echnology from primitive to current.



T1
-

4

Define

t
echnology

and list
technological
applications.



Module T2


Problem Solving U
sing Technology


The students will be able to
:



T2
-

1

State the steps of the design process and describe the activities/
procedures involved in each step, in written format.


T2
-

2

When presented with a technological problem, develop a design brief
and set of constra
ints through given criteria and questioning techniques.


T2
-

3

When presented with a technological problem, conduct various research
methods (questioning, source research, market investigations) to gather
information which will aid in the formation of the soluti
on.


“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

6


T2
-

4

When presented with a technological problem, generate inventive/
innovative ideas through development of alternative solution practices:
brainstorming, mind map, concept tree, sketching.


T2
-

5

Select and justify an optimal solution for a technical problem

based on a
set of criteria and model construction (appearance, functional, prototype,
scale) or simulation software.


T2
-

6

Design a working drawing and bill of materials when given a technical
problem.


T2
-

7

When presented with a technological problem, develop and
follow a set
of procedural construction steps to construct the product.


T2
-

8

When presented with a technological problem create and utilize various
evaluation techniques to analyze features (aesthetics, durability,
ergonomics, impacts, life cycle cost, maintai
nability, performance, quality
and safety) that affect production.


T2
-

9

When presented with a technological problem, document and justify
(note the problem and solution suggestions) changes made to the
original plan.


T2
-

10

When presented with a technological proble
m, compile all information in
the design process to compose and present a portfolio illu
strating the
stages of creation.



Module T3


Resources for Technology


The students will be able to:


T3
-

1

Employ and relate the seven resources of technology.

T3
-

2

Weigh benef
its of various types of materials.

T3
-

3

Compare and contrast the importance of alternative forms of energy.

T3
-

4

Employ various methods of exchange in order to obtain resources, such
as class money, debits, etc.


T3
-

5

Identify materials as either renewable or nonrenewabl
e.

T3
-

6

Utilize the seven resources of technology through the creation of
manufacturing project.


“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

7


T3
-

7

Weigh the benefits of various types of materials.

T3
-

8

Compare and contrast the importance of alternative forms of energy.

T3
-

9

Employ various methods of exchange in order t
o obtain resources.

T3
-

10


Identify materials as either renewabl
e or nonrenewable.


Module T4


Systems and Sub
-
systems of Technology


The students will be able to
:

T4
-

1

Analyze the need for systems theory

T4
-

2

Use systems theory as an analytical model and tool

T4
-

3

Differe
ntiate between and among the various syste
m components and
how they inter
relate


T4
-

4

Use various

communication systems as a component of technology

T4
-

5

Analyze
transportation systems as a component of technology

T4
-

6

Differentiate

types of constr
uction systems as a com
ponent of

current
technology


T4
-

7

Demonstrate manufacturing systems as an important component of
technology


T4
-

8

Differentiate how bio
-
related technologies are similar and different from
other manufacturing endeavors



Module T5


Technology’s Effects on People an
d the Environment


The students will be able to
:


T5
-

1

Demonstrate a working knowledge of outcome types produced by
technology.


T5
-

2

Analyze the effect that technology has on their life and daily routine.

T5
-

3

Assess the positive and negative effects that technology has

on the
environment.


“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

8


T5
-

4

Design a solution to one of the problems created by technology.

T5
-

5

Explain the positive and negative effects that technology has had on
humankind in the last ten years.



Module T
-
6
-

Choosing Resources

T
-
6


The s
tudents will be able to:


T6
-

1

Evaluate material properties while working on problem solving activities
in the classroom.


T6
-

2

Apply the seven
resources to each class project
.

T6
-

3

Develop a plan to optimize the resource
s

chosen.

T6
-

4

Utilize

selected physical, mechanical, and electrical properties


Module T
-
7
-

Processing Resources




The s
tudents will be able
to:


T7
-

1

Use laboratory equipment safely every time when manipulating materials
during activities.


T7
-

2

Identify the three ways to convert materials (resources) and apply this
knowledge consistently
to any activity.


T7
-

3

Differentiate between types
of energy (potential, kinetic)


T7
-

4

D
iscuss conservation of energy and explain a given energy conversion.


T7
-

5

Apply information conversion techniques to related activities, by using
the laboratory computer to achieve
an assortment of goals.


T7
-

6

Effectively utilize use the internet to as a resource to solve assignment
problems.


T7
-

7

Manipulate digital multimedia equipment, such as digital photography
equipment, to successfully convert still images or video into media that
can
be installed into a presentation, bulletin board,
or slideshow.




“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

9

Module T
-
8
-

Controlling Technological System
s



The s
tudents will be able to:


T8
-

1

Distinguish

the difference between an open loop and a close
d

loop

system
.


T8
-

2

Explain the three different ways to

get feedback from a system.


T8
-

3

Determine the most suitable sensors for a specific situation.


T8
-

4

Design

and operate

an open/close
d

loop that uses three types of
controllers.


T8
-

5

Propose a computer program that gives a desired feedback.



Module T
-
9
-

Emerging Tec
hnology


The s
tudents will be able to:


T9
-

1

Anticipate and analyze the effect of emerging technologies on a
personal, local, national, and global scale.


T9
-

2

Compare and contrast the present job market and the effects that new
technologies have on them.


T9
-

3

Predict
how human lives will change because of technology in the next
five to ten years.


