Summary Report Findings and Recommendations Network Audit, Baseline and Assessment

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Summary Report
Findings and Recommendations

Network Audit, Baseline and Assessment













Compaq Program Number:

CRIO
-
CITYOFHOU

Copy No.

2


Document Version:

1.
1

Date:

04/12/01


Abstract:

Repor
t on Findings and Recommendations of The Network Audit,
Baseline and Assessment Activities performed for the City of Houston
during the period September


aecember OMMM in preparation of the
migration to bxchange R.R.


ApprovedW


aavid BennettI airectorI

Compaq Computer Corporation

auke kewtonI polution ArchitectI Compaq Computer Corporation







Compaq Computer Corporation


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Copyright Page

Copyright © 2000 Compaq Computer Corporation

All Rights Reserved

Printed in U.S.A.

Compaq trademarks:

Compaq, CompaqCare, Compaq Insight Manager,
Deskpro, LicensePaq, NetFlex, PaqFax, ProLiant, ProLinea, ProSignia,
QuickBack, QuickFind, QVision, RemotePaq, ROMPaq, SmartStart, Systempro, Systempro/LT, TechPaq, registered United States
Patent and Trademark Office.Extended Repeater Architecture, Netell
igent, SoftPaq, SolutionPaq, and Systempro/XL Alpha AXP,
AXP, Compaq, DECpc, DECservice, Compaq Logo, VAX are trademarks of Compaq Computer Corporation..

Until such time as Digital’ s and Tandem’ s trademarks are added to the INLINE Trademark List, the re
gistration status of specific
Digital trademarks can be found on the U.S. Patent and Trademark’ s web site at
http://www.uspto.gov/tmdb/index.html

A list of Compaq trademarks and their registration statu
s can be found on INLINE at
http://inlinecgi04.im.hou.compaq.com/trademarks/index.asp

A list of Digital trademarks can be found at
http://www
-
ogc.ecom.dec.com/law/3
-
15.htm

Third
-
party trademarks:

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Mach
ines Corporation.

MS
-
DOS and Microsoft are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

HP, Transcend Enterprise Manager and OpenView are trademarks of He
wlitt
-
Packard Corporation.

Windows, Windows 95, and
Windows NT are trademarks of Microsoft Corp
oration.

Cisco, Cisco Works and IOS are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems Corporation.

CA, NetworkIT are trademarks of Computer Associates Corporation.

Other product names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective companies.




Compaq Computer Corporation


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Content
s

1.

EXECUTIVE OVERVI EW

................................
................................
................................
............
7

1.1

S
COPE

................................
................................
................................
................................
7

1.2

O
BJECTIVES
................................
................................
................................
.........................
7

1.3

D
ELIVERABLES

................................
................................
................................
.....................
7

1.4

A
PPROACH TO
E
VALUATING
F
INDINGS

................................
................................
......................
9

1.4.1

Prioritization

................................
................................
................................
...................
9

1.4.2

Effort Estimate and Budgetary Impact

................................
................................
..............
9

1.5

S
UMMARY OF
F
INDINGS AND
R
ECOMMENDATIONS

................................
................................
....

10

1.5.1

Implement Password Protection


High (Urgent, Public)

................................
..................

10

1.5.2

Eliminate Lat ency Variability in the Backbone


High (Important, Public)

..........................

10

1.5.3

Implement SNMP
-
Based Net work Monitoring


High (Important, Public)
...........................

11

1.5.4

Implement Out of Band Management


Medium (Important, Other)

................................
..

11

1.5.5

Implement High Availability Design at 611 Walker and 901 Bagby


Medium (Routine,
Public)

11

1.5.6

Identify and Selectively Replace End of Life Network
Components


Medium (Important,
Other)

11

1.5.7

Upgrade Internet Access Bandwi dth
-

Medium (Important, Other)

................................
..

11

1.5.8

Upgrade Pol
ice Backbone to Fast Ethernet


Medium (Import ant, Other)

.........................

12

1.5.9

Implement a Dynamic Internal DNS System


Medium (Important, Other)

........................

12

1.5.10

Devel op Quality of Service Impl ement ation Plan


Medi um (Important, Other)

..............

12

1.5.11

Review Net work and OSPF Routing Design


Low (Important, Internal)

.......................

12

1.5.12

Standardize Router Configurati ons and Soft ware Levels


Low (Important, Internal)

.....

12

1.5.13

Create Net work Equipment DNS Entri es


Low (Routine, Intern
al)

...............................

13

1.5.14

Implement Rout er Configuration Management


Low (Important, Internal )

....................

13

1.5.15

Implement DHCP


Low (Important, Inter
nal)
................................
..............................

13

1.5.16

Investigat e User Response on “Focus Segments”


Low (Routine, Other)

....................

13

1.5.17

Enable SNMP Management on Net work Devi
ces


Low (Important, Internal )
................

13

2.

NETWORK AUDIT

................................
................................
................................
...................

14

2.1

O
VERVIEW
................................
................................
................................
.........................

14

2.2

A
PPROACH

................................
................................
................................
........................

14

3.

NETWORK BASELINE ANA
LYSIS

................................
................................
...........................

15

3.1

O
VERVIEW
................................
................................
................................
.........................

15

3.2

A
PPROACH

................................
................................
................................
........................

15

3.3

S
UMMARY OF
N
ETWORK
P
ERFORMANCE
F
INDINGS

................................
................................
..