T9
-

4

Reverse engineer a technological product.


T9
-

5

Propose alternative ways in which fuel can be conserved.


T9
-

6

Di
s
cuss the future of the world’s energy supplies (i.e. fossil fuels a
nd
alternative energies).


T9
-

7

Research the emergence of bio and nano t
echnologies.



Module T
-
10
-

Engineering Design Project


The s
tudents will be able to:


T10
-

1

Exercise brainstorming skills in a classroom setting
.



“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

10

T10
-

2

Critique

concepts and ideas constructively
.


T10
-

3

Generate skills needed for effective group cooperation and leadership.


T10
-

4

Develop management skills to capitalize on opportunities and be able to
reorganize when presented with unexpected issues.


T10
-

5

Develop efficient methods to determine cost effectiveness and

ways to
raise funds.


T10
-

6

Examine performance results and assess strategies needed for technical
improvement.


T10
-

7

Administer system resources and prioritize tasks needing
accomplishment
.


T10
-

8

Produce and judge quality craftsmanship
.


T10
-

9

Generate specific ways to meet
given outcomes
.


T10
-

10

Develop a 3
-
D model of a design solution using proper tools, materials,
and equipment
.


T10
-

11

Evaluate and select appropriate testing methods to assess a design
project
.


“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

11


Content Outline



Module T1


Technology and Society


1.1

Study of Techno
logy


1.1.1

Problem Solving




1.1.1.1

Implementing problem solving



1.1.1.2
Required steps



1.1.1.3 Testing and solutions



1.1.2 Resources




1.1.2.1

Types of resources



1.1.2.2

Selections of resources



1.1.2.3


Influences of resources



1.1.3 Systems




1.1.3.1 D
esign



1.1.3.2

T
heory



1.1.3.3

T
ypes



1.1.4 Environment




1.1.4.1

Technological outputs



1.1.4.2

Effects on humans



1.1.4.3

Effects on the environment



1.1.5 The Future




1.1.5.1

Current advanced Technology



1.1.5.2

Research on new Technology


1.2

Technology Satisfies Human Needs and Wants



1.2.1

Construction




1.2.1.1

Residential



1.2.1.2


Commercial
/industrial



1.2.2

Communication



“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

12



1.2.2.1

Graphic



1.2.2.2

Electronic



1.2.3


Manufact
uring


1.2.3.1


History



1.2.3.2

Techniques



1.2.3.3
Organization



1.2.4


Transportation




1.2.4.1

Land



1.2.4.2



Aerospace



1.2.4.3


Marine


1.3

Evolution of Technology



1.3.1

Early Technology




1.3.1.1

Primitive tools



1.3.1.2

Fi
re



1.3.1.3


Wheel and axle



1.3.2

Development and Innovations




1.3.2.1

Metallurgy



1.3.2.2

Electricity



1.3.2.3

Fossil Fuel



1.3.3

Emerging Technology




1.3.3.1

Types



1.3.3.2

Terms



Module T2


Problem Solving Using Technology


2.1



Technological Problem Solving Steps Formulate an Interrelated Process


2.1.1

Design cycle/ design loop

2.1.2

Informed design

2.1.3

Problem solving process


2.2

Design C
hallenge: Technological Problems and Opportunities


2.2.1

Need versus want


“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

13

2.2.2


Invention versus innovation

2.2.3


Design brief

2.2.4


Constraints/ specifications


2.2.4.1

Function/ purpose

2.2.4.2

Resources


.1

Materials

.2

Production


2.2.4.3

Client


.1

Aesthetics

.2

Ergonomics


2.2.4.4

E
ffects


.1

Economic

.2


Environmental


2.3

Technological Problem Solving Involves Research and Investigation


2.3.1


Forming questions


2.3.1.1

Economy

2.3.1.2

Product (e
ffects, resources, and client)


2.3.2

Product


2.3.2.1

Need

2.3.2.2

Design

2.3.2.3

Life cycle

2
.3.2.4

Production

2.3.2.5


Disposal/recycle


2.3.3

Sources


2.3.3.1

Experts in the field/ industry

2.3.3.2

Published information

2.3.3.3

Web resources


2.3.4


Investigations


2.3.4.1

Market analysis

2.3.4.2

Surveys



“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

14

2.4

Technological Probl
em Solving Requires Generating Alternative Solutions


2.4.1


Problem solving techniques


2.4.1.1

Brainstorming

2.4.1.2

Mind map/ concept tree

2.4.1.3

Sketching and doodling


2.5

Technological Problem Solution Selection and Justification


2.5.1

Mo
dels and simulation




2.5.1.1

Appearance

2.5.1.2

Computer

2.5.1.3

Functional

2.5.1.4

Prototype

2.5.1.5

Scale


2.5.2

Trade offs and optimization


2.5.3

Matrix (comparing solutions to constraints)


2.6

Implement
ation of the

Te
chnological S
ol
ution


2.6.1

Design


2.6.1.1

Bill of materials

2.6.1.2

Isometric projection

2.6.1.3

Orthographic projection

2.6.1.4

Schematic

2.6.1.5

Sketching


2.6.2

Production


2.6.2.1

Procedural steps

2.6.2.2

Safety

2.6.2.3

Tool and equipment use



2.6.3

Modifications


2.6.3.1

Testing

2.6.3.2

Documentation and analysis

2.6.3.3

“Tweaking”

2.6.3.4

Experimentation

2.6.3.5


Re
-
testing




“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

15

2.7

Testing and Evaluation of the Technological Solution


2.7.1

Methods


2.7.1.1

Checklist

2.7.1.2

Ra
ndom testing

2.7.1.3

Surveys


2.7.2

Factors


2.7.2.1

Aesthetics

2.7.2.2

Durability

2.7.2.3

Ergonomics

2.7.2.4

Impacts

2.7.2.5

Life cycle cost

2.7.2.6

Maintainability

2.7.2.7


Performance

2.7.2.8


Quality

2.7.2.9

Safety


2.8

Presentation

Techniques


2.8.1

Charts and graphs

2.8.2

Sequence diagram



2.9

Redesign the Technological Solution


2.9.1

Documentation

2.9.2

Notes on previous work

2.9.3

Updating working drawings and procedures

2.9.4

Justification

2.9.5

Record of proble
ms as they occurred

2.9.6

Description of change, including
how the change addressed the
problem

2.10

Portfolio Development


2.10.1

Portfolio design layout

2.10.2

Documentation from design steps

2.10.3

Pictures, charts, graphs

2.10.4

Presentation
to committee



2.10.5


Visuals

2.10.6


Presentation outline






“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

16

Module T3

Resources for Technology


3.1

Technological Development Utilizes Resources


3.1.1

People


3.1.1.1

Labor

3.1.1.2

Management

3.1.1.3

Consumers

3.1.1.4

Inventors/Innovators


3.1.2


Informat
ion


3.1.2.1

Processes

3.1.2.2


Techniques

3.1.2.3


Data

3.1.2.4


Distribution/communication


3.1.3


Tools and Machines


3.1.3.1

Hand tools

3.1.3.2

Manual machines

3.1.3.3

Automated machines


3.1.4

Materials


3.1.4.1

Natural

3.1.4.2

Proce
ssed

3.1.4.3

Renewable and nonrenewable

3.1.4.4

Synthetic


3.1.5

Capital


3.1.5.1

Means of exchange


.1

Barter

.2

Money

.3

Stocks and bonds

.4

E
-
commerce


3.1.5.2



Investments


.1

Equipment

.2

Facilities

.3

Land

.4

Research


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William
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3.1.6

Energy


3.1.6.1

Forms (s
elect from the following)




Radiant



Mechanical



Electrical



Chemical



Thermal



Light



Magnetic


3.1.6.2

Sources (s
elect from the following)




Human and animal muscle



Fossil fuels



Flowing water and tides



Solar



Wind



Nuclear



Geothermal



Biomass



Fuel cells


3.1.7

Time


3.1.7.1

Human limitations

3.1.7.2

Natural constraints

3.1.7.3

Importance of time

3.1.7.4

Agricultural age

3.1.7.5

Industrial age

3.1.7.6

Information age

3.1.7.7

Time zones and global use of technology


3.2

T
echnol
ogy Requires Skills in Using

Resources


3.2.1

Selecting Resources


3.2.2

Processing Resources


3.2.2.1

Materials


.1

Growing, harvesting and mining raw materials

.2

Converting raw materials to basic industrial materials

.3

Processing mate
rials


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Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

18


3.2.2.2

Energy

3.2.2.3


Information


3.3

Influences on Technology


3.3.1

Resource n
ecessity


3.3.2

Culture of society


3.3.2.1

Developing countries

3.3.2.2

Beliefs and/or attitudes

3.3.2.3

Increasing global interaction



3.3.3

Resourc
e availability


3.3.3.1

Renewable

3.3.3.2

Climate/geographic region

3.3.3.3

Alternatives





Module T4


Systems and Sub
-
systems of Technology




4.1

People Design Systems to Satisfy Wants and Needs


4.1.1

Extend human capabilities

4.1.2

Needs
for goods and services

4.1.3



Needs to transport people and goods


4.2

The Systems Model as an Analytical Tool


4.2.1

Analysis of existing systems


4.2.2

Adaptation of existing systems

4.2.3

Generic analysis of new systems



4.2.4

Symbolic representa
tion of systems


4.3

Systems Theory



4.3.1

Components



4.3.1.1

Command input



4.3.1.2

Resource inputs

4.3.1.3

Process

4.3.1.4

Feedback loop (monitor, compare, adjust)



4.3.1.5

Output(s)



4.3.1.6 Open loop (define only


more in T
-
8)


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William
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19



4.
3.1.7 Open loop (define only


more in T
-
8)

4.3.1.8


Relationship of system components to manufacturing
components and transportation components


4.4

Communications System


4.4.1


History of Communications


4.4.1.1

Cave markings

4.4.1.2

Spoken lang
uage

4.4.1.3

Written language

4.4.1.4

Reproduction process



.1

Hand copies


.2

Printing press


.3

Modern Copiers



4.4.1.5

Film


4.4.1.6

Radio


4.4.1.7


Computer generated



4.4.2

Types of Communication


4.4.2.1

Advertisements



.1


Ra
dio


.2


Television


.3

Mass marketing



.4

Subliminal


4.4.2.2

Technical drawings



.1

Paper and pencil


.2

CADD


.3

Solid modeling/wire frame


4.4.2.3

Presentations/representations



.1

Research


.2

Internet/
intranet


.3

Presentatio
n aids


.4

Layout


4.4.2.4

Photography



.1

Silver halide theory


black & white, color


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Dr.
William
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20