16

3.4

D
ETAILED
A
NALYSIS

................................
................................
................................
............

17

4.

NETWORK ASSESSMENT

................................
................................
................................
......

18

4.1

S
COPE

................................
................................
................................
..............................

18

4.2

A
PPROACH

................................
................................
................................
........................

18

4.2
.1

Information Sources

................................
................................
................................
......

18

4.2.2

Prioritization

................................
................................
................................
.................

18

4.3

P
RIORITIZED
L
IST OF
F
INDINGS AND
R
ECOMMENDATIONS

................................
..........................

18

4.3.1

Implement Password Protection


High (Urgent, Public)

................................
..................

18

4.3.2

Eliminate Lat ency Variability in the Backbone


High (Important, Public)

..........................

18

4.3.2.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
18

4.3.2.2

Compaq Findings

................................
................................
................................
................................
......
19

4.3.2.3

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
19




Compaq Computer Corporation


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4.3.2.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
19

4.3.3

Implement SNMP
-
based Net work Monitori ng


Hi gh (Import ant, Public)

...........................

19

4.3.3.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
19

4.3.3.2

Findings

................................
................................
................................
................................
......................
19

4.3.3.3

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
19

4.3.3.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
19

4.3.4

Implement Out of Band Management


Medium (Important, Other)

................................
..

19

4.3.4.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
19

4.3.4.2

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
19

4.3.4.3

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
20

4.3.5

Implement High Availability Design at 611 Walker and 901 Bagby
-

Medium (Routine, Other)

20

4.3.5.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
20

4.3.5.2

Compaq Findings

................................
................................
................................
................................
......
20

4.3.5.3

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
20

4.3.5.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
22

4.3.6

Identify and Selectively Replace End of Life Network Components


Medium (Important,
Other)

22

4.3.6.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
22

4.3.6.2

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
23

4.3.6.3

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
23

4.3.7

Up
grade Internet Access Bandwi dth
-

Medium (Important, Other)

................................
..

24

4.3.7.1

Findings

................................
................................
................................
................................
......................
24

4.3.7.2

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
24

4.3.7.3

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
24

4.3.8

Upgrade Police Backbone to Fast Ethernet


Medium (Import ant, Other)

.........................

24

4.3.8.1

Findings

................................
................................
................................
................................
......................
24

4.3.8.2

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
24

4.3.8.3

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
24

4.3.9

Implement a Dynamic Internal DNS System


Medium (Important, Other)

........................

24

4.3.9.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
24

4.3.9.2

Findings

................................
................................
................................
................................
......................
25

4.3.9.3

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
25

4.3.9.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
25

4.3.10

Devel op Quality of Service Impl ement ation Plan


Medi um (Important, Other)

..............

25

4.3.11

Review Net work and OSPF Routing Design


Low (Important,
Internal)

.......................

25

4.3.11.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
25

4.3.11.2

Compaq Findings

................................
................................
................................
................................
......
25

4.3.11.3

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
26

4.3.11.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
26

4.3.12

Standardize Router Configurati ons and Soft ware Levels


Lo
w (Important, Internal)

.....

26

4.3.12.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
26

4.3.12.2

Compaq Findings

................................
................................
................................
................................
......
26

4.3.12.3

Compaq Recommendation
................................
................................
................................
......................
27

4.3.12.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
27

4.3.13

Devel op Quality of Service Impl ement ation Pla
n


Medi um (Important, Other)

..............

27

4.3.13.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
27

4.3.13.2

Compaq Findings

................................
................................
................................
................................
......
28

4.3.13.3

Compaq Recommendation
................................
................................
................................
......................
28

4.3.13.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
28

4.3.14

Net work Management

................................
................................
...............................

28

4.3.14.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
28

4.3.14.2

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
28

4.3.14.3

Estimated Cost and Dur
ation

................................
................................
................................
..................
28

4.3.15

Net work Management Soft ware

................................
................................
.................

29

4.3.15.1

Overview
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................
29

4.
3.15.2

Compaq Recommendations
................................
................................
................................
....................
29




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4.3.15.3

Estimated Cost and Duration

................................
................................
................................
..................
29

4.3.16

Implement Net work Monitoring

................................
................................
..................

29

4.3.17

Confi guration Management

................................
................................
.......................

29






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Preface



Distribution Control

Copy No.

Distribution

1.

Approval Copy

Compaq

2.

Approval Copy

City of Houston


People Involved in the Preparation of

This Document

Function

Name

Compaq Program Manager

Terry Grey

Lead Solution Architect

Compaq Consultants

Duke Newton

Jack Calkins, Bill Rinear


Review List

Reviewed by

Date

David Bennett

Duke Newton

12/22/00

04/12/01


Change History

Version

Date

Revi
sion Description

0.1

12/20/00

Internal Review

1.0

1.1

12/26/00

04/12/01

Approved for Release



Bennett

Approved for Release


Newton







Compaq Computer Corporation


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1.

Executive Overview

1.1

Scope

COMPAQ Global Services over a two and one
-
half month period conducted a Network
Audit, Base
line and Assessment of the City of Houston’s four discrete data networks:

1.

The City of Houston Backbone network (all departments except the Library and
Police)

2.

The City of Houston DMZ LAN segments and ISP connections

3.

The Houston Police Department

4.