.2

Digital



4.4.2.5

Film and video tape



.1

Animation


.2

Sound


.3

Color


.4

Digital


4.5

Construction Systems


4.5.1

Applications



4.5.1.1

N
atural / Earth


4.5.1.2

Clay


4.5.1.3

Stone


4.5.1.4

Wood


4.5.1.5

Metal


4.5.1.6

Commercial


4.5.1.7

Residential


4.5.2

Materials



4.5.2.1

Wood


4.5.2.2

Metal


4.5.2.3

Ceramics


4.5.2.4

Polymers


4.5.2.5

Composites



4.5.3

Fast
ening



4.5.3.1

Mechanical fasteners


4.5.3.2

Adhesion


4.5.3.3

Cohesion


4.5.4

Tools



4.5.4.1

Units of measure


4.5.4.2

Drawings


4.5.4.3

Hand tools


4.5.4.4

Power tools


4.6

Manufacturing Systems


4.6.1

Push /pull

4.6.2


Lean


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Dr.
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21

4.6.3


Just in time



4.7

Transportation Systems


4.7.1

Public vs. private

4.7.2

Goods and services

4.7.3 Power through internal combustion

4.7.3

L
and

4.7.4 Marine

4.7.5 Aerospace


4.8

Feedback to Help Control Outcomes



4.8.1

Open loop (no feedb
ack loop)


4.8.1.1


No comparison

4.8.2

Closed loop (feedback loop)


4.8.2.1

Adjustable

4.8.2.2

Comparisons can be made


4.9

New Technologies May Result When Combining Existing Technologies


4.9.1

Manufacturing systems


4.9.1.1


More efficient p
roduction

4.9.1.2

Higher quality goods


4.9.2

Transportation systems


4.9.2.
1

More economical vehicles

4.9.2.2

Larger carrying capacities

4.9.2.3

Safer



4.10

Sub
-
systems Combine to Produce More Powerful or Efficient Systems


4.10.1

Systems


4.10.1.1

Large manufacturing plants



4.10.1.2

Transportation


4.10.2

Subsystems


4.10.2.1

Specialized manufactures

4.10.2.2

Public and private transportation


4.10.3


Eco
-
friendly


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Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

22



Module T5


Technology’s Effects on People and the Enviro
nment


5.1

Technology Outputs


5.1.1

Expected

5.1.2

Unexpected

5.1.3

Desired

5.1.4

Undesired


5.2



Combinations


5.2.1

Expected/ desired (
example:
energy)

5.2.2

Expected/ undesired (
example:
unemployment)

5.2.3

Unexpected/ undesired (
example
:
pollution)

5.2.4


Unexpected/ desired (
example:
recycling)


5.3

Problems Solved


5.3.1

Transportat
ion (land, marine, aerospace
)

5.3.2

Communication (World Wide Web)

5.3.3

Manufacturing (mass production)


5.4

Problems Created


5.4.1


Pollution

5.
4.2

Weapons of mass destruction

5.4.3

Unemployment

5.4.4

Global imbalance (resources, products, technologies)

5.4.5

Technological mismatch (English vs. Metric systems)


5.5

E
ffects on Humans


5.5.1

Food

5.5.2

Shelter

5.5.2

Clothing

5.5.4

De
sires


5.6



Mobility /
Transportation


5.6.1

Transportation of goods and services

5.6.2

Global market

5.6.3

Individual transportation


5.7



Everyday Routine


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Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

23


5.7.1

Timeline (changes in routine)

5.7.1.1

Stone Age

5.7.1.2

Agricultural Age

5.7.1.3


I
ndustrial Age

5.7.1.4

Computer Age

5.7.1.5

Information Age


5.7.2


Present routines

5.7.3

Work

5.7.4

Services & Repairs

5.7.5

Positive/ Negative


5.8



Health & Longevity


5.8.1

Medical advancements

5.8.2

Diseases & Cures

5.8.3

Ergonomics

5.8
.4

Overall wellness


5.9

Entertainment


5.9.1

Leisure time

5.9.2

Technology & g
ames

5.9.3

Sports


5.10


Technology Must Adapt to the E
nvironment


5.10.1

Human
-

made environment

5.10.2

Natural environment

5.10.3

Consequences (rural vs. indust
rial communities)


5.11

Effects


5.11.1

Positive


5.11.1.1


Recycling

5.11.1.2

Synthetic materials

5.11.1.3

Efficient use of resources

5.11.1.4

Testing processes


5.11.2

Negative


5.11.2.1


Pollution

5.11.2.2

Deforestation


5.11.2.3

Acid ra
in


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Curriculum Deve
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Dr.
William
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24


5.11.2.4

Global warming


5.11.3


Solutions


5.11.3.1

Alternative energies (hydro
-
electric, solar)

5.11.3.2


Public awareness

5
.11.3.3

Organizations (Green Pea
ce)