The Houst
on Library System

This document presents the findings and recommendations of the network performance
evaluation and the general network assessment for each of the four discrete networks
listed at the City of Houston.

1.2

Objectives

The objectives of the engage
ment were to:

1.

Produce a set of hierarchical maps of each network

2.

Produce an inventory of IP
-
addressable network devices

3.

Conduct a performance evaluation of at least 100 network segments and
document findings and recommendations related to performance

4.

Condu
ct a general network assessment and document findings and
recommendations related to the pending Exchange migration and network
services in general

Reference
C:
\
My Files
\
newton
du
\
COH
\
CityWide
-
P1Net
-
Aug16
-
Prop.doc

1.3

Deliverables

Accompanying this report are the following (provided in hard
copy in

Volume 2 with
oversized drawings in a mailing tube and in soft copy in a CD inserted in Volume 1):

1.

A set of VISIO 200
1

drawings of each
of the four major networks.




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2.

A list of reports for each of the four networks detailing:

a.

Enterprise Summary

b.

Devices by Class (Device Name or IP address, IP address, Manufacturer,
Description)

c.

Cisco IOS Vers
ions (Device Name, Class, Description, IOS Version,
Compiled Date)

d.

(If detected) Duplicate IP Addresses (IP address, MAC address, Device
Name)

e.

IP Address Inventory (IP address, subnet mask, MAC address, Device
Name, Port)

3.

A CD containing the following work

product:

a.

A softcopy of all the above deliverables

b.

A copy of all VISIO discovery databases

c.

Public domain MRTG and PERL code used to generate the network
utilization analysis

d.

MRTG configuration files and output used to conduct the network
utilization analys
is.




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1.4

Approach to Evaluating Findings


1.4.1

Prioritization


COMPAQ has utilized an approach to derive a High, Medium and Low priority rating for
the issues documented in this report that combines an assessment of the
urgency

of
implementing the recommended actio
n and the
scope of the impact

of the findings.

The
urgency
of addressing each finding was evaluated as either URGENT,
IMPORTANT or ROUTINE.

The
scope

of potential immediate impact of the finding was evaluated as impacting the
PUBLIC, OTHER CITY DEPARTMENTS

(OTHER), or restricted to operations by the I/T
Organization (INTERNAL).

These urgency and scope evaluations were combined utilizing the matrix below to arrive
at a priority for addressing the finding and comparing it to other I/T initiatives facing the
C
ity


PRIORITIZATION MATRIX

URGENT

IMPORTANT

ROUTINE

POTENTIAL PUBLIC IMPACT

HIGH

HIGH

MEDIUM

IMPACT OTHER DEPARTMENTS

HIGH

MEDIUM

LOW

INTERNAL IMPACT ONLY

MEDIUM

LOW

LOW


1.4.2

Effort Estimate and Budgetary Impact


COMPAQ also developed an estimate of the ef
fort expressed as time and dollars
required to execute the recommended actions to assist in comparing these
recommendations against other I/T initiatives facing the City. In some cases, budgetary
estimates of initial and follow
-
on activities were made.
Ple
ase note these estimates are
provided on an as
-
is basis only and Compaq does not represent these values as an
offer to perform the recommended actions for the amounts stated. Such an offer would
require additional internal Compaq review, which was not cond
ucted in the process of
developing these estimates
.




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1.5

Summary of Findings and Recommendations


The following table lists the recommended initiatives, their priority, estimated budgetary
impact and estimated project duration.

RECOMMENDED NETWORK INITIATIVES

PRIORITY

BUDGETARY

IMPACT*

Product/Services

PROJECT
DURATION

(man
-
weeks)

Implement Password Protection

HIGH

None/None

<1

Eliminate Latency Variability in the Backbone

HIGH

$15
-
250K/

10

Implement SNMP
-
based Network Monitoring

HIGH

$


Implement Out
-
of
-
B
and Management

MEDIUM

$900K/$450K

10

Implement High Availability Design at 611 Walker
and 901 Bagby

MEDIUM

$50
-
200K/$10K

5

Identify and Selectively Replace End
-
of
-
Life
Network Components

MEDIUM

$250K
-
1.5M/$130K

15

Upgrade Internet Access Bandwidth

MEDIU
M

$10K annual

1

Upgrade Police Backbone to Fast Ethernet

MEDIUM

$50K

2

Implement a Dynamic Internal DNS System

MEDIUM

$50K/$12K

4

Develop Quality of Service Implementation Plan

MEDIUM



Review IP Logical and OSPF Routing Design

LOW



Standardize Route
r Configurations and Software
Levels

LOW


10

Create Network Equipment DNS Entries

LOW

None

1

Implement Router Configuration Management

LOW

$40K


Implement DHCP

LOW



Investigate User Response on “Focus Segments”

LOW

None

2

Enable SNMP Management on N
etwork Devices

LOW

None


* Non
-
recurring external expenditures (unless noted otherwise. Use of City of Houston resources is
not

assumed unless cost is None.)


1.5.1

Implement Password Protection


High (Urgent, Public)

COMPAQ identified a number of network dev
ices (routers and one PBX) that did not
have password protection for telnet access. A list of these devices was provided to
Leticia O’Connor for corrective action. Password protection should be implemented
utilizing a non
-
intuitive password with a minimum

of 6 characters in length.

1.5.2

Eliminate Latency Variability in the Backbone


High (Important, Public)

Pursuing complaints of session outages from the Public Works network engineer,
COMPAQ observed a variance in the latency through the main backbone routers
(901B_C7513_1, 901B_C7513_2 and 611W_C7513). At times the latency exceeded
200ms. This is probably due to issues with buffer management or available resources in
the routers involved. COMPAQ recommends the City conduct a Router Health Check to
isolate the
cause of this variability and perform the required corrective actions to resolve
this issue. Potential corrective action could consist of configuration changes to tune the
available allocation of router memory, purchasing additional memory or upgrading CPU

processing power.




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1.5.3

Implement SNMP
-
Based Network Monitoring


High (Important, Public)

1.5.4

Implement Out of Band Management


Medium (Important, Other)

1.5.5

Implement High Availability Design at 611 Walker and 901 Bagby


Medium (Routine,
Public)

The City is expose
d to a major outage of e
-
mail services due to a lack of redundancy of
the network components at 611 Walker. COMPAQ recommends that the City implement
a high
-
availability configuration at 611 Walker by adding redundant routing and
switching services support
ing the e
-
mail and other servers delivering enterprise critical
services to the City. The recommended configuration is diagrammed below.

1.5.6

Identify and Selectively Replace End of Life Network Components


Medium (Important,
Other)

1.5.7

Upgrade I
nternet Access Bandwidth
-

Medium (Important, Other)

In general the City of Houston’s network is lightly utilized with the following exceptions:

1.

The four T1 links to the Internet which run at 98% inbound utilization during
prime
-
time

2.

Off
-
hours backups in

selected HPD and Public Works sites




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3.

Ethernet LAN interfaces connected to the HPD NetBuilder 2
-
3 and the HPD
Backbone LAN.

COMPAQ recommends that the City increase the bandwidth to the Internet either via
adding an additional T1 or by replacing existing T
1s with alternative transport such as
redundant Ethernet access.

1.5.8

Upgrade Police Backbone to Fast Ethernet


Medium (Important, Other)

The following Ethernet (10Mbps) LAN segments originating in HPD’s NetBuilder 2
-
3
at 61 Riesner exhibit high utilization. I
t is recommended that the router interfaces to
these segments and the HPD LAN backbone be upgraded to switched Fast
Ethernet:



HPD LAN Backbone



33 Artesian LAN



61 Riesner Computer Room LAN


1.5.9

Implement a Dynamic Internal DNS System


Medium (Important, Other)

1.5.10

Develop Quality of Service Implementation Plan


Medium (Important, Other)

1.5.11

Review Network and OSPF Routing Design


Low (Important, Internal)

1.5.12

Standardize Router Configurations and Software Levels


Low (Important, Internal)

COMPAQ found differing software

levels deployed in the network and varying standards
and completeness of router configurations. COMPAQ recommends that the City adopt
“best of breed” router configuration procedures which include standardization on a
common configuration stanadard based

on a single release of the router software which
utilizes available commands to provide a common set of services and information.
Recommended items include:

1.

Designated receivers for SNMP TRAPS (enabler for network management)

2.

Self documentation of the spe
ed and destination of all interfaces (facilitates
network management)

3.

Designated SYSLOG server for capturing of configuration and error messages
(assists in problem resolution and security)

4.

Designated NNTP (network time server) to standardize time clocks (
assists in
problem resolution)

5.

Utilize loopback address for device DNS name registration.




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1.5.13

Create Network Equipment DNS Entries


Low (Routine, Internal)

COMPAQ recommends the City of Houston implement a consistent naming convention
for all network devices
and create forward and reverse DNS entries for all network
devices and major interface (all interfaces for routers and inter
-
switch/inter
-
hub links for
switches/hubs) into the existing Internal DNS database.

1.5.14

Implement Router Configuration Management


Low
(Important, Internal)

1.5.15

Implement DHCP


Low (Important, Internal)

1.5.16

Investigate User Response on “Focus Segments”


Low (Routine, Other)

1.5.17

Enable SNMP Management on Network Devices


Low (Important, Internal)

About 30% of the City’s network devices while capabl
e of being managed via SNMP did
not have SNMP enabled. COMPAQ identified these devices to Leticia O’Connor.
COMPAQ recommends all network devices be SNMP enabled.




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2.

Network Audit

2.1

Overview

COMPAQ developed a set of hierarchical maps and reports for the four

networks under
review utilizing Visio 2000 Enterprise Edition. The deliverables from this discovery are
included in hardcopy in Volume 2 and in a separate mailing tube for oversized drawings.

2.2

Approach

COMPAQ conducted repeated enterprise network discovery

sessions using Visio 2000
Enterprise edition. These sessions build a database within Visio 2000 which can be
used to build network diagrams and reports.

COMPAQ produce a subset of the available standardized network reports for each of
the four networks un
der study.

COMPAQ spent about three weeks producing network diagrams for each of the four
networks under study based upon the data collected.
Some devices are
not

depicted on
these diagrams because Visio 2000 relies upon SNMP queries of network devices to
build the topology database and about 30% of the City’s network devices do not have
SNMP enabled.




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3.

Network Baseline Analysis

3.1

Overview

COMPAQ collected network utilization information over at least a one
-
week period for
398 LAN and WAN router interfaces on
major routers located in each of the four
networks under study. The raw utilization graphs are included in softcopy on a CD
provided (found in Volume 1). Hardcopy deliverables include the following discussion
and three separate Appendices:

1.