5.11.3.4

Bio
-
Technologies


5.11.4

Effects on Human
kind and the World


5.11.4.1


Social Impacts


.1

Global e
conomy

.2

Social awareness


5.11.4.2

Information Transfer


.1

World Wide Web

.2

Computers, cell phones


5.11.4.3

Globalization



Module T
-
6 Choosing Resources


6.1

Identifying Resources


6.1.1



People

6.1.2

Information

6.1.3

Materials

6.1.4

Tools and machines

6.1.5

Capital

6.1.6

Energy

6.1.7

Time


6.2

Choosing Resources


6.2.1

Identified goals

6.2.2

Processes available

6.2.3

Constraints and limitations


6.2.3.1


Human

6.2.3.2

Natural


6.3

Combining
Resources


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25


6.3.1

Optimization


6.3.1.1

Resource efficiency

6.3.1.2

Time management

6.3.1.3

Cost effective


6.3.2



Compromises and Tradeoffs


6.3.2.1

Availability

6.3.2.2

Renew ability

6.3.2.3

Risk of depletion

6.3.2.4

Cost to obtain or process

6.3.2.5

Appropriateness

6.3.2.6

Safety of handling

6.3.2.7

Environmental impact

6.3.2.8

Profitability


6.4

Choosing Materials


6.4.1

Mechanical properties


6.4.1.1

Strength


.1


Compression

.2

Tension

.3

Torsion

.4

Shear




6.4.1.2


Ele
ctrical Properties


.1

Conductors

.2

Insulators



Module T
-
7

-

Processing Resources


7.1


Processing of Resources


7.1.1

Material conversion


7.1.1.1

Combining

7.1.1.2

Separating

7.1.1.3

Conditioning



7.1.2


Energy conversion


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William
Waite, Professor

26


7.1.2.1

Types of energy


.1


Potential

.2


Kinetic


7.1.2.2


Conservation of energy


7.1.2.3

Sources of energy


.1

Human and animal Muscle

.2

Solar

.3

Chemical

.4

Gravitational

.5

Geothermal

.6

Nuclear


7.1.2.4

Energy conversion (selection fro
m)




Chemical to mechanical



Thermal to mechanical



Chemical to thermal



Mechanical to electrical



Electrical to light



Electrical to sound



Matter to energy


7.2

Information Conversion


7.2.1

Information management software


7.2.1.1

Internet

7.2.1.2

Dig
ital multimedia

7.2.1.3


Collecting

7.2.1.4


Recording

7.2.1.5


Classifying

7.2.1.6


Calculating

7.2.1.7


Storing

7.2.1.8


Retrieving

7.2.1.9


Choosing computer software

7.2.1.10

Telecommunications

7.2.1.11

Specialized application
s



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Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

27


Modul
e T
-
8

-


Controlling Technological Systems


8.1

Open and closed loop systems


8.1.1

Open loop

8.1.2

Close
d

loop

8.1.3

Feedback


8.2

Sensors


8.2.1

Electrical

8.2.2

Electronic

8.2.3

Optical

8.2.4

Thermal

8.2.5

Magnetic


8.3

Comparators


8
.3.1

Mechanical

8.3.2

Electric

8.3.3

Electronic


8.4

Controllers


8.4.1

Electrical

8.4.2

Electro
-
Mechanical

8.4.3

Pneumatic

8.4.4

Hydraulics


8.5

Program Control


8.5.1

Timer Controls

8.5.2

Conditional Controls

8.5.3

Computers Controls




Module T
-
9

-


Emerging Technology


9. 1

Assessing Technological Systems


9.1.1

Analyzing

the systems model output


9.1.1.1


Impacts on humans

9.1.1.2

Impact on society



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Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

28

9.1.2

Technological evolution


9.1.2.1

The future world

9.1.2.2

Up
-
an
d
-
c
oming technologies


9.2

Impacts on Work, Job Opportunities, and Careers


9.2.1

Constant change due to the evolution of technology


9.2.2

Adaptability

9.2.3

Development of future industries

9.2.4

Leadership and social skills

9.2.5

Careers with
a
higher level of
technological
responsibility


9.3

Technological Impacts, Perceived
,

or Actual


9.3.1

Personal

9.3.2

Local

9.3.3

National

9.3.4

Global


9.4

The Interdependent World


9.4.1

Consumption of resources

9.4.2

Competition for jobs, ma
rkets, and resources


9.5

Emerging Technologies


9.5.1

Alternative fuels

9.5.2

Bioengineering

9.5.3

Biotechnology

9.5.4

Fiber optics

9.5.5

Hybrid vehicles

9.5.6

Nano
-
technology

9.5.7

Wireless technologies

9.5.8 Military weapons

9.5.9 Med
ical imaging

9.5.10 Genetic mapping



T
-
10
-

Engineering Design Project


10.1

Problem


10.1.1

Identify the problem

10.1.2

Apply constraints



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29

10.1.2.1

Time

10.1.2.2

Budget

10.1.2.3

Material


10.2

Formation of groups/
teams


10.2.1

Leadership op
portunities

10.2.2

Assigning roles


10.2.2.1


Responsibilities of roles

10.2.2.2

Consequences of missed responsibilities


10.2.3


Entice competition


10.3

Research


10.3.1

Brainstorming

10.3.2

Classroom resources

10.3.3

Internet



10.3.4

Pri
nted materials


10.4

Solutions



10.4.1

Document research findings



10.4.1.1

Sketches


10.4.1.2

Written entries


10.4.1.3

Photographs


10.4.1.4

Web Images



10.4.2

Effectiveness




10.4.2.1

Constructive criticism


10.4.2.2

Meeting constra
ints

10.4.2.3

Time

10.4.2.4

Budget

10.4.2.5

Material


10.4.2.6

Aesthetics


10.4.2.7

Function


10.4.2.8

Advantages and limitations


10.5

Alternative Solutions


10.5.1

Improvements

10.5.2

Combinations

10.5.3

Entirely new


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Dr.
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30