Network Baselin
e Summary: A summary of peak and average utilization values
for each interface are included at TAB 2 of Volume 1.

2.

Focus Segment List: A list of segments where follow
-
up action is recommended
is included at TAB 3 of Volume 1.

3.

Detailed Analysis of each of th
e “focus segments” in included at TAB 4 of Volume
1.

3.2

Approach

COMPAQ planned initially to place network probes on 100 LAN segments to capture
the following information:

1.

Utilization by segment (% of bandwidth and packets)

2.

Top talker utilization (in % bandw
idth and packets)

3.

Response time measurements

COMPAQ rapidly abandoned this probe
-
based approach in favor of a centralized
SNMP
-
based data collection approach based on MRTG for the following reasons:

1.

The Exchange Planning Team needed the output from the per
formance analysis
earlier than we could provide it

using the probe
-
based approach. (The probes
have to be physically placed on the target segment, which requires travel and
coordination of physical access).

2.

Analysis of the probe
-
based data showed that all
segments being analyzed were
very lightly utilized
. The resulting top talker and response time data was of little
value to the City.

COMPAQ switched to focusing on capturing bandwidth utilization for all major router
interfaces in each of the four networks

under study. We utilized a public domain
package called MultiRouterTrafficGenerator (or MRTG) deployed in each network on
COMPAQ
-
provided servers. MRTG is a perl application that utilizes SNMP to gather
MIB
-
based information about network elements. COMPA
Q utilized MRTG to gather and



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analyse network utilization information for 398 router interfaces (either LAN or Serial
ports) across the four City networks under study.

In addition to increasing the number of network segments under analysis, the MRTG
custom
ization work that COMPAQ performed can be re
-
used by the City. In fact, at the
City’s COMPAQ has installed the MRTG monitoring application for continued use in
monitoring network utilization of the Library System Network.


3.3

Summary of Network Performance Fi
ndings

In general the City of Houston’s network is lightly utilized with the following exceptions:

1.

The four T1 links to the Internet which run at 98% inbound utilization during
prime
-
time

2.

The following HPD 2
-
3 Ethernet LAN segments originating in 61 Reisne
r:

a.

HPD LAN Backbone

b.

33 Artesian LAN

c.

61 Reisner Computer Room LAN

3.

Off
-
hours backups in selected HPD and Public Works sites

COMPAQ recommends that the City increase the bandwidth to the Internet, upgrade
the HPD LAN segments to Fast Ethernet and investigate

the following network links to
see if the identified backup traffic impacts the user community.

Link Description

Address

Originating Interface

T1 Link to 306 McGowen

306 McGowen

901B_C7513_1 Se4/0/4

T1 Link to Eastside Command Station

7525 Sherman

HPD_N
B2
-
4 Ser/7
-
1

T1 Link to Northwest Command Station

8301 Ley

HPD_NB2
-
4 Ser/6D
-
1

T1 Link to Clear Lake Substation

2855 Bay Area Blvd

HPD_NB2
-
4 Ser/6
-
1

T1 link to 3300M_C7206_1

3300 Main

611W_C7513 Se5/1/0

T1 Link to 2511 Broad

2511 Broad

611W_C7513 Se5/
1/2

T1 Link to 8000 N. Stadium

8000 N. Stadium

901B_C7513_1 Se4/0/6

T1 Link to Hobby Airport

Hobby Airport

HPD_NB2
-
1 Ser/3
-
1

T1 Link to North Command Station

9455 W. Montgomery

HPD_NB2
-
2 Ser/3
-
1

T1 Link to Fondren Beat Station

11168 Fondren

HPD_NB2
-
2 S
er/4B
-
1

T1 Link to Southeast Command

8000 Mykawa

HPD_NB2
-
3 Ser/3
-
1

Ethernet to Central Patrol

61 Reisner

HPD_NB2
-
3 Eth/5B
-
1





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A spreadsheet displaying the complete list of all network segments analyzed and the
average and peak utilization values is inclu
ded at TAB 2


Network Baseline Summary.

3.4

Detailed Analysis

The following spreadsheet contains hyperlinks to a detailed analysis for all “focus
segments” identified during the City of Houston network utilization analysis.


This spread
sheet is included as a hardcopy at TAB 3


Focus Segment List in the
second volume.

Hardcopies of a detailed analysis of these Focus Segments is included as TAB 4


Detailed Performance Analysis.




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4.

Network Assessment

4.1

Scope

COMPAQ is providing findings and
recommendations for design and performance
enhancements,

as related to application performance, and ways to maximize return on
the existing investment of the City of Houston on their existing network infrastructure.


4.2

Approach

4.2.1

Information Sources

COMPAQ ha
s developed the following findings and recommendations based upon the
following information sources:

1.

Interviews with City of Houston network engineers and management

2.

Investigation of selected router configurations

3.

Analysis of the Network Audit and Baseline

results

4.

Results of various network diagnostic software such as ping plotters, MIB
browsers and Cisco Network Designer

5.

Personal observations of processes and capabilities

COMPAQ did not utilize privileged
-
mode router authority to conduct in
-
depth router
di
agnostics to identify resource constraints and opportunities for router optimization.

4.2.2

Prioritization

COMPAQ has prioritized the findings and recommendations based upon
urgency

and
scope of potential impact

as detailed in Section 1.4 above.