10.5.4

Select mos
t viable


10.6

Construction


10.6.1

Funding

10.6.2

Schedule

10.6.3

Tasks

10.6.4

Craftsmanship

10.6.5

Testing


10.7

Presentation


10.7.1

Charts/graphs

10.7.2

Slideshow

10.7.4

Audio/
v
ideo


10.7.5

Digital Multimedia


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Dr.
William
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31


General Instructional

Strategies


This course is designed for implementation as an 18 week seventh grade
cour
se (Modules 1
-
5) and an 18

week eighth grade course (Modules 6
-
10). It is
for all students, male and female, and meets the middle school Technology
Education mandate o
f one unit, while also meeting New York State Learning
Standards and International Technology Education
Association
standards.


This 2006 revision is heavily based on the original “Bluebook” curriculum,
but updates resources, terminology, theory, and techn
ological applications, while
addressing modern standards and assessments.


It should be presented to

classes of no more than 20 students for best
effect, as it is a laboratory offering. The room should be approximately 2000
square feet of open space offer
ing tools, equipment, benches, furniture, and
computers consistent with modern “Technology Sy
stems” laboratories. Multiple
material processing equipment,

and appropriate “clean” spaces for ins
truction
and computer equipment, should be incorporated. Typic
al lesson time is about
25% of available time, while “hands
-
on” activity should be about 75%. Specific
equipment needs may be contingent upon the activities selected, for instance
wind tunnels, CAM units, vehicle test tracks, etc.


Abundant latitude is
given to the program and instructor to select activities,
but it should be emphasized that course objectives must be accomplished.
Students should leave with a broader understanding of the essential questions
posed by such content and not just the enterta
ining aspects of the individual
activities. Sample questions are
included in this outl
ine representing the content.
The instructor can always add more questions

of various styles

to

broaden the
assessment to activity specifics.


“Technology Systems” is a
unifying course designed to inculcate an
understanding of how all school subjects are used in authentic learning. Of
course, math and science principles can be emphasized and even team taught
with those teachers. But inclusion of content from English, so
cial studies, health,
history, art, and even music can cause a synergy in the entire educational
process. A student once r
emarked when sanding a project
and getting the
abrasive paper warm, “So THAT’S what friction is!”
These kinds of experiences
are inv
aluable in their educationally integrating qualities.


A sufficient budget should be allocated to purchase supplies and small
equipment, with a routine method for keeping more expensive equipment
updated and safe. It makes little administrative sense to h
ire a professional for
$40,000 to $60,000 per year and then skimp on supplies for that person to be
effective. Computers have a life span presently of about four years, and school

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Dr.
William
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32

programs should plan on this inevitability. Internet access is now a requi
rement
so students can conduct research on their activities.


Student activities can be found in the original “Bluebook” publication and
are not repeated here. There is also a 2004 publication by NYSTEA with many
ideas. PLTW has written a “Gateway to Tec
hnology” course with additional
activities. The journal “Technical Directions”, ITEA’s “The Technology Teacher”,
and NYSTEA’s “The NYS Technology Teacher” continually address new
activities. There are
also many

fresh examples provided as a supplement to
this
course outline.


Programming such as “Technology Systems” makes schools special
places to learn. They bring the academic subjects to reality and provide
experiences for students that are woefully missed in schools that do not have
such courses. Educ
ation is more than completion of standardized tests


it is an
integration of learning that carries through a wide variety of life experiences. This
course is designed to support just that.



Module
Specific Instructional Strategies


Following are descrip
tions and a narrative of instruc
tional strategies

to
address the essential questions of each module.


T
-
1

-

Technology and Society


Within this unit students will be exposed to different area
s of study
pertaining to
the field of t
echnology
. Through lesson
s and activities
,

students will
be introduced to problem solving, resources, systems, environment, the future,
construction, communications, manufacturing, transportation, early technology,
d
e
velopment,

Innovations, and emerging t
echnology.


Student activ
ities cou
ld be developed to focus

attention on the areas of:




p
roblem solving steps



t
ypes and utilization of resources



s
ystem theory and design



t
echnological impact on the environment



t
echnological impact on humans



c
urrent

research of emerging technologi
es


Student activities could be developed to focus student

s attention on
human needs and wants in the areas of:




residential
and
commercial/
industrial construction



g
raphic and electronic communication


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Dr.
William
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33



h
istory, techniques, and organization of manufacturing



l
and, aerospace, and marine transportation


Student activities could be developed to focus student

s attention on the
evolution of technology:




p
rimitive tools, fire, and simple machines



m
etallurgy, electricity, and fossil fuels



e
merging technology types
and terms


Activities could include:




b
uilding a emergency shelter



c
onstruct a model bridge



p
roduce a product from natural raw materials



d
evelop a
n

emergency escape plan for the school or the student

s house



c
onstruct a timeline of an invention or inventor



Providing sufficient time for students to complete activities and understand
materials is very important. This is essential as students need to be able to
absorb and explore new materials on their own, which instills deeper learning.
Instruction on th
e general safety and material manipulations are required to
promote the appropriate atmosphere.


This module is the introduction to technology for the middle school and
students need to be provided with activities that allow them to work towards a
higher l
evel of understanding.