4.3

Prioritized List

of Findings and Recommendations

4.3.1

Implement Password Protection


High (Urgent, Public)

COMPAQ identified a number of network devices (routers and one PBX) that did not
have password protection for telnet access. A list of these devices was provided to
Leti
cia O’Connor for corrective action. Password protection should be implemented.

4.3.2

Eliminate Latency Variability in the Backbone


High (Important, Public)

4.3.2.1

Overview

The City of Houston currently has 380+ routers. The efficiency and responsiveness
(latency) of

these routers and thus the network is dependant on the routers having
enough internal resources to queue and process the ongoing demand. The ongoing
demand is dependant on the logical structure, diverse traffic patterns, IOS efficiency,
processor speed an
d ability to perform route aggregation.




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4.3.2.2

Compaq Findings

Pursuing complaints of session outages from the Public Works network engineer,
COMPAQ observed a variance in the latency through the main backbone routers
(901B_C7513_1, 901B_C7513_2 and 611W_C7513).
At times the latency exceeded
200ms. This is probably due to issues with buffer management or available resources in
the routers involved..

4.3.2.3

Compaq Recommendations

Compaq recommends the City of Houston plan and implement a systematic Router
Health Check.

The Health Check should include but is not limited to Buffer utilization,
CPU utilization and memory utilization.

4.3.2.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

60 hours @ 250/hour



$15,000.00

4.3.3

Implement SNMP
-
based Network Monitoring


High (Important, Public)

4.3.3.1

Overview

4.3.3.2

Fi
ndings

4.3.3.3

Compaq Recommendations

4.3.3.4

Estimated Cost and Duration


4.3.4

Implement Out of Band Management


Medium (Important, Other)

4.3.4.1

Overview

The ability to rapidly detect, analyze and resolve a down router or switch is paramount
to the City of Houston’s mission. Many

times the only way to diagnose and resolve an
issue is to physically connect to the Console port of the device. Traveling to the site or
finding someone on site with applicable knowledge is time consuming and can produce
varying results.

4.3.4.2

Compaq Recommend
ations


Compaq recommends, wherever possible, an Out of Band (OOB) network be
implemented to allow console connections and UPS connection to be achieved
remotely from the NOC.





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An OOB network can be implemented via unused fiber/copper runs or the physical
transport can be specifically installed as an OOB network. Console connections are
achieved via a reverse Telnet capable terminal server and a computing platform.


A properly implemented OOB should include “console” connections to the UPS at the
site. Th
is will allow power cycling of the closet if necessary.


4.3.4.3

Estimated Cost and Duration


Product Cost:

$3,000.00 per closet x 300 closets = $900K

Services: $1500 per closet x 300 closets = $ 450K

Duration:

8 hours per closet x 4 teams =32 closets/w
eek ~ 10 weeks


4.3.5

Implement High Availability Design at 611 Walker and 901 Bagby
-

Medium (Routine, Other)

4.3.5.1

Overview

Network availability is critical to the City of Houston’s mission. The key links to critical
city resources must be accessible at all times. O
ne method of achieving this goal is to
ensure there is no single point of failure for the routers and links to these critical city
resources.

4.3.5.2

Compaq Findings

The main routers at 901Bagby have dial
-
backup provisions in the event of primary link
failure. How
ever, the primary and dial
-
backup links originate at the same router. The
servers at 901 Bagby appear to be single connected to a dual homed switch. The
servers do not appear to be dual homed.

The facilities 611 Walker provides services and transport for d
o not have any
redundancy as 611 Walker has only a single router.

The servers at 611 Walker appear to be connected to a single switch .The servers do
not appear to be dual homed.

If the router at 611 Walker should fail it would have a high impact on City o
f Houston
operations.

4.3.5.3

Compaq Recommendations

4.3.5.3.1

901 Bagby

Dual home all critical servers and services to separate switches.




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Move DOD backup links to the other router that does not have the primary link.

Refer to Fig 1


4.3.5.3.2

611 Walker

COMPAQ recommends the followi
ng:



Dual home all critical servers to two separate switches (possibly use existing
5500 chassis) by installing a second network port in each server and
implementing failover.
Note: ISL or Link Aggregation are not supported in a dual
-
homed configuration.



Ad
d a router or install a RSM in the 5500_1 switch.



Dual home the 2 switches to the 2 routers or utilize RSM’s and VLANs to
accomplish the same end.



Provide dial
-
on
-
demand backup for the existing links terminated on different
routers than the primary links.

This can be accomplished by having 6611 Walker
primary links terminate in 901 Bagby and vice
-
versa.

Refer to Figure 1




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Figure 1


Recommended High Availability Configuration

4.3.5.4

Estimated Cost and Duration


4.3.6

Identify and Selectively Replace End

of Life Network Components


Medium (Important,
Other)

4.3.6.1

Overview

The network industry is fast paced in that innovations and improvements occur daily. In
order for the City of Houston to fully leverage their investment, it is essential the existing
network

be upgradeable and flexible. Network equipment manufacturers must
continually add features and capability to their products. Fortunately, today’s hardware
allows for upgrading the firmware and hardware in a succinct and efficient manner.
However, hardwar
e architecture may create a limit or ceiling on key parameters i.e bus
speed, expandability etc. When the hardware comes up against this limit it is necessary
for the manufacturer to declare the hardware is at End of Life. A piece of hardware at
End of L
ife does not necessarily mean parts or replacements are not available either
through the manufacturer or a Broker. It usually means the manufacturer will not issue
firmware or software changes severely limiting the flexibility and capability of the
produc
t.




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4.3.6.2

Compaq Recommendations

Compaq recommends a network wide EOL impact assessment of all equipment. The
key items to be reviewed are as follows:



End of Life status



Feature set determination to verify capability to support future technologies of interest.



V
OIP



VPN



Trunking



QOS



Video Conferencing



Gigabit Ethernet

4.3.6.3

Estimated Cost and Duration

160 hours @250/hour


$40,000.00




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4.3.7

Upgrade Internet Access Bandwidth
-

Medium (Important, Other)

4.3.7.1

Findings

In general the City of Houston’s network is lightly utilized with

the following exceptions:

4.

The four T1 links to the Internet which run at 98% inbound utilization during
prime
-
time

5.

Off
-
hours backups in selected HPD and Public Works sites

6.

Ethernet LAN interfaces connected to the HPD NetBuilder 2
-
3 and the HPD
Backbone L
AN.

4.3.7.2

Compaq Recommendations

COMPAQ recommends that the City increase the bandwidth to the Internet either via
adding an additional T1 or by replacing existing T1s with alternative transport such as
redundant Ethernet access.

4.3.7.3

Estimated Cost and Duration

4.3.8

Upgr
ade Police Backbone to Fast Ethernet


Medium (Important, Other)

4.3.8.1

Findings

The following Ethernet (10Mbps) LAN segments originating in HPD’s NetBuilder 2
-
3
at 61 Riesner exhibit high utilization.

4.3.8.2

Compaq Recommendations

COMPAQ recommends that the router inte
rfaces to these HPD NetBuilder 2
-
3
segments and the HPD LAN backbone be upgraded to switched Fast Ethernet:



HPD LAN Backbone



33 Artesian LAN



61 Riesner Computer Room LAN

4.3.8.3

Estimated Cost and Duration

4.3.9

Implement a Dynamic Internal DNS System


Medium (Importan
t, Other)

4.3.9.1

Overview

Network Management software can utilize DNS forward and reverse HOST entries to
provide meaningful identifiers for discovered network devices and interfaces. Creation
of DNS names for network devices and all major interfaces eases the ta
sk of



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technicians monitoring the network by improving the ability to identify network devices
and interfaces.

4.3.9.2

Findings

Only those network devices previously managed by F&A, Network and Communications
Management, have implemented a coherent DNS naming stand
ard. COMPAQ is
unsure whether this extends to reverse DNS entries.

4.3.9.3

Compaq Recommendations

COMPAQ recommends the City of Houston implement a consistent naming convention
for all network devices and create forward and reverse DNS entries for all network
devi
ces and major interface (all interfaces for routers and inter
-
switch/inter
-
hub links for
switches/hubs) into the existing Internal DNS database.

COMPAQ recommends extending the existing location_device type_sequence identifier
be retained but associated
with a loopback address, i.e. 611W_C7513_1.

COMPAQ recommends that entries for each interface IP address be created which
relate to the physical interface descriptor; i.e. 611W_C7513_1_Se1
-
1.

4.3.9.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

40 hours for 400 routers utilizing e
xisting City resources


4.3.10

Develop Quality of Service Implementation Plan


Medium (Important, Other)

4.3.11

Review Network and OSPF Routing Design


Low (Important, Internal)

4.3.11.1

Overview

Most networks upon inception are based on a design that defines the topology and

describes the implementation necessary to meet existing and future needs. However,
as the network ages and Enterprise requirements change the network’s physical and
logical design topology is frequently violated causing instability and inefficiency. A
r
eview of the physical and logical topology should occur periodically to ensure continued
network scalability and stability.

A topology assessment can identify opportunity to optimize router resources and
bandwidth, improve availability, and minimize latenc
y issues.

4.3.11.2

Compaq Findings

COMPAQ has observed large route tables on multiple routers consisting of 100
-
200
entries. Such large routing tables, particularly on smaller 2500
-
class routers, can lead to
reduced performance and possible latency variability.




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CO
MPAQ has also observed that the addressing scheme utilized at the City of Houston
does not take advantage of opportunities for network route aggregation.

4.3.11.3

Compaq Recommendations

Compaq recommends the City of Houston commission an evaluation of the current
O
SPF logical network design. The objective of the evaluation should be to develop
future requirements and then review current network physical and logical topology in
order to assess the impact of changes which might:

1.

Align better with the original OSPF des
ign

2.

Define a more optimized OSPF design.

The evaluation should include possible hardware aggregation i.e. many small routers
into fewer larger routers. This hardware aggregation should be targeted to comply with
industry standard recommended hierarchica
l topology.

4.3.11.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

160 hours @250/hour



$40.000.00

4.3.12

Standardize Router Configurations and Software Levels


Low (Important, Internal)

4.3.12.1

Overview

The City of Houston has a network of 350+ routers. All large networks need to be
administere
d and managed. The key to efficient management and administration is
consistency in configuration, naming conventions, and IOS software versions and
functionality.

Standardization of the IOS Version, services, and interface labeling will minimize
administ
rative overhead and improve problem resolution.