T
-
2


Problem Solving Using Technology


During this unit of study
,

students will be exposed to a problem solving
system. Through lessons, investigations
,

and a given design challenge
, students
will explore the various processes of

design and problem solving, components of
each stage, and how they are interrelated in a non
-
linear cycle.


As this is the first introduction most students have had to this process, the
approach and purpose of study must be made clear and subdivided to pr
event
feelings of being overwhelmed. Other topics may be incorporated into the
unit;

however the main focus is

on the problem solving steps and strategies.


First the problem solving system needs to be presented to the class.
Once sequencing, terminology
,
and application have been clarified
,

it is
necessary to demonstrate application. Some methods in which authenticity can
be exhibited are: by examining projects that have been completed by previous
students, through videos, magazi
ne articles, stories or
industrial

tours.

“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

34

Advancing comprehension could then be achieved through games, puzzles, or
posters developed for or by the students.


The second section of the unit is further exposure to various phases of
problem solving. Mini lessons with concentratio
n on only one or two stages of
the design process will allow for skill expansion. Focus in areas such as
research, brainstorming, working drawings and construction with specifications
and constraints will aid the student later when they are presented with

a design
challenge.


Finally a design challenge will be presented to the class. For this activity
groups will formulate solutions while being guided through the design process.
As this is the first complete revolution through this process the instructor

must
utilize the following strategies frequently: small group discussion, large group
discussion, formative feedback, modeling, and leading through questioning.
Addressing methods of exploiting team member’s strengths and conflict
resolutions are also re
quired for
a
smoother progression.


In considering evaluation, formative feedback on techniques is more
important then the summative evaluation of the given design challenge, as these
practices will be applied continuously throughout the program of study.

It is also
necessary to stress that the objectives lie in the process, not the final result, and
that much can be learned through a failed attempt.


Sufficient time and coverage of objectives in this unit is of utmost
importance, as it is the goal of te
chnol
ogy education to be able to

transfer these
skills to other settings,
and
to assist the student in leading a successful
,

productive life.



T
-
3

-

Resources in Technology


During the T
-
3 module, students will be introduced to the influence of
resources
on technology. Strategies may include classroom activities, lectures,
homework assignments, verbal or written testing, or a combination of these.
However the information is conveyed, the students should gain an appreciation
of how the seven categories of r
esources interrelate with one another.


Since students will be introduced to many new terms
,

they should be
encouraged to engage in conversations utilizing the new vocabulary. Repeated
use of the terminology by the teacher will also help to improve studen
t retention
and comprehension.


In an ideal situation, teachers will have students participate in an activity
that takes them through the process of retrieving raw materials and ultimately
delivering them to the consumer. An activity of this type could be
gin by having

“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

35

students either mine or harvest materials from a mock or real origin. Materials
could then be processed into a useable product.


Some degree of difficulty should be introduced so that students come to
understand the challenges involved in eac
h of the stages. For instance, goods
and materials may need to be transported across a fictitious body of water or
across the border of a neighboring country. Time limits, various constraints, and
other related factors, could also be introduced. The aim is

not to introduce every
possible challenge that could relate to the use of technological resources, but to
instill a broad appreciation for the fact that challenges do exist.


To allow for differences in student interests, teaching styles and school
resou
rces, a great deal of flexibility should be given to the teacher when
designing the activity. The essential feature is an introduction to the relationship
between people, information, materials, tools/machines, energy, capital, and
time.



T
-
4
-

Systems an
d Subsystems

in Technology


In this module students will be incorporating what they have learned in
previous units in relation to systems to actually create a system which completes a
task. They will also gain a more in
-
depth knowledge of systems and how v
arious
types are closely related. This will be done mainly through in
-
class activities with
enhancing instructional assignments and homework.


This module should begin with a review of theory related to systems. This will
stress the interrelationship of v
arious technology systems while demonstrating how
technological systems
a
ffect people in many different ways.


A follow up presentation on an assortment of open and closed loop systems
should
be
included. The characteristics o
f each system should be covere
d

to
address variances between systems. Each type of system should

then

be given with
a real life example so students can draw relations between types of systems

and
their applications. Lesson
s should also model how
good
s

are produced, shipped,
and receive
d.


Once basic comprehension on systems has been gained application by
means of a design challenge, based on a transportation system, will be explored.

An exa
mple could be a glider activity

where the objective is for the glider to travel
from

one point t
o another. In order

to achieve success
,

students must design the
glider using specified time and resources, and then adjustments to designs can be
implemented by reentering the system loop at various stages.


Next
,

a multi
-
system manufacturing unit involv
ing group work could be
assigned. Implementation of digital mu
ltimedia

through the creation of a commercial

“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

36

to sell the product being
produced

could be incorporated.
In a large group activity
like a manufacturing unit, a great deal of preparation is requ
ired by the teacher to set
up the class in order f
or everything to flow smoothly.

Lessons on cooperating in a
group in order
to complete

desired
task
, and

should be completed at the beginning
of the unit.


It

is important that comprehension

be tested thr
oughout the progress of the
module and at the end to ensure a positive result. Along with the work that the
students produce, testing will help
ensure ability

in the relationships that were
formed by systems throughout the module.



T
-
5
-
Technology’s Effec
ts on People and the Environment


Module T

5 is a unit in which students will explore the world of technology
through in
-
depth thought and analysis. They will be challenged to analyze how
technology affects them as an individual and the world around them.