The goal would be to have a few templates for configurations that can easily be
modified to support new and existing routers on a consistent IOS version. The
aforementioned goal will allow the proposed NOC
to have a consistent, and
predictable network response and behavior.

4.3.12.2

Compaq Findings

The IOS on many routers differ from each other and in many cases are not the latest
proven versions. On many routers naming conventions vary for the various interfaces
a
nd some interfaces are not described as to function and purpose. Features such as
SNMP, NTP and DNS are sporadically configured.




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4.3.12.3

Compaq Recommendation

COMPAQ recommends the City of Houston standardize all IOS software at a common
level.

COMPAQ recommends

that the City of Houston adopt a configuration standard which
includes the following:



Designated receivers for SNMP TRAPS (enabler for network management)



Self documentation of the speed and destination of all interfaces (facilitates
network management)



Designated SYSLOG server for capturing of configuration and error messages
(assists in problem resolution and security)



Designated NNTP (network time server) to standardize time clocks (assists in
problem resolution)



Utilize loopback address for device DN
S name registration.

4.3.12.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

130 hours utilizing internal City resources

4.3.13

Develop Quality of Service Implementation Plan


Medium (Important, Other)

4.3.13.1

Overview

Quality of Service (QOS) is a method by which interesting traffic can be priori
tized over
remaining traffic. Some examples of interesting traffic is typically Voice Over IP (VOIP)
and Video Conferencing. Many businesses as well as local, city, and State government
are excited over VOIP as it allows for telecommunication over their e
xisting network
infrastructure and lowers telecommunication costs in move adds and deletes as well a
recurring PST charges.

The caveat is that QOS is an end to end requirement and vendor implementation of
QOS tagging and recognition may differ to such a de
gree that they are incompatible.
Indeed, some of the older network equipment may not support QOS at all.

Additionally, the ability of a network to successfully support QOS dependant traffic is
determined by the IOS software on the intervening routers and
the available bandwidth.




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4.3.13.2

Compaq Findings

The City of Houston network is a mixed vendor environment. The majority of the
network routers, hubs and switches are 3COM and CISCO. This environment may not
support QOS end to end requirements.

4.3.13.3

Compaq Recommend
ation

Compaq recommends an investigation as to whether the existing 3COM and Cisco
hardware and IOS can support QOS. Compaq recommends the City of Houston
standardize on a IOS version that will support QOS.


Compaq further recommends that before any implem
entation of QOS interesting traffic
that the City of Houston have a full review of required bandwidth versus available
bandwidth.

4.3.13.4

Estimated Cost and Duration

4.3.13.4.1

QOS investigation and Standardization

Cost


80 hours @250.00/hour


$20,000.00

4.3.13.4.2

Required Bandwidth

Review

Cost TBD when scope and applications are defined.

4.3.14

Network Management

4.3.14.1

Overview

Managing the City of Houston network is essential. The City of Houston has recognized
this and is in the process of planning and implementing a Network Operations
Center
(NOC). The key to successful management is consistency of IOS, configuration,
platform and evaluation tools.


Manual management of a network with 300+ routers can become cumbersome,
inefficient and expensive (Cost of Ownership). Problem determinat
ion, prediction and
resolution are an integral part of any Network Operations Center.

4.3.14.2

Compaq Recommendations

Well…we’re waiting???

4.3.14.3

Estimated Cost and Duration




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4.3.15

Network Management Software

4.3.15.1

Overview

The primary responsibility of a Network Operations Center i
s to administer network devices and predict,
detect, analyze and resolve network related issues. The network at the City of Houston is a mixed vendor
environment, with CISCO and 3COM being the dominant vendors.

4.3.15.2

Compaq Recommendations

Compaq recommends the

City of Houston implement a vendor independent Enterprise class network
management software package such as HP OpenView or similar package that will integrate with CISCO
Works 2000 and 3COM’s Transcend Enterprise Manager.

4.3.15.3

Estimated Cost and Duration


Cos
t


HP OpenView $7,000.00
-

$20,000.00


CA NetworkIT #30,000.00


$120,000.00


Cost


Cisco Works 2000 RWAN with Device Fault Manager $20,000.00
-

$35,000.00


Transcend Enterprise Manager
-

$20,000.00
-

$30,000.00


4.3.16

Implement Network Monitoring

Compaq r
ecommends the City of Houston monitors key links as to utilization on an ongoing basis. A
freeware Perl based traffic grapher entitled Multi Router Traffic Grapher (MRTG) has been successfully
used by Compaq to retrieve utilization statistics for this proj
ect. Compaq will leave the software and
current results with the City of Houston for their continuing use. The City of Houston would have to
provide a Windows 2000 or NT 4.0 platform for the product.


4.3.17

Configuration Management


Compact recommends the City

of Houston use Cisco Works 2000 and Transcend Enterprise Manager to
manager IOS configurations, IOS version control and user databases. This will allow a single repository
of each vendor specific data, image and configuration information and disaster rec
overy.


DNS



DHCP


One of the most time consuming administrative tasks performed in a large network is IP addressing and
IP address tracking. DHCP can minimize the possibility of duplicate IP addresses and lessen the
administrative burden.


A properly d
esigned and blended implementation of static IP addressing and dynamic IP addressing can
yield a secure and lower cost of ownership network.


Compaq Recommendation


Compaq recommends the City of Houston implement a blended static and dynamic IP addressi
ng
schema.


Cost
-

TBD