This unit
should include, but is not limited to: lessons, group discussion, group analysis,
and a culminating activity. It is important that throughout this unit each student
embrace a sense or respon
sibility and ownership for his/
her work.


The foundat
ion of T
-
5 is the four basic outcomes (expected, unexpected
,
desired, and undesired). Each student should be able to
categorize and analyze
a given techn
ology. After demonstrating a wo
rking knowledge of the four
outcomes the course may progress onto the
three areas that technology affects:
the individual, the environment and the human race as a whole. It is essential
that an equal amount of time be spent on each of the three topics.


The first subject that should be covered in this s
ection is how techn
ology
influences

individuals and their routines. Key topics should include: ergonomics,
satisfying needs, changes in everyday life, and the positive and negative affects
on the human race as a whole. Throughout this section it is important to help the
st
udent internalize the information; this can be done through Socratic Method,
personalization, and observation. A basic focus on what technology does for the
individual, and how these technologies can hurt individuals should be underlying
every discussion
and lecture.


The second area is the environment. Students should be exposed to the
positive and negative by
-
products

that technology has on the natural
environment. This can be done in a number of ways, such as: selecting a given
technology and
then ana
lyzing the positive/
negative impacts of the technology
,

or
selecting a given area and analyzing that area in particular. For an additional
authentic learning opportunity
,

a field trip could be organized to visit a landfill, or
recycling plant, depending o
n what is available in the area.



“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

37

The third and final issue is the affect that technology has had on mankind
as a whole. This topic is similar to the first area, only now it is on a grander
scale. The student should observe how in the last decade technol
ogy has made
information widely accessible and with that comes consequences. The global
economy, global imbalance, and globalization should be three key terms
examined during lessons. It is important to open the student’s eyes and have
them scrutinize, i
f the ends justify the means.


A culminating acti
vity should conclude

this unit. The activity can ra
nge
from a recycling project,

an ergonomics project,
or
even an alternative energies
project would be appropriate for this module. Projects can be done in

groups or
individually depending on resources.


T
-
6
-

Choosing Resources


In module T
-
6
,

students
will be able to choose

resource
s

that are

appropriate for a problem.
In order to be able to choose,

students need to first

identify the seven resources. O
nce they have identified the resources
, they

will
be arranging

them

in the most

o
ptimized

manner.


When choosing

resource
s,

students will need to know how the resource
was produced, whether it is natural or human

made. Another key ingredient is

identify
ing the pr
ocessing methods and production material.



Identifying, choosing
,

and using resources can be demonstrated by:




Choosing the m
ost appropriate resources

and fabricating

a structure to

optimize the growth of a plant
.



Plan out your day so

that every

minute is optimized
.



Choose the most appropriate resources to des
ign and fabricate a
machine

shed



Identify different ways situatio
ns could hinder job completion
.




There are many different compromises and tradeoffs that occur when
identifying and choosin
g a resourc
e. We need to think how these impact

o
ur
society and environment before

a resource is chosen. After the resource is
chosen
,

it has to be handled safely and p
roperly, to minimize negative by
-
products
.



Onc
e chosen, resources

will need to be
tested for different properties. We
need to know how the resource will react to different aspects of its environment
.
Running tests

will ensure that we know its different properties,
and have a
thorough comprehension of the resources capabilities and lim
itations.




Testing for material properties can be demonstrated by:



“Techno
logy Systems” Middle School Course O
utline


6/1
/06

SUNY Oswego


Department of Technology

TED 533


Curriculum Deve
lopment for Technology Ed.



Dr.
William
Waite, Professor

38



Pu
t an electrical charge through the

resource, to determine whether it is
an insulator or conductor.



Squeeze a resource in a bench vise, seeing how much it compacts



Anchor a resource to

the floor and pull it up using a pulley, seeing how
much it expands


T
-
7

-

Processing

Resources


Instructional strategies may be homework assignments, classroom
activities
,

and must

include labora
tory work. The focus is

on processing
resources while anal
yzing the technological systems involved. A variety of
approaches should be used to address the needs of indivi
dual students. Final
assessment

of student work should include th
e use
of
rubric
s.


The instructor can demonstrate material conversion many way
s for
example:




Demons
trating combining resources by

using the spot welder to weld two
pieces of steel on a sheet metal tool box.



Demonstrate separating resources by ripping a board on the table saw.



Demonstr
ate conditioning through

research

of metal work

and forging


Students can discover the ways to convert energy by:




Dra
wing, designing, and building CO
2 cars. Students will learn
about
potential energy in the CO
2 as well as the kinetic ene
rgy as the

result of
the car being launched down the track.



Di
scussing the ways that energy is created and used.
Example:
What
types of energy do we use to create electricity in our area and around the
world?



Constructing a solar panel converting light to electricity.



Constructing model wind mills and converting mech
anical to electrical.



Constructing a locker alarm from a digital electronics kit
,

converting
electrical to sound.


During the construction and testing of various activities students will
use information management software to collect, record, classify, cal
culate,
store, and retrieve information about the activities they are working on.
Students will also be required to choose appropriate computer software for
the desired result.




Using word processing software students can develop a technical
document expl
aining the steps needed to conve
rting ft/sec to mph for their
CO
2 cars.



Develop a spreadsheet to monitor the results of their windmills on a given